Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 929
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N?lle Bernhard - - 2008
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Patients with symptomatic dry eyes are frequently seen by every ophthalmologist. Understanding of the plethora of factors involved in sicca syndrome is essential to substantially help the patient. Besides important and frequent topical treatment options, anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive systemic treatment concepts sometimes play an additional role. MATERIAL AND METHODS: ...
Cameron R - - 2008
Pleural effusions and empyema may complicate lower respiratory tract infections. Treatment of these collections of pus includes surgical drainage and the use of intra-pleural fibrinolysis to break down fibrin bands that may cause loculation. To conduct a systematic review of the benefit of adding intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy to intercostal tube ...
Wiedermann Christian J - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Patients with sepsis typically require large resuscitation volumes, but the optimal type of fluid remains unclear. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate current evidence on the effectiveness and safety of hydroxyethyl starch for fluid management in sepsis. METHODS: Computer searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane ...
Brown Gina - - 2008
The success of pre-operative therapy over post-operative treatments means that a technique identifying prognostic factors pre-operatively is of potential benefit in modifying the intensity of pre-operative therapy according to risk of local or distant failure. Clinical trials incorporating robust and accurate assessment of prognostic factors and appropriate stratification of patients ...
Andrès Emmanuel - - 2008
The objective of this review is to evaluate the usefulness of oral cobalamin (vitamin B12) treatment in elderly patients. PubMed was systematically searched for English and French articles published from January 1990 to January 2007. Prospective randomized studies (n=3), a systematic review by the Cochrane group (n=1) and prospective studies ...
Massy-Westropp N - - 2008
Metacarpophalangeal (MCP) arthroplasty with implants, which is the replacement of painful knuckle joints with artificial knuckle joints, has been performed for people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) since the 1960s. The surgery is done because RA can cause damage of the knuckle joints making them unable to straighten out (flexion deformity) ...
Vincent Jean-Louis - - 2008
Many studies have been conducted to try and find interventions to treat patients with severe sepsis, but with little success. In several cases, initial apparent beneficial effects have not been confirmed in later trials. The story of steroids in sepsis is one example of this pendulum effect, with initial success ...
Gurusamy K S - - 2008
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the main method of treatment of symptomatic gallstones. Several cardiopulmonary changes (decreased cardiac output, pulmonary compliance, and increased peak airway pressure) occur during pneumoperitoneum. These changes may not be tolerated in individuals with poor cardiopulmonary reserve. To assess the benefits and harms of abdominal wall lift compared ...
Hatzimouratidis Konstantinos - - 2008
The treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) has been revolutionized during the last 2 decades with several treatment options now available. Most of these treatments are associated with high efficacy rates and favourable safety profiles. A MEDLINE search was undertaken to evaluate all currently available data on treatment modalities for ED. ...
Coleman Cassie - - 2008
Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common and important source of morbidity in children, although the majority of cases resolve spontaneously. While frequently recommended, decongestant and antihistamine therapy is of unclear benefit. To determine the efficacy of decongestant and antihistamine therapy in children with AOM on outcomes of AOM resolution, ...
Squizzato A - - 2008
Polycythaemia vera and essential thrombocythaemia are chronic Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative disorders, which increase the risk of arterial and venous thrombosis as well as bleeding. In addition to the different therapeutic strategies available, aspirin is often used to prevent platelet aggregation. To quantify the benefit and harm of antiplatelet drugs for long-term ...
Magrabi Farah - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Provision of online evidence at the point of care is one strategy that could provide clinicians with easy access to up-to-date evidence in clinical settings in order to support evidence-based decision making. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine long-term use of an online evidence system in routine clinical practice. ...
Wee B - - 2008
Noisy breathing (death rattle) occurs in 23 to 92% of people who are dying. The cause of death rattle remains unproven but is presumed to be due to an accumulation of secretions in the airways. It is therefore managed physically (repositioning and clearing the upper airways of fluid with a ...
Zaki Amna - - 2008
To assess the efficacy of interventions offered to patients in the preoperative clinic to promote long-term (> or = three months) smoking cessation following surgery. We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL for all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on smoking-cessation interventions initiated in the preoperative clinic. Trial inclusion, ...
Clementini Marco - - 2008
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In daily clinical practice of a dental department it's common to find gingival overgrowth (GO) in periodontal patients under treatment with Cyclosporine A (CsA). The pathogenesis of GO and the mechanism of action of Azithromycin (AZM) are unclear. A systematic review was conducted in order to evaluate the ...
Matthaiou Dimitrios K - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis, infection of the brain with larvae of Taenia solium (pork tapeworm), is one of several forms of human cysticercosis caused by this organism. We investigated the role of albendazole and praziquantel in the treatment of patients with parenchymal neurocysticercosis by performing a meta-analysis of comparative trials of their ...
Rerkasem Kittipan K Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand, - - 2008
Carotid endarterectomy reduces the risk of stroke in people with recently symptomatic, severe carotid artery stenosis. However, there are significant perioperative risks which may be lessened by performing the operation under local rather than general anaesthetic. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1996, and previously ...
