Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 928
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Lichtman Stuart M - - 2008
Older patients currently are the largest group of oncology patients and their numbers will continue to expand. There has been minimal participation of older patients in clinical trials. This has resulted in a lack of data to make high-level evidence-based decisions with regard to chemotherapy. There has now been a ...
Dilts David M DM Owen Graduate School of Management and Engineering Management Program, School of Engineering, Vanderbilt University, 401 21st Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37203, USA. - - 2008
We examine the processes and document the calendar time required to activate phase II and III clinical trials by an oncology group: the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG). Methods: Setup steps were documented by (a) interviewing ECOG headquarters and statistical center staff, and committee chairs, (b) reviewing standard operating procedure ...
Donne A J - - 2008
Cidofovir is the most contemporary adjuvant treatment for recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) and its use is increasing. Cidofovir is potentially harmful. Otolaryngologists should understand the science of cidofovir and review the current published data on the effects of this therapy. Pubmed was searched using the terms cidofovir and papillomatosis. Comparisons ...
Davis Matthew A - - 2008
We investigated the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for the treatment of tension-type headache by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched from inception through August 2007. No search or language restrictions were ...
Vila Tania - - 2008
To evaluate the efficacy of gabapentin for the treatment of uremic pruritus (UP). Literature retrieval was accessed through MEDLINE (1950-March week 3, 2008; In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, April 1, 2008) and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-March 2008) using the terms gabapentin, pruritus, itch, urem$ (truncated), dialysis, and kidney disease. The ...
Broekema Ferdinand I - - 2008
Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a chronic and difficult to treat disease of the larynx. In 1998, the first article was published that described the use of the antiviral substance cidofovir to treat this disease. Although the results are promising, there remains some concern about the potential carcinogenicity of cidofovir. ...
Czaja Albert J - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Prednisone and azathioprine are effective in the treatment of autoimmune hepatitis, but diverse side effects can diminish their net benefit. OBJECTIVES: Describe the frequency and nature of these side effects and propose management strategies to minimize their impact. METHODS: Pertinent articles published from 1970 to 2007 were identified by ...
Lin Hsin-Ching - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Many patients with obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) are incapable of using continuous positive airway pressure. These patients therefore turn to surgical options as a salvage treatment. Early studies and reviews focused on the efficacy of uvulopalatopharyngoplasty, a single-level procedure for the treatment of OSAHS. Since OSAHS is usually ...
Toffol Laura De - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To assess the scientific evidence on the effectiveness of early orthopedic treatment in Class III subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature survey was performed by applying the Medline database (Entrez PubMed). The survey covered the period from January 1966 to December 2005 and used the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ...
Plachokova Adelina S - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To review systematically the reported effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on bone regeneration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Up to June 2006, MEDLINE and Cochrane databases were explored with different combinations of three search terms: 'PRP', 'bone regeneration', 'dentistry' and their synonyms. Inclusion criteria: human controlled clinical trials designed to treat ...
Cusi M - - 2010
In this study the effectiveness of prolotherapy in the treatment of deficient load transfer of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) was determined. A prospective descriptive study. Authors' private practice. 25 patients who consented to treatment and attended for at least one follow-up visit and assessment. From April 2004 to July 2007. ...
DeLong W Bradford - - 2008
OBJECT: The authors performed exploratory meta-analyses of observational cohort studies, evidence level III, examining whether earlier surgery makes a difference in outcome in terms of urinary function once cauda equina syndrome (CES) from a herniated lumbar disc has progressed to urinary retention (CESR). METHODS: Literature search identified 27 studies of ...
Gandhi Gunjan Y GY Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, Metabolism and Nutrition, Mayo Clinic, 200 First St SW, Rochester, MN 55905, USA. - - 2008
To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effect of perioperative insulin infusion on outcomes important to patients. We used 6 search strategies including an electronic database search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL, from their inception up to May 1, 2006, and ...
Edwards S J - - 2008
Carbapenems have not been comprehensively compared in clinical trials with fourth-generation cephalosporins (4GC) and antipseudomonal penicillins (APP) in the treatment of severe infections (SI) and febrile neutropenia (FN). A systematic review of CENTRAL, EMBASE, MEDLINE and JICST-EPlus for randomised controlled trials was conducted to establish the currently available evidence. Database ...
Liang Yuanyuan - - 2008
In this paper, a new allocation rule for treatment assignments in sequential clinical trials is proposed. The stratified and randomized play-the-winner rule (SRPWR) is an extension of the randomized play-the-winner rule to more than two treatments. It is applicable to cases where the probabilities of success of a treatment depend ...
Karavasilis Vasilios - - 2008
AIM: To identify factors that may prevent or delay patients referred for consideration of phase I studies from commencing such a study. METHODS: A retrospective audit of phase I study referrals for the period 1st March to 31st August 2005 to the Drug Development Unit was performed. All reasons that ...
