Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 928
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Brown Gina - - 2008
The success of pre-operative therapy over post-operative treatments means that a technique identifying prognostic factors pre-operatively is of potential benefit in modifying the intensity of pre-operative therapy according to risk of local or distant failure. Clinical trials incorporating robust and accurate assessment of prognostic factors and appropriate stratification of patients ...
Coleman Cassie - - 2008
Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common and important source of morbidity in children, although the majority of cases resolve spontaneously. While frequently recommended, decongestant and antihistamine therapy is of unclear benefit. To determine the efficacy of decongestant and antihistamine therapy in children with AOM on outcomes of AOM resolution, ...
Fowkes F - - 2008
Surgical bypass of an occluded arterial segment is one of the mainstay treatments for patients with critical limb ischaemia (CLI). However, it was introduced without formal evaluation. To determine the effects of bypass surgery in patients with CLI. The Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group (PVD) searched their trials register (last ...
Cameron R - - 2008
Pleural effusions and empyema may complicate lower respiratory tract infections. Treatment of these collections of pus includes surgical drainage and the use of intra-pleural fibrinolysis to break down fibrin bands that may cause loculation. To conduct a systematic review of the benefit of adding intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy to intercostal tube ...
Esposito M - - 2008
One of the key factors for the long-term success of oral implants is the maintenance of healthy tissues around them. Bacterial plaque accumulation induces inflammatory changes in the soft tissues surrounding oral implants and it may lead to their progressive destruction (perimplantitis) and ultimately to implant failure. Different treatment strategies ...
Squizzato A - - 2008
Polycythaemia vera and essential thrombocythaemia are chronic Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative disorders, which increase the risk of arterial and venous thrombosis as well as bleeding. In addition to the different therapeutic strategies available, aspirin is often used to prevent platelet aggregation. To quantify the benefit and harm of antiplatelet drugs for long-term ...
Gurusamy K S - - 2008
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the main method of treatment of symptomatic gallstones. Several cardiopulmonary changes (decreased cardiac output, pulmonary compliance, and increased peak airway pressure) occur during pneumoperitoneum. These changes may not be tolerated in individuals with poor cardiopulmonary reserve. To assess the benefits and harms of abdominal wall lift compared ...
Appleton Richard - - 2008
Tonic-clonic (grand mal) convulsions and convulsive status epilepticus (currently defined as a grand mal convulsion lasting at least 30 minutes) are medical emergencies and demand urgent and appropriate anticonvulsant treatment. Benzodiazepines (midazolam, diazepam, lorazepam), phenobarbitone, phenytoin and paraldehyde may all be regarded as drugs of first choice. This is an ...
Walters Giles - - 2008
Renal vasculitis presents as rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) which comprises of a group of conditions characterised by acute kidney failure (AKF), haematuria and proteinuria. Treatment of these conditions comprises steroid and non-steroid agents in combination with plasma exchange in several situations. Although immunosuppression overall has been very successful in treatment ...
Chaudhry Vinay - - 2008
Symmetrical peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of diabetic neuropathy. No treatments are known to be effective for progressive pain and sensory loss associated with diabetic neuropathy. Alternative effective treatment strategies have been sought. To systematically review the evidence from randomized controlled trials concerning the role of decompressive surgery of ...
Dryburgh Nancy - - 2008
Surgical wounds that become infected are often debrided because clinicians believe that removal of this necrotic or infected tissue will expedite wound healing. There are numerous methods available but no consensus on which one is most effective for surgical wounds. The aim of this review is to determine the effect ...
Wang Qin - - 2008
Obstruction in the biliary drainage system causes a rise in serum bilirubin levels (obstructive jaundice). Studies have shown that surgery for severe obstructive jaundice is associated with high peri-operative mortality and morbidity. Jaundice has been considered as a potential risk factor for poor outcome, and pre-operative biliary drainage has been ...
