Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 926
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Tanaka Yuu - - 2009
Sore throat is a common side effect of general anaesthesia and is reported by between 30% and 70% of patients after tracheal intubation. The likelihood of a sore throat varies with the type, diameter, and cuff pressure of the endotracheal tube used. If intubation is essential, it may be helpful ...
Bosboom Wendy M J - - 2009
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by degeneration of anterior horn cells, which leads to progressive muscle weakness. Children with SMA type II do not develop the ability to walk without support and have a shortened life expectancy, whereas children with SMA type III develop the ability to walk and ...
Nienhuijs Simon - - 2009
Hemorrhoidectomy is a frequently performed surgical procedure and associated with postprocedural pain. The use of the Ligasure could result in a decreased incidence of pain as coagulation with high frequency currency and active feedback control over the power output has minimal thermal spread and limited tissue charring. To compare patient ...
Navaneethan Sankar D - - 2009
Treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) is increasingly used to reduce proteinuria and retard the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). But some patients do not attain complete resolution of proteinuria and might have higher aldosterone levels within few months of treatment. The addition ...
Bernhardt Julie J Very Early Rehabilitation Stroke Research Program, National Stroke Research Institute, Level 1, Neurosciences Building, Austin Health, Repatriation Campus, 300 Waterdale Road, Heidelberg Heights, Victoria, Australia, 3081. - - 2009
Very early mobilisation is performed in some stroke units and recommended in acute stroke clinical guidelines. It is unclear whether very early mobilisation independently improves outcome after stroke. To determine the benefits and harms of very early mobilisation (commenced within 48 hours of stroke) compared with conventional care. We searched ...
Tisi Paul V PV Department of Vascular Surgery, Bedford Hospital, Kempston Road, Bedford, Bedfordshire, UK, MK42 9DJ. - - 2009
Femoral pseudoaneurysms may complicate up to 8% of vascular interventional procedures. Small pseudoaneurysms can spontaneously clot, but sometimes definitive treatment is needed. Surgery has traditionally been considered the 'gold standard' treatment, although it is not without risk in patients with severe cardiovascular disease. Less invasive treatment options such as Duplex ...
Pedersen Tom T Head and Orthopaedic Center, Rigshospitalet, HOC 2101, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen,Blegdamsvej 9, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark, - - 2009
Pulse oximetry is extensively used in the perioperative period and might improve patient outcomes by enabling an early diagnosis and, consequently, correction of perioperative events that might cause postoperative complications or even death. Only a few randomized clinical trials of pulse oximetry during anaesthesia and in the recovery room have ...
Walter S D - - 2008
In order to avoid certain difficulties with the conventional randomized clinical trial design, the expertise-based design has been proposed as an alternative. In the expertise-based design, patients are randomized to clinicians (e.g. surgeons), who then treat all their patients with their preferred intervention. This design recognizes individual clinical preferences and ...
Por Yong-Chen - - 2009
BACKGROUND: This review sought to determine the efficacy of tissue sealants such as fibrin tissue adhesives and platelet-rich plasma in reducing postoperative drainage, ecchymosis, and edema after face-lift surgery. METHODS: The electronic databases MEDLINE (1966-May 2007) and EMBASE (1974-May 2007) and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were ...
Rayes Nada - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in surgical technique and intensive care medicine, nosocomial bacterial infections frequently occur in patients after major abdominal surgery and have a negative impact on operative outcome and hospital costs. In parallel, the routine use of antibiotics led to the development of resistance. Some probiotics (living bacteria) and ...
Vásquez Wenceslao - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The evaluation of the usefulness of gum chewing for postoperative ileus has given inconclusive results. We evaluated the efficacy of gum chewing in the treatment of ileus after elective colorectal surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials comparing the effect of gum chewing+standard treatment ...