Abbas S M - - 2008
The use of intra-operative Doppler oesophageal probes provides continuous monitoring of cardiac output. This enables optimisation of intravascular volume and tissue perfusion in major abdominal surgery, which is thought to reduce postoperative complications and shorten hospital stay. Medline and EMBASE were searched using the standard methodology of the Cochrane collaboration ...
Walters Giles - - 2008
Renal vasculitis presents as rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) which comprises of a group of conditions characterised by acute kidney failure (AKF), haematuria and proteinuria. Treatment of these conditions comprises steroid and non-steroid agents in combination with plasma exchange in several situations. Although immunosuppression overall has been very successful in treatment ...
Reinar Liv Merete - - 2008
More than three million persons are disabled by leprosy worldwide. The main complication of sensory nerve damage is neuropathic ulceration, particularly of the feet. In this review we explored interventions that can prevent and treat secondary damage to skin and limbs. To assess the effects of self-care, dressings and footwear ...
Pjetursson Bjarni E - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this systematic review were to assess the 5-year survival of resin-bonded bridges (RBBs) and to describe the incidence of technical and biological complications. METHODS: An electronic Medline search complemented by manual searching was conducted to identify prospective and retrospective cohort studies on RBBs with a mean ...
Underwood Martin M Centre for Health Sciences, Barts and The London, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 - - 2008
To determine whether older patients with chronic knee pain should be advised to use topical or oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Randomised controlled trial and patient preference study. 26 general practices. People aged > or =50 with knee pain: 282 in randomised trial and 303 in preference study. Advice to ...
Maidment Ian D - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The behavioral and psychological symptoms related to dementia (BPSD) are difficult to manage and are associated with adverse patient outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To systematically analyze the data on memantine in the treatment of BPSD. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Pharm-line, the Cochrane Centre Collaboration, www.clinicaltrials.gov, www.controlled-trials.com, and PsycINFO (1966-July 2007). ...
Hassan Tasnim - - 2007
PURPOSE: To assess the effects of orthognathic surgery on speech in non-cleft individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature survey was undertaken using the Medline (Entrez Pubmed) and EMBASE databases (1966 to 2006). Key orthodontic, orthognathic, and speech journals were also hand searched. No language limitations were imposed. Randomized controlled trials, ...
Gluud Lise L - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To compare banding ligation versus beta-blockers as primary prophylaxis in patients with esophageal varices and no previous bleeding. METHODS: Randomized trials were identified through electronic databases, reference lists in relevant articles, and correspondence with experts. Three authors extracted data. Random effects meta-analysis and metaregression were performed. The reported allocation ...
Bliziotis I A - - 2007
We reviewed the bibliographic evidence from comparative trials regarding the role of rifampin as adjuvant treatment in the treatment of Gram-positive infections [PubMed (1/1950-7/2006)]. Only studies reporting comparative outcome data in patients treated with an antibiotic regimen with the addition or not of rifampin were included. Eight comparative studies were ...
Gicquel Stéphanie - - 2007
The use of randomization for assigning patients to treatment groups in clinical trials is firmly acknowledged as providing the best quality results. Two standard methods are used in order to achieve well-balanced groups with respect to prognostic factors (i.e. factors influencing the disease outcome): stratification and minimization. Stratification is recommended ...
Deutscher Daniel - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Improving clinical outcomes requires continuous measurement and interpretation in conjunction with treatment process and patient characteristics. The purposes of this study were: (1) to describe implementation and integration of electronic functional status outcomes into an electronic health record (EHR) for the promotion of clinical practice improvement processes ...
Christensen R - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of preparations with avocado-soybean unsaponifiables (ASUs) in osteoarthritis (OA) patients using meta-analysis on randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHOD: RCTs from systematic searches were included if they explicitly stated that hip and/or knee OA patients were randomized to either ASU or placebo. The co-primary outcome was ...
Meduri G Umberto GU University of Tennessee Health Science Center and Memphis VA Medical Center, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Room H316, 956 Court Avenue, TN 38163, Memphis, USA. - - 2008
To compare the design and results of randomized trials investigating prolonged glucocorticoid treatment (> or =7 days) in patients with acute lung injury-acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI-ARDS), and review factors affecting response to therapy, including the role of secondary prevention. Trials were retrieved from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled ...
Ellis Stuart - - 2008
The fraction of patients who respond to treatment and the duration of response in the subset of responding patients are commonly evaluated in oncology trials of cytotoxic compounds. While formal, comparative analysis of the fraction of patients responding to treatment is straightforward in a randomised trial, analyses that attempt to ...
Murao, Ryuki
This paper presents a revisional study of the subgenus Evylaeus of the genus Lasioglossum in Japan. We propose a system of species-group classification based on Japanese Evylaeus as follows: 1) the carinate-Evylaeus superspecies-group is divided into five species-groups and two species-subgroups; 2) the carinaless-Evylaeus superspecies-group is divided into 11 species-groups ...
Small Gary - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Following prescribed medication regimens is essential for the effective treatment of any medical condition. Unfortunately, patients often fail to follow recommendations, and treatment non-compliance represents a widespread, often underestimated problem, placing tremendous burden on the healthcare system. Compliance in Alzheimer's disease (AD), a chronic neurodegenerative disease typically afflicting older ...