Tinè F - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Remission and response are the main outcomes to evaluate the efficacy of new treatments for Crohn's disease (CD). AIM: To explain variation of remission and response rates in active luminal CD. METHODS: We studied control patients from trials of biological therapies through articles retrieved by MEDLINE search (from 1997 ...
Venkitaraman R - - 2008
This prospective randomised controlled study of 40 patients could not show a statistically significant advantage with 6 months of pentoxifylline compared with standard measures for late radiation-induced rectal bleeding. However, a modest benefit cannot be excluded and larger randomised placebo-controlled trials with longer durations of pentoxifylline treatment may be justified.
Kastelein John J P - - 2008
Cardiovascular disease remains a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world, and is becoming an increasingly important cause of death in developing countries too. While current cardiovascular treatments can help to reduce this disease burden, a substantial number of patients still retain a high risk of experiencing ...
Ranucci Marco - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) treatment in patients undergoing major surgical procedures. DATA SOURCES: Relevant studies were searched in BioMedCentral, CENTRAL, PubMed, and PubMed Central. STUDY SELECTION: Only randomized controlled trials on humans undergoing major surgery were included. Efficacy was determined as ...
Jänicke Fritz - - 2008
Although the aromatase inhibitors (AIs) as a class exhibit clear differences in terms of their structure and mechanism of action, these differences do not always translate into clinically significant differences in patient outcomes. In fact, these differences may actually reflect differences in clinical trial design (i.e. upfront, sequential or switch ...
Karthikesalingam Alan - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Suction drains are widely used in vascular surgery, despite the absence of specific evidence that they confer benefit to patients. There has been no systematic review of the available evidence, though drainage has been shown to confer no benefit, or indeed harm, across a variety of surgical disciplines. Accordingly, ...
Raja Shahzad G - - 2008
A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether the omission of angiotensin converting inhibitors (ACEI)/angiotensin II receptor antagonists (AIIA) before cardiac surgery leads to avoidance of postoperative vasodilation. Using the reported search 421 papers were identified. Eleven papers including ...
Falagas M E - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Ertapenem is a new member of the carbapenem class of antibiotics, with a favourable pharmacokinetic profile, but a narrower spectrum of antimicrobial activity, compared with older representatives of this class. AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of ertapenem for treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections. METHODS: We performed a ...
James, NC ; South ...
The recruitment of distinct year-class cohorts in two sparid species, <i>Rhabdosargus holubi</i> and <i>Lithognathus lithognathus</i>, were linked to records of daily mouth state in the intermittently open East Kleinemonde Estuary, South Africa, between 1995 and 2006. <i>L. lithognathus</i> only recruited into the estuary in years when the mouth opened between ...
Gluud L L - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid may reduce upper gastrointestinal bleeding and stabilize patients before endoscopic treatments. AIM: To review randomized trials on tranexamic acid for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. METHODS: Manual and electronic searches of The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Science Citation Index were combined. Intention-to-treat random effect meta-analyses were performed and ...
Cox Helen S - - 2008
To identify published studies assessing tuberculosis recurrence after successful treatment with standard short course regimens for six months to determine the strength and sufficiency of evidence to support current guidelines. Systematic review. Medline, Embase, Cochrane clinical trials register, specialist tuberculosis journals, and reference lists. Only English language publications were eligible. ...
Abrahamyan L - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the quality of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of therapy for juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) using an individual component approach and assessed temporal changes. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify all RCTs involving exclusively JIA patients. Two investigators independently assessed the identified articles ...
Sofi Francesco - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Recently, a growing body of evidence on the possible role of residual platelet reactivity (RPR) in affecting clinical events has accumulated. The aim of this study was to systematically assess the relationship between RPR on acetylic salicylic acid (ASA) therapy and the occurrence of recurrent events in a meta-analysis ...
Gurusamy K - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Although day-case laparoscopic cholecystectomy can save bed costs, its safety has to be established. The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the advantages and disadvantages of day-case surgery compared with overnight stay in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS: Randomized clinical trials addressing the above issue were identified ...
Hemming Karla K Department of Statistics, University of Warwick, Warwick, UK. - - 2008
Long-term observational studies are essential in assessing the effect of interventions for chronic diseases on long-term safety and tolerability, as well as informing on efficacy in a non-clinical trial setting. Concerns over the scientific validity of open label extension studies to randomized controlled trials have recently been raised. Patients experiencing ...
Ramaiah, N.
One of the main objectives of this study was to follow up and see if holococcolithophore that was predominant in all of over 30 samples from the southern Malabar Coast, Karnataka, India during September-October 2004 was prevalent as well during the monsoon months of 2005. The September 2004 stench event ...
Haedersdal M - - 2008
Background There is a considerable need for effective and safe treatment for acne vulgaris. Objective In a systematic review with an evidence-based approach to assess the effects of optical treatments for acne vulgaris. Methods Original publications of controlled clinical trials were identified through searches in PubMed and the Cochrane Library. ...