Bunn F - - 2008
Colloids are widely used in the replacement of fluid volume. However doubts remain as to which colloid is best. Different colloids vary in their molecular weight and therefore in the length of time they remain in the circulatory system. Because of this and their other characteristics, they may differ in ...
Massy-Westropp N - - 2008
Metacarpophalangeal (MCP) arthroplasty with implants, which is the replacement of painful knuckle joints with artificial knuckle joints, has been performed for people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) since the 1960s. The surgery is done because RA can cause damage of the knuckle joints making them unable to straighten out (flexion deformity) ...
Wee B - - 2008
Noisy breathing (death rattle) occurs in 23 to 92% of people who are dying. The cause of death rattle remains unproven but is presumed to be due to an accumulation of secretions in the airways. It is therefore managed physically (repositioning and clearing the upper airways of fluid with a ...
Ciccone A - - 2008
Short term high dose corticosteroid treatment improves symptoms and short term disability after an acute exacerbation of multiple sclerosis (MS) but it is unknown whether its long-term use can reduce the accumulation of disability. To determine the efficacy and safety of long-term corticosteroid use in MS. We searched the following ...
Reinar Liv Merete - - 2008
More than three million persons are disabled by leprosy worldwide. The main complication of sensory nerve damage is neuropathic ulceration, particularly of the feet. In this review we explored interventions that can prevent and treat secondary damage to skin and limbs. To assess the effects of self-care, dressings and footwear ...
Rerkasem Kittipan K Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand, - - 2008
Carotid endarterectomy reduces the risk of stroke in people with recently symptomatic, severe carotid artery stenosis. However, there are significant perioperative risks which may be lessened by performing the operation under local rather than general anaesthetic. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 1996, and previously ...
Gurusamy Kurinchi Selvan KS University Department of Surgery, Royal Free Hospital and University College School of Medicine, 9th Floor, Royal Free Hospital, Pond Street, London, UK, NW3 2QG. - - 2008
Bacterial sepsis and wound complications after liver transplantation increase mortality, morbidity, hospital stay, and overall transplant costs. To assess the benefits and harms of different methods aimed at preventing bacterial sepsis and wound complications in patients undergoing liver transplantation. We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane ...
Pjetursson Bjarni E - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this systematic review were to assess the 5-year survival of resin-bonded bridges (RBBs) and to describe the incidence of technical and biological complications. METHODS: An electronic Medline search complemented by manual searching was conducted to identify prospective and retrospective cohort studies on RBBs with a mean ...
Maidment Ian D - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The behavioral and psychological symptoms related to dementia (BPSD) are difficult to manage and are associated with adverse patient outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To systematically analyze the data on memantine in the treatment of BPSD. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Pharm-line, the Cochrane Centre Collaboration, www.clinicaltrials.gov, www.controlled-trials.com, and PsycINFO (1966-July 2007). ...
Underwood Martin M Centre for Health Sciences, Barts and The London, Queen Mary, University of London, London E1 - - 2008
To determine whether older patients with chronic knee pain should be advised to use topical or oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Randomised controlled trial and patient preference study. 26 general practices. People aged > or =50 with knee pain: 282 in randomised trial and 303 in preference study. Advice to ...
Gluud Lise L - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To compare banding ligation versus beta-blockers as primary prophylaxis in patients with esophageal varices and no previous bleeding. METHODS: Randomized trials were identified through electronic databases, reference lists in relevant articles, and correspondence with experts. Three authors extracted data. Random effects meta-analysis and metaregression were performed. The reported allocation ...
Hassan Tasnim - - 2007
PURPOSE: To assess the effects of orthognathic surgery on speech in non-cleft individuals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature survey was undertaken using the Medline (Entrez Pubmed) and EMBASE databases (1966 to 2006). Key orthodontic, orthognathic, and speech journals were also hand searched. No language limitations were imposed. Randomized controlled trials, ...
Bliziotis I A - - 2007
We reviewed the bibliographic evidence from comparative trials regarding the role of rifampin as adjuvant treatment in the treatment of Gram-positive infections [PubMed (1/1950-7/2006)]. Only studies reporting comparative outcome data in patients treated with an antibiotic regimen with the addition or not of rifampin were included. Eight comparative studies were ...
