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Clayton R N - - 2010
The causes of premature death in untreated Cushing's syndrome are vascular disease (myocardial infarction/stroke), uncontrolled diabetes mellitus and complications and infections. Long-term mortality outcome studies on pituitary-dependent Cushing's disease (CD) are limited to six studies in the English language literature. This paper reviews these studies on CD, other causes of ...
Naito Toru - - 2010
DATA SOURCES: Data was sought using Medline and the Cochrane Library, and relevant chapters from three major endodontic texts were consulted: Principles and Practice of Endodontics (4th Edn; editors; Torabinejad and Walton; 2008); Pathways of the Pulp (9th edition; editors, Cohen and Hargreaves; 2006), and Endodontics (6th edition; editors, Ingle, ...
Kliber Agnes - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the 4th leading cause of mortality worldwide. Long-acting bronchodilators are considered first line therapies for patients with COPD but their effects on mortality are not well known. We performed a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of long-acting bronchodilators on ...
Lerner E Brooke - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: To determine the accuracy of SALT (sort-assess-lifesaving interventions-treatment/transport) triage during a simulated mass-casualty incident, the average time it takes to make triage designations, and providers' opinions of SALT triage. METHODS: Seventy-three trainees participating in one of two disaster courses were taught to use SALT triage during a 30-minute lecture. ...
Rosenblatt Aronita - - 2010
DATA SOURCES: The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, Cochrane CENTRAL, Medline and Embase were consulted, along with the websites www.clinicaltrials.gov and www.controlled-trials.com and reference lists of identified articles. There were no language restrictions. STUDY SELECTION: Only randomised controlled trials that included a minimum followup period of 12 months for ...
Williams-Herman Debora - - 2010
In a previous pooled analysis of 12 double-blind clinical studies that included data on 6,139 patients with type 2 diabetes, treatment with sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, was shown to be generally well tolerated compared with treatment with control agents. As clinical development of sitagliptin continues, additional studies have ...
Ayhan Ali - - 2010
HYPOTHESIS: The role of oxidized regenerated methylcellulose (ORC) in the lymphocyst formation after systematic lymphadenectomy. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective case-control study. Patients with gynecologic cancer who underwent systematic lymphadenectomy from May 2000 to April 2006 were considered. Retroperitoneal "no closure" method was performed in all patients. ...
Krezanoski Paul J - - 2010
Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) have been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality due to malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Strategies using incentives to increase ITN use could be more efficient than traditional distribution campaigns. To date, behavioural incentives have been studied mostly in developed countries. No study has yet looked at ...
De Feo Gianfranco - - 2010
The aim of this paper is to describe the time spent to activate oncological non-profit clinical trials promoted in Italy by the National Cancer Institute of Naples, following the implementation of recent European laws. Data about the process of activation of 5 non-profit multicentre clinical trials were prospectively collected through ...
Selig Elizabeth R - - 2010
A variety of human activities have led to the recent global decline of reef-building corals. The ecological, social, and economic value of coral reefs has made them an international conservation priority. The success of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in restoring fish populations has led to optimism that they could also ...
Salpeter Shelley R - - 2010
Metformin is an oral anti-hyperglycemic agent that has been shown to reduce total mortality compared to other anti-hyperglycemic agents, in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metformin, however, is thought to increase the risk of lactic acidosis, and has been considered to be contraindicated in many chronic hypoxemic conditions ...
Abraham Prakash - - 2010
Antithyroid drugs are widely used in the therapy of hyperthyroidism. There are wide variations in the dose, regimen or duration of treatment used by health professionals. To assess the effects of dose, regimen and duration of antithyroid drug therapy for Graves' hyperthyroidism. We searched seven databases and reference lists. Randomised ...
Salpeter Shelley R - - 2010
Metformin is an oral anti-hyperglycemic agent that has been shown to reduce total mortality compared to other anti-hyperglycemic agents, in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metformin, however, is thought to increase the risk of lactic acidosis, and has been considered to be contraindicated in many chronic hypoxemic conditions ...
