Search Results
Results 701 - 750 of 929
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Marschner I C - - 2001
This paper discusses interim analysis of randomized clinical trials for which the primary endpoint is observed at a specific long-term follow-up time. For such trials subjects only yield direct information on the primary endpoint once they have been followed through to the long-term follow-up time, potentially eliminating a large proportion ...
Welch V - - 2001
Heat and cold therapy are often used as adjuncts in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis by rehabilitation specialists. To evaluate the effects of heat and cold on objective and subjective measures of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. We searched Medline, Embase, PEDro, Current Contents, Sports Discus and CINAHL ...
Passalacqua G - - 2001
Present knowledge regarding the clinical efficacy and safety of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for the treatment of respiratory allergy is reviewed. Allergen-specific immunotherapy is presently considered a 'biological response modifier' for the treatment of respiratory allergy, to be used in association with drug therapy and allergen avoidance. Its value in the ...
Pedersen T - - 2001
Monitoring with pulse oximetry might improve patient outcome by enabling an early diagnosis and consequently, correction of perioperative events that might cause postoperative complications or even death. Only a few randomised clinical trials of pulse oximetry have been performed during anaesthesia and in the recovery room which describe perioperative hypoxaemic ...
Crockett A J AJ Respiratory Unit, Flinders Medical Centre, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia, AUSTRALIA, 5042. - - 2001
Bronchiectasis is predominantly an acquired disease process representing the end stage of a variety of unrelated pulmonary insults. It is defined as a persistent irreversible dilatation and distortion of medium-sized bronchi. Patients diagnosed with bronchiectasis frequently have difficulty exporating the infected sputum. Mucolytic agents target hyper-secretion or changed physiochemical properties ...
Bonsanto M M - - 2001
The registration of adverse events is an important issue in the field of medicine. Even today adverse event screening and registration is not part of the routine in most medical areas. In 1994, the Department of Neurosurgery at the University of Heidelberg implemented a conference for screening and registering adverse ...
Whitfield P C - - 2001
The timing of surgery to secure a ruptured aneurysm after a subarachnoid haemorrhage is an important issue. Early clipping of an aneurysm prevents rebleeding, a major cause of death after a subarachnoid haemorrhage. However, concerns about the possible deleterious effects of early surgery raise questions about the safety and efficacy ...
Andersen B R - - 2001
Appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdominal pain requiring surgical intervention. The cause of appendicitis is unclear and the mechanism of pathogenesis continues to be debated. Despite improved asepsis and surgical techniques, postoperative complications, such as wound infection and intraabdominal abscess, still account for a significant morbidity. Several ...
Parker M J - - 2001
The majority of hip fracture patients are treated surgically, requiring anaesthesia. To compare different types of anaesthesia for surgical repair of hip fractures (proximal femoral fractures) in adults. We searched the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group specialised register (December 2000), MEDLINE (1996 to December Week 4 2000) and reference lists of ...
Cornu C - - 2001
Available evidence of thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke comes from a series of recent trials conducted in patients with acute stroke, and from a meta-analysis published in the Cochrane Library. The objective of this paper is to review the literature on tolerability and efficacy of thrombolytic therapy in patients with ...
Wormald R - - 2001
In neovascular age-related macular degeneration, new vessels grow under the retina, distorting vision and leading to scarring. This is further exacerbated if the blood vessels leak. Photodynamic therapy, originally used in cancer treatment, has been investigated as a way to treat the neovascular membranes without affecting the retina. The aim ...
French L - - 2001
This is one of a series of reviews of methods of cervical ripening and labour induction using standardised methodology. To determine the effects of oral prostaglandin E2 for third trimester induction of labour. The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and bibliographies of relevant ...
Vroomen P C - - 2000
Most patients with sciatica (often caused by disc herniations) are managed conservatively at first. The natural course seems to be favorable. The additional value of many conservative therapies remains controversial. Because a systematic review of the conservative treatment of sciatica is lacking, such a review was carried out. After a ...
Sun R L - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to identify and quantify the availability of orthodontic literature for evidence-based clinical decision-making (ie, sound clinical studies of etiology, diagnosis, treatment, or prognosis meeting basic methodologic criteria for direct clinical use). This is a first step toward developing online decision analysis systems. A search ...
Walach H - - 2000
Little is known about the long-term effects of homeopathic treatment. Following a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of classical homeopathy in chronic headaches, we conducted a complete follow-up study of all trial participants. All patients enrolled in the double-blind study were sent a 6-week headache diary, a follow-up questionnaire. Eighty-seven of the ...
Bereczki D - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Mannitol was reported to decrease cerebral edema associated with tissue damage and is used to treat acute stroke in many countries. SUMMARY OF REVIEW: We tested whether there is any evidence from unconfounded randomized clinical trials that treatment with mannitol reduces short- and long-term case fatality and dependency if ...