Alvarez-Salas Luis M - - 2008
MGI Pharma Biologics is developing amolimogene bepiplasmid as a potential therapy for HPV-associated diseases, including cervical dysplasia. Amolimogene bepiplasmid is a polymer-encapsulated DNA vaccine consisting of a plasmid expressing a chimeric peptide comprising immunogenic hybrid epitopes from HPV-16 and HPV-18 E6 and E7 proteins and an HLA-DRalpha intracellular trafficking peptide. ...
Pieper Sebastian - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Ewing's tumors (ET) are rare in patients over the age of 40 years. Published data on presentation, treatment, and clinical outcome are limited. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We present a retrospective analysis of data from 47 patients in this age group diagnosed with ET and enrolled in the 2 consecutive ...
Nieri Michele - - 2009
AIM: Case reports (CRs) are often the first publication of a new treatment, but randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are needed to confirm the data. The aim of this study was to evaluate how many therapies published as CRs were followed by RCTs of these therapies over a 20-year period. MATERIAL ...
Hurlen Petter - - 2010
The purpose of this study was to study whether the benefits from introducing a picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) reported by innovators and early adopters also can be achieved by a hospital belonging to the "late majority" and to see whether such benefits are sustained, using report turnaround time ...
Sabel Michael - - 2008
Carmustine (1,3-bis [2-chloroethyl]-1-nitrosourea, or BCNU) wafers are approved for recurrent glioblastoma and newly diagnosed malignant glioma (MG). Based on considerable clinical experience and use in multimodal regimens, the safety of BCNU wafers needs a re-evaluation. A review of literature from 1996 to February 2008 was conducted on the safety of ...
Kyriakidou Kleoniki G - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Despite the high incidence of acute pyelonephritis in the community setting, there is no consensus on the optimal duration of treatment. A potential reduction in the duration of the administered antibiotic regimens could contribute to avoiding further development of antimicrobial resistance. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this meta-analysis was to ...
Beer A-M - - 2008
The examination of the effectiveness and tolerance of willow bark extract in patients with gonarthrosis and coxarthrosis compared to conventional therapies. In an open, multicentric observational study with reference treatment, 90 patients were treated with a standardised willow bark extract preparation, 41 patients with a standard therapy prescribed by a ...
Falagas Matthew E - - 2009
Treatment guidelines generally support that a 10-14-day antibiotic regimen should be administered to uncomplicated acute bacterial sinusitis patients. However, the level of evidence for such a recommendation is rather weak. Treatment of such duration may have disadvantages compared with a shorter duration but equally effective regimen, including the promotion of ...
Hogan Shea E - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The optimal hydration strategy for prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) remains unknown. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to compare the effectiveness of normal saline (NS) versus sodium bicarbonate hydration (NaHCO(3)) for prevention of contrast-induced AKI. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that compared ...
Figini Lara - - 2008
The Cochrane Collaboration promotes evidence-based healthcare decision making globally through systematic reviews of the effects of healthcare intervention. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate whether the effectiveness and frequency of short-term and long-term complications are different when endodontic procedure is completed in one or multiple visits. Randomized ...
Noroozi Ahmad-Reza - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: This paper provides a comprehensive review of the etiology, pathophysiology and current treatment of dry socket. STUDY DESIGN: The Medline database (Ovid version) from 1966 to 2007 was searched for the term "dry socket" published in the English language, and 317 results were obtained. The articles were screened by ...
Brietzke Scott E - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the currently available literature regarding the reported effectiveness of adenoidectomy alone in the management of medically refractory pediatric chronic rhinosinusitis. METHODS: The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were systematically searched for English language manuscripts reporting on effectiveness of adenoidectomy alone in management of medically refractory pediatric rhinosinusitis. Additional ...
Gillanders Lyn - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Evidence based guidelines for home parenteral nutrition (HPN) were commissioned by the Australasian Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (AuSPEN) and developed by a multidisciplinary group. The guidelines make recommendations in four domains: patient selection, patient training, formulation and monitoring regimens, and preventing and managing complications. METHODS: The Appraisal ...