McAlister Vivian - - 2010
Fluid excess may place patients undergoing surgery at risk for various complications. Hypertonic saline (HS) maintains intravascular volume with less intravenous fluid than isotonic salt (IS) solutions, but may increase serum sodium. To determine the benefits and harms of HS versus IS solutions administered to patients undergoing surgery. We searched ...
Mhaskar Rahul - - 2010
Bisphosphonates are specific inhibitors of osteoclastic activity and are currently used as supportive therapy for multiple myeloma (MM). However, the exact clinical role of bisphosphonates in MM remains unclear. This update of the first review published in 2002. We have also analyzed observational studies targeting osteonecrosis of jaw (ONJ). We ...
Wong Susan S W - - 2010
Strictures of the urethra are the commonest cause of obstructed micturition in younger men and frequently recur after initial treatment. Standard treatment comprises internal widening of the strictured area by simple dilatation or by telescope-guided internal cutting (optical urethrotomy), but these interventions are associated with a high failure rate requiring ...
Gurusamy Kurinchi Selvan - - 2010
The role of prophylactic gastrojejunostomy in patients with unresectable periampullary cancer is controversial. To determine whether prophylactic gastrojejunostomy should be performed routinely in patients with unresectable periampullary cancer. We searched the Cochrane Upper Gastrointestinal and Pancreatic Diseases Group Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane ...
Prayle Andrew P - - 2010
Percutaneous long lines (long intravenous lines) and short intravenous lines (also termed cannulae) are both used to deliver intravenous antibiotics in cystic fibrosis to treat respiratory exacerbations of the disease. The perceived advantage of a long intravenous line is a greater duration of line function, which has to be balanced ...
Rickard Claire M - - 2010
Peripheral intravenous device (IVD) complications were traditionally thought to be reduced by limiting dwell time. Current recommendations are to resite IVDs by 96 hours with the exception of children and patients with poor veins. Recent evidence suggests routine resite is unnecessary, at least if devices are inserted by a specialised ...
Rees Jonathan Re JR MRC Cancer Cell Unit, Hutchison/MRC Research Centre, Hills Road, Cambridge, UK, CB22 - - 2010
Treatments for Barrett's oesophagus, the precursor lesion of adenocarcinoma, are available but whether these therapies effectively prevent the development of adenocarcinoma, and in some cases eradicate the Barrett's oesophagus segment, remains unclear. To summarise, quantify and compare the efficacy of pharmacological, surgical and endoscopic treatments for the eradication of dysplastic ...
Fluri Felix F Department of Neurology, University Hospital Basel, Petersgraben 4, Basel, Switzerland, - - 2010
The EC/IC Bypass Study Group found no benefit of extracranial to intracranial (EC/IC) bypass surgery over medical therapy in patients with symptomatic carotid artery occlusion (sCAO). However, the study was criticised for many reasons and the real effect of this treatment is still not known conclusively. To determine whether bypass ...
Imberger Georgina G The Cochrane Anaesthesia Review Group, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9,, Afsnit 3342, København, Denmark, - - 2010
General anaesthesia causes atelectasis which can lead to impaired respiratory function. Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) is a mechanical manoeuvre which increases functional residual capacity (FRC) and prevents collapse of the airways thereby reducing atelectasis. It is not known whether intra-operative PEEP alters the risk of postoperative mortality and pulmonary complications. ...
D'Acremont Valérie V Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland. - - 2010
Malaria is almost invariably ranked as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa. There is growing evidence of a decline in malaria transmission, morbidity and mortality over the last decades, especially so in East Africa. However, there is still doubt whether this decline is reflected in a reduction ...
Wraith James E - - 2010
A randomized, controlled trial of miglustat indicated that miglustat (Zavesca) stabilized neurological disease over 12 months in adult and juvenile patients with Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C). We report data from a non-controlled, open-label extension to this initial randomized trial. All patients completing the randomized trial were allowed to continue ...
Marik Paul E - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Following publication of the Leuven Intensive Insulin Therapy Trial in 2001, tight glycemic control became the standard of care in ICUs around the world. Recent studies suggest that this approach may be flawed. The goal of this systematic review was to determine the benefits and risks of tight glycemic ...