Sauerland S S 2nd Department of Surgery, University of Cologne, Germany. - - 2000
A single preoperative high dose of methylprednisolone (15 to 30 mg/kg) has been advocated in surgery, because it may inhibit the surgical stress response and thereby improve postoperative outcome and convalescence. However, these potential clinical benefits must be weighed against possible adverse effects. To conduct a risk-benefit analysis using a ...
van Dieten H E - - 2000
A systematic review on the cost effectiveness of prophylactic treatments of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) induced gastropathy in patients with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis was conducted. Two reviewers conducted the literature search and the review. Both full and partial economic evaluations published in English, Dutch, or German were included. The ...
Jain P - - 2000
PURPOSE: To our knowledge a causal relationship between altered levels of androgens and erectile dysfunction has not yet been established. We reviewed the literature to assess the usefulness of androgen replacement for erectile dysfunction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Meta-analysis was chosen as the method of evaluating the literature. Study inclusion criteria ...
Cellini N - - 2000
To-date, the therapeutic standards, defined by randomized studies for carcinoma of the exocrine pancreas are disappointing. Obviously, there is much interest in the improvement of these results based on the evidence of additional clinical trials. To identify some trends in the clinical research in this field, some characteristics of 31 ...
Alarcón G S - - 2000
In this review the rationale for the possible beneficial effect of tetracycline derivatives for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis is discussed. Early studies (Sanchez, Skinner et al. and Brown et al. ) and the two open trials of the 1980s are briefly discussed. The three double-blind studies conducted in the ...
Chen C I - - 2000
The purpose of this study was to compare the baseline patient characteristics, treatments and outcomes of elderly patients with aggressive histology lymphoma who were entered or not entered onto a randomized phase II trial. We previously conducted a randomized phase II trial in patients > or = 65 years of ...
Shusterman S - - 2000
Changes in therapy, primarily intensification, for childhood leukemias have significantly improved cure rates during the past 30 years. The increasing number of survivors has led to a heightened appreciation of the late complications of treatment caused by both radiation and chemotherapy. Important late effects include decreased growth, poor school performance, ...
James A. Mickelson
Field experiments were conducted in southern Wisconsin from 1996 to 1998 to evaluate the effects of acetochlor applied preemergence (PRE) followed by nicosulfuron or sethoxydim applied postemergence (POST) and of cultivation on woolly cupgrass control, corn grain yield, and woolly cupgrass seed production. Sethoxydim treatments provided greater woolly cupgrass control ...
Hodgson N F - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: To perform a meta-analysis of prospective, randomized controlled trials comparing the closed and open technique of diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) in trauma patients to determine whether there are any difference in outcomes. METHODS: A search of MEDLINE database of English language articles published from 1977 to 1999 was conducted ...
Simon L S - - 2000
This has been an unusual year for the accumulation of evidence regarding the clinical effects of inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2. This article reviews the available data regarding the clinical effects of the new COX-2-specific inhibitors, and speculates about the importance of the data as they relate to the ...
Tol J L JL Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam, The - - 2000
The aim of this study was to investigate the results of different treatment strategies for osteochondral defects (OCD) of the talus. Electronic databases from 1966 to July 1998 were systematically screened. Based on our inclusion criteria 32 studies describing the results of treatment strategies for OCD of the talus were ...
Tyndall A - - 2000
The diversity of strategies reflects as much the lack of ideal treatments as it does the imagination of the investigators. Many aspects such as manipulation of apoptosis and extracorporeal removal of autoantibodies have been omitted due to space restrictions. Although most successful treatment strategies have been based on proven basic ...
McIntosh H M - - 2000
Amodiaquine and chloroquine give fast relief from malaria symptoms, particularly fever. When used alone in areas where there is some parasite resistance they do not completely clear parasites from the blood in all cases, and so not all patients are cured of infection. The major disadvantage of using sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine alone ...
Furlan A D - - 2000
The purpose of this article was to systematically review the literature in order to assess (1) the current indications for surgical sympathectomy and (2) the incidence of late complications collectively and per indication. All types of upper or lower limb surgical sympathectomies are included. An extensive search strategy looked for ...
Birks J - - 2000
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. One of the most successful therapeutic strategies for Alzheimer's disease has been the use of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors to enhance surviving cholinergic neurotransmission by inhibiting breakdown of released acetylcholine. The first generation acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, such as tacrine, revealed ...
Bunn F - - 2000
Colloids are widely used in the replacement of fluid volume, however doubts remain as to their benefits. Different colloids vary in their molecular weight and therefore in the length of time they remain in the circulatory system. Because of this and their other characteristics, they may differ in their safety ...