Lynch Katherine E - - 2008
BACKGROUND: L-Carnitine is an endogenous compound thought to be helpful in treating patients with dialysis-related hypotension and muscle cramps; however, sufficient evidence for these indications is lacking. STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. SETTING & POPULATION: Adult patients with end-stage renal disease receiving long-term hemodialysis. SELECTION CRITERIA FOR STUDIES: All ...
Wolfenden Linda L - - 2009
The treatment of cystic fibrosis has improved significantly over the past three decades. Median survival has improved by decades and is now estimated to be 37 years. Many factors contribute to improvements in disease severity and outcome. This paper reviews the current evidence of three groups of important factors: genetic, ...
Mavreas Dimitrios - - 2008
The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the literature for articles referring exclusively to the duration of orthodontic therapy and to explore the various factors that could affect this. A Medline search from 1990 to the first week of March 2005 was conducted, the Cochrane Database for Systematic ...
Chalmers N - - 2008
AIM: To investigate the effectiveness of the Royal College of Radiologists Audit Sub-Committee's national prospective registry of percutaneous nephrostomy, which enables participants to audit their practice and compare performance with predetermined standards. METHODS: Following a limited retrospective audit, which permitted setting of achievable targets, a dataset was developed and all ...
Falagas Matthew E ME Alfa Institute of Biomedical Sciences, 9 Neapoleos St, 151 23 Marousi, Athens, Greece. - - 2008
To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of short-course antibiotic treatment of group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal (GAS) tonsillopharyngitis. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) retrieved from PubMed and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials using a structured search strategy. The last date either database was accessed was ...
Halpern Scott D - - 2008
Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) conducted during the past decade have shown that several therapies produce improvements in surrogate endpoints for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Whether these therapies also influence clinical outcomes remains uncertain. These changes in the PAH landscape have raised several complex ethical issues regarding the conduct ...
Namaka Mike - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive overview of the most frequently encountered non-conventional approaches trialed for use in multiple sclerosis (MS). The efficacy and safety of non-conventional approaches ranging from bee venom therapy (BVT) to an array of vitamins and herbal products were discussed and ...
Pineda Carlos E - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Despite several meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials showing no benefit to patients, mechanical bowel preparation (MBP) remains the standard of practice for patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of the literature of trials that prospectively compared MBP with no MBP for patients undergoing elective ...
Machado Rocha F C - - 2008
This paper aims to evaluate the anti-emetic efficacy of cannabinoids in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy using a systematic review of literature searched within electronic databases such as PUBMED, EMBASE, PSYCINFO, LILACS, and 'The Cochrane Collaboration Controlled Trials Register'. Studies chosen were randomized clinical trials comprising all publications of each database ...
Bond, Amy Rachael
The impact of roads on local biodiversity is a major issue associated with urbanisation. A major arterial road in the southern suburbs of Brisbane, south-east Queensland, was upgraded in 2004–05 from two to four lanes. In an attempt to minimise the impact of the larger road on local wildlife populations, ...
Rosenman David J - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Hospitalists involved in perioperative care either stop or continue until the day of surgery renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system antagonists (either angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors [ACEI] or angiotensin II receptor subtype 1 antagonists [ARA]) in patients who use these agents chronically. This practice variation reflects uncertainty regarding the risks and benefits of either ...
Natchu Uma Chandra Mouli - - 2008
Zinc supplementation has been consistently shown to reduce the incidence of childhood pneumonia, but its effect on the course of pneumonia when administered as an adjunct to antibiotic therapy is still unclear. Three trials published to date have shown mixed results, and a recent trial from India raises the possibility ...
Poddubnyy Denis A - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) play a crucial role in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Most of the AS patients require a continuous and long-term NSAIDs therapy; therefore the question of NSAIDs safety in this population becomes very important. OBJECTIVE: to review the safety of celecoxib in ankylosing spondylitis ...