Wantuch Holly A - - 2009
The parasitic mite Varroa destructor Anderson & Trueman (Acari: Varroidae) has plagued European honey bees, Apis mellifera L. (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in the Americas since its introduction in the 1980s. For many years, these mites were sufficiently controlled using synthetic acaricides. Recently, however, beekeepers have experienced increased resistance by mites to ...
Breidenbaugh Mark S - - 2009
The effectiveness of a novel fuselage boom configuration was tested with flat-fan nozzles on U.S. Air Force C-130H aircraft to create ultra-low volume sprays to control mosquitoes (Culicidae) and biting midges (Ceratopogonidae). The mortality of mosquitoes and biting midges in bioassay cages and natural populations, using the organophosphate adulticide, naled, ...
Nagy Krisztián - - 2009
The authors performed a critical literature review to find evidence of the long-term stability after early distraction osteogenesis of the mandible in patients with hemifacial microsomia. The PubMed, Cochrane, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and CINAHL databases were searched systematically for studies performed between 2002 and 2008. Abstracts from the 89 relevant ...
Brunetti Enrico - - 2010
The earlier recommendations of the WHO-Informal Working Group on Echinococcosis (WHO-IWGE) for the treatment of human echinococcosis have had considerable impact in different settings worldwide, but the last major revision was published more than 10 years ago. Advances in classification and treatment of echinococcosis prompted experts from different continents to ...
Leigh E G EG - - 2010
Many thought Darwinian natural selection could not explain altruism. This error led Wynne-Edwards to explain sustainable exploitation in animals by selection against overexploiting groups. Williams riposted that selection among groups rarely overrides within-group selection. Hamilton showed that altruism can evolve through kin selection. How strongly does group selection influence evolution? ...
Ryan Daniel J - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Cardioinhibitory carotid sinus hypersensitivity (CICSH) is highly prevalent among older people with falls. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of dual-chamber pacing in older patients with CICSH and unexplained falls. DESIGN: A multicentre, double blind, randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Selection from emergency room, geriatric medicine and orthopaedic departments. PATIENTS: Patients ...
Kuo I fan - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To review the efficacy and safety of colchicine as primary and secondary prophylaxis for pericarditis. DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, BIOSIS Previews, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Web of Science, and CENTRAL for controlled studies from database inception date to July 2009. Search terms included colchicine, pericarditis, and postpericardiotomy ...
Serebruany Victor L - - 2009
Recent post hoc analysis of the TRITON trial suggests vascular outcome superiority of prasugrel over clopidogrel in STEMI patients at both 30 days and 15 months. However, this paper is not in full agreement with the data presented in the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued Prasugrel Second Review. While ...
Franklin Bryony Dean - - 2009
PURPOSE: To compare four methods of detecting prescribing errors (PE) in the same patient cohorts before and after an intervention (computerised physician order entry; CPOE) and to determine whether the impact of CPOE is identified consistently by all methods. METHODS: PEs were identified using (1) prospective detection by ward pharmacist; ...
Turner L A - - 2009
PURPOSE: This project was conducted to determine the effectiveness of chlorhexidine-coated toothbrush filaments in reducing quantities of bacteria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved, two-group, double-blind, randomized, post-test only study was conducted. Sixty-four individuals utilized control and experimental toothbrushes, for 30 days. At the end of the study ...
Barakzai S Z - - 2009
REASONS FOR PERFORMING STUDY: There is contradictory published evidence on the potential efficacy of 'tongue ties' (TTs) for treatment of intermittent dorsal displacement of the soft palate (DDSP) in racehorses. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of TTs on racing performance in Thoroughbred racehorses in the U.K. using a retrospective cohort ...
van Niekerk C - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To assess clinical trial sites and associated mycobacteriology laboratories for their capacity to conduct registration-standard tuberculosis (TB) drug trials and develop a database of assessed sites and laboratories. SETTING: Assessments of clinical trial sites and associated mycobacteriology laboratories were conducted in 39 countries from 2006 to 2008. DESIGN: Sites ...