Kant Ijmert - - 2008
To examine the efficacy of structured early consultation among employees at high risk for future long-term sickness absence, in the prevention and/or reduction of sickness absence. The focus of the experiment was the timing of the intervention, that is, treatment before sickness absence actually occurs. In the current prospective randomized ...
Magnussen Robert A - - 2008
We asked whether autologous chondrocyte implantation or osteochondral autograft transfer yields better clinical outcomes compared with one another or with traditional abrasive techniques for treatment of isolated articular cartilage defects and whether lesion size influences this clinical outcome. We performed a literature search and identified five randomized, controlled trials and ...
Skolnik Jeffrey M - - 2008
To shorten the study conduct timeline of pediatric phase I oncology trials by employing a novel trial design. A comparison of the traditional 3 + 3 patients per cohort, phase I trial design with a novel, rolling six design was performed by using discrete event simulation. The rolling six design ...
Hatzimouratidis Konstantinos - - 2008
The treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) has been revolutionized during the last 2 decades with several treatment options now available. Most of these treatments are associated with high efficacy rates and favourable safety profiles. A MEDLINE search was undertaken to evaluate all currently available data on treatment modalities for ED. ...
N?lle Bernhard - - 2008
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Patients with symptomatic dry eyes are frequently seen by every ophthalmologist. Understanding of the plethora of factors involved in sicca syndrome is essential to substantially help the patient. Besides important and frequent topical treatment options, anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive systemic treatment concepts sometimes play an additional role. MATERIAL AND METHODS: ...
Shafi Imran - - 2008
DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register were searched with no restrictions over publication status or language. STUDY SELECTION: Studies chosen were those where participants received surgical treatment to correct upper palatally impacted canines. There was no restriction ...
Magrabi Farah - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Provision of online evidence at the point of care is one strategy that could provide clinicians with easy access to up-to-date evidence in clinical settings in order to support evidence-based decision making. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to determine long-term use of an online evidence system in routine clinical practice. ...
Aarts Mary-Anne W - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To compare specific antibiotic regimens, and monotherapy vs. combination therapy, for the empirical treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). DESIGN: Meta-analysis. DATA SOURCE: Medline, Embase, Cochrane register of controlled trials, study authors, and review articles. STUDY SELECTION: We included randomized controlled trials that evaluated empirical parenteral antibiotic regimens for adult ...
Soop Mattias - - 2008
Oncologic safety has now been demonstrated for laparoscopy-assisted surgery for colon adenocarcinoma after 3 and 5 years of follow-up. Pooled data from large multicenter and smaller single-center trials demonstrate that the modality conveys significant short-term benefits as compared with open surgery, although the full potential has probably not yet been ...
Dyub Adel M - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of preoperative intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) placement in high-risk patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery (CABG). The primary outcome was hospital mortality and secondary outcomes were IABP-related complications (bleeding, leg ischemia, aortic dissection). METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane registry of Controlled Trials, and reference lists of relevant ...
Matthaiou Dimitrios K - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Neurocysticercosis, infection of the brain with larvae of Taenia solium (pork tapeworm), is one of several forms of human cysticercosis caused by this organism. We investigated the role of albendazole and praziquantel in the treatment of patients with parenchymal neurocysticercosis by performing a meta-analysis of comparative trials of their ...
Vincent Jean-Louis - - 2008
Many studies have been conducted to try and find interventions to treat patients with severe sepsis, but with little success. In several cases, initial apparent beneficial effects have not been confirmed in later trials. The story of steroids in sepsis is one example of this pendulum effect, with initial success ...
Clementini Marco - - 2008
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In daily clinical practice of a dental department it's common to find gingival overgrowth (GO) in periodontal patients under treatment with Cyclosporine A (CsA). The pathogenesis of GO and the mechanism of action of Azithromycin (AZM) are unclear. A systematic review was conducted in order to evaluate the ...
Wiedermann Christian J - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Patients with sepsis typically require large resuscitation volumes, but the optimal type of fluid remains unclear. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate current evidence on the effectiveness and safety of hydroxyethyl starch for fluid management in sepsis. METHODS: Computer searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane ...
Andrès Emmanuel - - 2008
The objective of this review is to evaluate the usefulness of oral cobalamin (vitamin B12) treatment in elderly patients. PubMed was systematically searched for English and French articles published from January 1990 to January 2007. Prospective randomized studies (n=3), a systematic review by the Cochrane group (n=1) and prospective studies ...
Abbas S M - - 2008
The use of intra-operative Doppler oesophageal probes provides continuous monitoring of cardiac output. This enables optimisation of intravascular volume and tissue perfusion in major abdominal surgery, which is thought to reduce postoperative complications and shorten hospital stay. Medline and EMBASE were searched using the standard methodology of the Cochrane collaboration ...
Zaki Amna - - 2008
To assess the efficacy of interventions offered to patients in the preoperative clinic to promote long-term (> or = three months) smoking cessation following surgery. We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL for all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on smoking-cessation interventions initiated in the preoperative clinic. Trial inclusion, ...
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