Gicquel Stéphanie - - 2007
The use of randomization for assigning patients to treatment groups in clinical trials is firmly acknowledged as providing the best quality results. Two standard methods are used in order to achieve well-balanced groups with respect to prognostic factors (i.e. factors influencing the disease outcome): stratification and minimization. Stratification is recommended ...
Deutscher Daniel - - 2008
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Improving clinical outcomes requires continuous measurement and interpretation in conjunction with treatment process and patient characteristics. The purposes of this study were: (1) to describe implementation and integration of electronic functional status outcomes into an electronic health record (EHR) for the promotion of clinical practice improvement processes ...
Christensen R - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of preparations with avocado-soybean unsaponifiables (ASUs) in osteoarthritis (OA) patients using meta-analysis on randomized controlled trials (RCTs). METHOD: RCTs from systematic searches were included if they explicitly stated that hip and/or knee OA patients were randomized to either ASU or placebo. The co-primary outcome was ...
Meduri G Umberto GU University of Tennessee Health Science Center and Memphis VA Medical Center, Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Sleep Medicine, Room H316, 956 Court Avenue, TN 38163, Memphis, USA. - - 2008
To compare the design and results of randomized trials investigating prolonged glucocorticoid treatment (> or =7 days) in patients with acute lung injury-acute respiratory distress syndrome (ALI-ARDS), and review factors affecting response to therapy, including the role of secondary prevention. Trials were retrieved from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled ...
Ellis Stuart - - 2008
The fraction of patients who respond to treatment and the duration of response in the subset of responding patients are commonly evaluated in oncology trials of cytotoxic compounds. While formal, comparative analysis of the fraction of patients responding to treatment is straightforward in a randomised trial, analyses that attempt to ...
Murao, Ryuki
This paper presents a revisional study of the subgenus Evylaeus of the genus Lasioglossum in Japan. We propose a system of species-group classification based on Japanese Evylaeus as follows: 1) the carinate-Evylaeus superspecies-group is divided into five species-groups and two species-subgroups; 2) the carinaless-Evylaeus superspecies-group is divided into 11 species-groups ...
Small Gary - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Following prescribed medication regimens is essential for the effective treatment of any medical condition. Unfortunately, patients often fail to follow recommendations, and treatment non-compliance represents a widespread, often underestimated problem, placing tremendous burden on the healthcare system. Compliance in Alzheimer's disease (AD), a chronic neurodegenerative disease typically afflicting older ...
Mochtar C A - - 2007
PURPOSE: To review the literature on the definition and incidence of leakage after laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) as well as its relation to the surgeon's technical experience, the type of urethrovesical suture, and the approach (extraperitoneal or transperitoneal). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the subject, consulting ...
Ng Y-L - - 2007
The aims of this study were (i) to conduct a comprehensive systematic review of the literature on the outcome of primary (initial or first time) root canal treatment; (ii) to investigate the influence of some study characteristics on the estimated pooled success rates. Longitudinal clinical studies investigating outcome of primary ...
Torres F - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Therapies have become available in the last decade that may provide more than symptomatic benefit in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). With choices for possible therapy, it is important to compare the results observed in randomised, double-blind clinical trials. The objective of this systematic review was to compare ...
Nakato Halima - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of atovaquone-proguanil (Malarone) as a chemoprophylactic agent against malaria. METHODS: The data sources searched for this study included Cochrane systematic reviews (on infectious diseases), MEDLINE and EMBASE, Web of Knowledge and Annals of Tropical Medicine. All unconfounded randomized controlled trials assessing ...
Goss C H - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Centralized spirometry may significantly improve quality of spirometry and reduce variability of this outcome measure in clinical trials in cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: Spirometry was performed during the phase 2 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial of denufosol in patients with mild to moderate CF using American Thoracic Society guidelines. ...