Mochtar C A - - 2007
PURPOSE: To review the literature on the definition and incidence of leakage after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) as well as its relation to the surgeon's technical experience, the type of urethrovesical suture, and the approach (extraperitoneal or transperitoneal). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the subject, consulting ...
Ng Y-L - - 2007
The aims of this study were (i) to conduct a comprehensive systematic review of the literature on the outcome of primary (initial or first time) root canal treatment; (ii) to investigate the influence of some study characteristics on the estimated pooled success rates. Longitudinal clinical studies investigating outcome of primary ...
Torres F - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Therapies have become available in the last decade that may provide more than symptomatic benefit in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). With choices for possible therapy, it is important to compare the results observed in randomised, double-blind clinical trials. The objective of this systematic review was to compare ...
Nakato Halima - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of atovaquone-proguanil (Malarone) as a chemoprophylactic agent against malaria. METHODS: The data sources searched for this study included Cochrane systematic reviews (on infectious diseases), MEDLINE and EMBASE, Web of Knowledge and Annals of Tropical Medicine. All unconfounded randomized controlled trials assessing ...
Goss C H - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Centralized spirometry may significantly improve quality of spirometry and reduce variability of this outcome measure in clinical trials in cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: Spirometry was performed during the phase 2 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of denufosol in patients with mild to moderate CF using American Thoracic Society guidelines. ...
Clarke Janet - - 2008
For chronic use biotechnology-derived pharmaceuticals, toxicity studies of 6 months have generally been accepted for regulatory approval. This review assessed the data for 23 approved biotechnology-derived pharmaceuticals to determine whether the studies conducted were predictive of human safety and whether there is new data from approved products indicating that longer ...
Jüttler Eric - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Decompressive surgery (hemicraniectomy) for life-threatening massive cerebral infarction represents a controversial issue in neurocritical care medicine. We report here the 30-day mortality and 6- and 12-month functional outcomes from the DESTINY trial. METHODS: DESTINY (ISRCTN01258591) is a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled, clinical trial based on a sequential ...
Kesten S - - 2007
Premature discontinuation from clinical trials may bias results against effective therapies. In the present study mortality rates were retrospectively reviewed in a 6-month, randomised, placebo-controlled trial in which tiotropium 18 mug daily was shown to decrease chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations. Patients participated for 6 months even if trial medication ...
Serretti A - - 2008
Pharmacogenetic studies in mood disorders are rapidly proliferating after the initial reports linking gene variants to treatment outcomes. However, a considerable range of methodologies has been used, making it difficult to compare results across studies and limiting the representativeness of findings. Specification of sampling source (inpatients vs outpatients, primary vs ...
Blackstone Eugene H - - 2007
General thoracic surgery has been slow to embrace advanced statistical techniques to assess outcome and direct future therapy to individual patients (the "trees") based on aggregating data and discovering informative patterns in them (the "wood"). This is due in part to the nature and complexity of the practice. However, methods ...
Barker Allanah - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Evidence supporting similar recurrence rates between video-assisted and open surgery for the treatment of recurrent pneumothorax is questionable, because the number of randomised trials is sparse and they are underpowered to detect any meaningful difference. Our aim was to do a systematic review of randomised and non-randomised studies to ...
Morris, CD; ;
Nine simulated rotational grazing systems, comprising combinations of three different periods of occupation (2, 10 and 20 days) and three periods of absence (20, 40 and 60 days), were applied to Tall Grassveld for 24 years (1967-1991), using sheep. All camps were rested every fourth year during which recovery growth ...
Testa Luca - - 2007
The direct thrombin inhibitor, ximelagatran, and its active form, melagatran (X/M), have been compared against conventional anticoagulant therapy (CAT) in many clinical settings. Their risk-benefit profile drove large debate until withdrawal by the manufacturer. A systematic review of all published randomized trials has been performed and a meta-analysis of randomised ...
Cortes F - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials in Alzheimer's disease (AD) include patients benefiting from recent improvements in AD management. OBJECTIVE: To observe the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) after 6 and 18 months in patients treated with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI) in order to determine the best duration of follow-up necessary to demonstrate the ...
Harrison James D - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The assessment of patients' and clinicians' willingness to participate in clinical trials is advisable as part of a feasibility exercise prior to the commencement of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to ensure adequate support in terms of likely accrual to achieve the required sample size in a timely fashion. Furthermore, ...
de Wilde O M - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patients with schizophrenia as well as their relatives show deficits in sensory gating reflected by an abnormal P50 ratio and to quantify the differences from controls. METHODS: A systematic search on articles published between 1982 and 2006 was conducted. 28 patient studies that were suitable for ...
Magnacca, Karl N.
Here we present the first complete subgroup-level classification of the modified mouthparts group of Hawaiian Drosophila. Previously, only three small groups had been proposed, accounting for only a third of the known species in this large group. The modified mouthparts group, as now defined, consists of fourteen subgroups: adventitia (1 ...
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