Saxton James W - - 2008
This article aims to help healthcare providers understand the emerging trend of disclosure and apology after an adverse event. Understanding the difference between saying "I'm sorry" that accepts responsibility and that which expresses empathy is essential. However, it is only part of the process: planning is required pre- and post-event. ...
Thall Peter F PF Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas, USA. - - 2008
Between-patient heterogeneity is very common in clinical trials. This complicates treatment evaluation, due to known prognostic subgroup effects or potential treatment-subgroup interactions. We review two Bayesian phase II clinical trial designs that account explicitly for patient heterogeneity. The first design uses analysis of covariance to assess treatment effects in subgroups ...
Pascua M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The use of placebo in randomized clinical trials (PC-RCTs) is often required to evaluate drug efficacy in maintenance of Crohn's disease (CD). AIM: To determine pooled estimates of placebo rates of maintaining clinical remission and endoscopic recurrence following surgery for CD and identify factors that influenced placebo outcomes. METHODS: ...
Rios Lorena P - - 2008
CONTEXT: The reporting quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is poor in general medicine and several areas of specialization but unknown in endocrinology. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the reporting quality of RCTs in general endocrinology. A secondary objective was to identify predictors for better reporting quality. DESIGN AND ...
den Dulk Marcel - - 2008
AIM: The aim was to study the effects of the introduction of TME surgery and pre-operative radiotherapy on overall survival (OS) by comparing patients treated in the period before (1990-1995), during (1996-1999) and after (2000-2002) the TME trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients diagnosed with rectal carcinoma in the region of ...
Seabra Victor F - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Some studies have suggested that early institution of renal replacement therapy (RRT) might be associated with improved outcomes in patients with acute renal failure (ARF). STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and cohort comparative studies to assess the effect of early RRT on mortality ...
Arkenau Hendrik-Tobias - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The primary objectives of phase-I trials include the definition of drug toxicities and the recommendation of phase-II doses. In order to safeguard the well-being of its participants, a common inclusion criterion is that of life expectancy >3 months. However, previous studies have shown that about 20% of these patients ...
Citrome L - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The metric of number needed to treat (NNT), defined as the number of patients who need to be treated to achieve one additional favorable outcome, can help clinicians appraise claims that one intervention is meaningfully superior to the other. METHOD: A review of the use of NNT to evaluate ...
Anderson E - - 2008
The objective of this study was to review the results of randomized Phase III controlled trials (RCTs) that involve initial treatments of malignant glioma and determine changes in median survival times (MST) over the last 40 years. An electronic database search identified RCTs for patients undergoing initial treatment for supratentorial ...
Leung Yvette - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Published trials evaluating the efficacy of 6-thioguanine anti-metabolites in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) have yielded conflicting results. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the clinical efficacy of 6-thioguanine anti-metabolites for the maintenance of clinical remission after standard induction with corticosteroids. METHODS: A comprehensive search ...
Weiss H-R - - 2008
Traditionally, the treatment options for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), the most common form of scoliosis, are exercises; in-patient rehabilitation; braces and surgery. The outcomes of treatments are usually compared with the natural history or observation (non-intervention). The aim of this paper was to provide a synopsis of all treatment options ...
Lichtman Stuart M - - 2008
Older patients currently are the largest group of oncology patients and their numbers will continue to expand. There has been minimal participation of older patients in clinical trials. This has resulted in a lack of data to make high-level evidence-based decisions with regard to chemotherapy. There has now been a ...
Dilts David M DM Owen Graduate School of Management and Engineering Management Program, School of Engineering, Vanderbilt University, 401 21st Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37203, USA. - - 2008
We examine the processes and document the calendar time required to activate phase II and III clinical trials by an oncology group: the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG). Methods: Setup steps were documented by (a) interviewing ECOG headquarters and statistical center staff, and committee chairs, (b) reviewing standard operating procedure ...
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