Zengerink Maartje - - 2010
The aim of this study was to summarize all eligible studies to compare the effectiveness of treatment strategies for osteochondral defects (OCD) of the talus. Electronic databases from January 1966 to December 2006 were systematically screened. The proportion of the patient population treated successfully was noted, and percentages were calculated. ...
- - 2010
To determine whether continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is effective in the management of type 1 diabetes when implemented in a manner that more closely approximates clinical practice. After completion of a 6-month randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating CGM in children, adolescents, and adults with type 1 diabetes, CGM was initiated ...
Korantzopoulos Panagiotis - - 2009
AIMS: Recent observational studies have shown that implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have increased mortality and therefore the value of device therapy in this group has been questioned. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to systematically analyse the effect of renal dysfunction on mortality of ...
Zangrillo Alberto - - 2009
Controversial results exist on the effects of spinal analgesia in cardiac surgery. The authors conducted a review of randomized studies to show whether there are any advantages in clinically relevant outcomes using spinal analgesia in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Meta-analysis. Multiple hospitals. A total of 1,106 patients from 25 randomized ...
Berlanga-Acosta Jorge - - 2009
Chemotaxis, mitogenesis, motogenesis and cytoprotection are common cellular events involved in both tumourigenesis and tissue repair, which appear amplified upon growth factors exposure. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) promotes these events in epithelial and mesenchymal cells through the binding to a specific tyrosine kinase receptor. In experimental oncology settings, EGF does ...
Jeha Sima - - 2009
Optimal use of antileukemic agents and stringent application of risk-directed therapy in clinical trials have resulted in steady improvement in the outcome of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, with current cure rates exceeding 80% in developed countries. The intensity of treatment varies substantially among subsets of patients, as therapy is ...
Santarius Thomas T Department of Neurosurgery, Addenbrooke's Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, - - 2009
Chronic subdural haematoma causes serious morbidity and mortality. It recurs after surgical evacuation in 5-30% of patients. Drains might reduce recurrence but are not used routinely. Our aim was to investigate the effect of drains on recurrence rates and clinical outcomes. We did a randomised controlled trial at one UK ...
Cuccia A M - - 2010
Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is a term reflecting chronic, painful, craniofacial conditions usually of unclear etiology with impaired jaw function. The effect of osteopathic manual therapy (OMT) in patients with TMD is largely unknown, and its use in such patients is controversial. Nevertheless, empiric evidence suggests that OMT might be effective ...
Hsu Mei-Chi - - 2009
TITLE: Effects of thermal therapy on uremic pruritus and biochemical parameters in patients having haemodialysis. AIM: This paper is a report of a trial to identify the effect of thermal therapy with far-infrared rays in comparison with non-thermal therapy on uremic pruritus and biochemical parameters. BACKGROUND: Uremic pruritus remains one ...
Reynecke D P - - 2011
A validation study of the FAMACHA(©) system for clinical evaluation of anaemia due to Haemonchus contortus was conducted on two commercial sheep farms in the summer rainfall region of South Africa. In this region, the Haemonchus season lasts from October to April. On Farm 1 the system was tested over ...
O'Shea Carolyn - - 2009
There are times when the unseen becomes seen. Two recent events highlighted this for me. The first was an evening telephone call about a 10 month old with a rash, asking: 'Could be measles?' The second was a patient asking if I was worried about her blood sugar levels (BSL), ...
Landoni Giovanni - - 2010
The authors performed a meta-analysis to evaluate whether levosimendan is associated with improved survival in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. A meta-analysis. Hospitals. A total of 440 patients from 10 randomized controlled studies were included in the analysis. None. MEASURMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Four investigators independently searched BioMedCentral and PubMed. Inclusion ...
Zheng Xiaoting - - 2010
Recent discoveries of basal dromaeosaurids from the Early Cretaceous Jiufotang and Yixian formations of Liaoning, China, add significant new information about the transition from non-avian dinosaurs to avians. Here we report on a new dromaeosaurid, Tianyuraptor ostromi gen. et sp. nov., from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of western Liaoning, ...
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