Clarke Janet - - 2008
For chronic use biotechnology-derived pharmaceuticals, toxicity studies of 6 months have generally been accepted for regulatory approval. This review assessed the data for 23 approved biotechnology-derived pharmaceuticals to determine whether the studies conducted were predictive of human safety and whether there is new data from approved products indicating that longer ...
Jüttler Eric - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Decompressive surgery (hemicraniectomy) for life-threatening massive cerebral infarction represents a controversial issue in neurocritical care medicine. We report here the 30-day mortality and 6- and 12-month functional outcomes from the DESTINY trial. METHODS: DESTINY (ISRCTN01258591) is a prospective, multicenter, randomized, controlled, clinical trial based on a sequential ...
Kesten S - - 2007
Premature discontinuation from clinical trials may bias results against effective therapies. In the present study mortality rates were retrospectively reviewed in a 6-month, randomised, placebo-controlled trial in which tiotropium 18 mug daily was shown to decrease chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations. Patients participated for 6 months even if trial medication ...
Serretti A - - 2008
Pharmacogenetic studies in mood disorders are rapidly proliferating after the initial reports linking gene variants to treatment outcomes. However, a considerable range of methodologies has been used, making it difficult to compare results across studies and limiting the representativeness of findings. Specification of sampling source (inpatients vs outpatients, primary vs ...
Blackstone Eugene H - - 2007
General thoracic surgery has been slow to embrace advanced statistical techniques to assess outcome and direct future therapy to individual patients (the "trees") based on aggregating data and discovering informative patterns in them (the "wood"). This is due in part to the nature and complexity of the practice. However, methods ...
Barker Allanah - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Evidence supporting similar recurrence rates between video-assisted and open surgery for the treatment of recurrent pneumothorax is questionable, because the number of randomised trials is sparse and they are underpowered to detect any meaningful difference. Our aim was to do a systematic review of randomised and non-randomised studies to ...
Morris, CD; ;
Nine simulated rotational grazing systems, comprising combinations of three different periods of occupation (2, 10 and 20 days) and three periods of absence (20, 40 and 60 days), were applied to Tall Grassveld for 24 years (1967-1991), using sheep. All camps were rested every fourth year during which recovery growth ...
Harrison James D - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The assessment of patients' and clinicians' willingness to participate in clinical trials is advisable as part of a feasibility exercise prior to the commencement of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to ensure adequate support in terms of likely accrual to achieve the required sample size in a timely fashion. Furthermore, ...
Cortes F - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials in Alzheimer's disease (AD) include patients benefiting from recent improvements in AD management. OBJECTIVE: To observe the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) after 6 and 18 months in patients treated with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI) in order to determine the best duration of follow-up necessary to demonstrate the ...
Testa Luca - - 2007
The direct thrombin inhibitor, ximelagatran, and its active form, melagatran (X/M), have been compared against conventional anticoagulant therapy (CAT) in many clinical settings. Their risk-benefit profile drove large debate until withdrawal by the manufacturer. A systematic review of all published randomized trials has been performed and a meta-analysis of randomised ...
de Wilde O M - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patients with schizophrenia as well as their relatives show deficits in sensory gating reflected by an abnormal P50 ratio and to quantify the differences from controls. METHODS: A systematic search on articles published between 1982 and 2006 was conducted. 28 patient studies that were suitable for ...
Magnacca, Karl N.
Here we present the first complete subgroup-level classification of the modified mouthparts group of Hawaiian Drosophila. Previously, only three small groups had been proposed, accounting for only a third of the known species in this large group. The modified mouthparts group, as now defined, consists of fourteen subgroups: adventitia (1 ...
Suzuki Yoshio - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was, first, to assess safety of fasudil (Eril; Asahi Kasei Pharma Corp, Tokyo, Japan) and, second, to investigate whether the effects of fasudil in the phase 3 trial could be reproduced in a PMS study. METHODS: Between 1995 and 2000, a total of ...
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