Gelband H - - 2000
WHO recommends 6 months of treatment in TB programmes. The purpose of this review is to assess the effects of regimens lasting less than 6 months compared with longer regimens in the treatment of active TB. Search strategy: MEDLINE 1955-, Cochrane Infectious Diseases Trials Register, existing reviews, and researchers in ...
Leng G C - - 2000
Surgical bypass of an occluded arterial segment is the mainstay of treatment for patients with critical limb ischaemia. As with many surgical interventions, however, it was introduced without formal evaluation. The objective of this review was to determine the effects of bypass surgery in patients with chronic lower limb ischaemia. ...
Cameron R - - 2000
Effusions and empyema may complicate lower respiratory tract infections. Loculation of fluid is a major problem with this condition so treatments have included surgical drainage and the use of intra-pulmonary fibrinolysis to break down fibrin bands that may cause loculation. To conduct a systematic review of the benefit of adding ...
Mulrow C - - 2000
To quantify the long-term effects of antihypertensive drug therapy on morbidity and mortality in the elderly. To characterize co morbid risk profiles of trial participants. Electronic search of WHO-ISH Collaboration register (August 1997), The Cochrane Library (1997; Issue 1), MEDLINE (1966 to April 1997) and two Japanese databases (1973-1995); references ...
Song F - - 2000
Removal of wisdom teeth is one of the most common surgical procedures performed in the UK. Little controversy surrounds the removal of impacted third molars when they are associated with pathological changes such as infection, non-restorable carious lesions, cysts, tumours, and destruction of adjacent teeth and bone. However, the justification ...
Alejandria M M - - 2000
Death from severe sepsis and septic shock is common, and researchers have explored whether antibodies to the endotoxins in some bacteria reduces mortality. This review summarises the effects of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in patients with bacterial sepsis or septic shock on mortality, bacteriological failure rates, and duration of stay in ...
Kearney C E - - 2000
Recombinant human deoxyribonuclease is currently used to treat pulmonary disease (the major cause of morbidity and mortality) in cystic fibrosis. To determine whether the use of recombinant human deoxyribonuclease in cystic fibrosis is associated with improved mortality and morbidity as compared to placebo and to identify any adverse events associated ...
Kolbe J - - 2000
Bronchiectasis is a progressive condition characterised by irreversible destruction and dilatation of airways, generally associated with chronic bacterial infection. The two distinct therapeutic goals are: symptom control and reduction in morbidity; and prevention of progression of the underlying disease. To determine whether regular inhaled corticosteroids produce improvement in symptom control ...
Gotzsche P C - - 2000
Nystatin is sometimes used prophylactically in patients with severe immunodeficiency or in the treatment of fungal infection in such patients, although the effect seems to be equivocal. To study whether nystatin decreases morbidity and mortality when given prophylactically or therapeutically to patients with severe immunodeficiency. MEDLINE and The Cochrane Library ...
Smieja M J - - 2000
Although isoniazid (INH) is commonly used for treating tuberculosis (TB), it is also effective as preventive therapy. The objective of this review was to estimate the effect of 6 and 12 month courses of INH for preventing TB in HIV-negative people at increased risk of developing active TB. We searched ...
Merelle M E - - 2000
This review was performed to test the hypothesis that presymptomatic diagnosis, for example by newborn screening, and early treatment may prevent or reduce irreversible organ damage and thereby improve outcome and quality of life in patients with cystic fibrosis. To determine whether there is evidence that early diagnosis of cystic ...
Wilkinson C S - - 2000
It has been suggested that the peritoneal suture might be omitted during caesarean section without adverse effects. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of non-closure as an alternative to closure of the peritoneum at caesarean section on intra-operative and immediate postoperative outcomes. We searched the Cochrane ...
Ferrari J - - 2000
Hallux valgus is classified as an abnormal deviation of the great toe (hallux) towards the midline of the foot. To identify and evaluate the evidence from randomised trials of interventions used to correct hallux valgus. Medline (1966-October 1998), Embase (1980-1998), Cinahl (1982-1998), Amed (1993-1998), the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, the ...
Dickersin K - - 2000
Nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy is characterized by sudden and painless loss of vision in one eye, accompanied by pallid swelling of the optic disc. Although various medical interventions, such as corticosteroids and phenytoin sodium, have been used to treat nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy, no therapy has been proven effective. The ...
Dickinson K - - 2000
Medical antishock trousers (MAST) have been used to increase venous return to the heart until definitive care could be given. This, combined with compression of blood vessels, is believed to cause the movement of blood from the lower body to the brain, heart and lungs. However, the equipment is expensive, ...
Flanagan Tony - - 2000
This paper explores the concept of maintenance physiotherapy. Firstly, a consensus definition of maintenance physiotherapy is proposed following consultation with 11 senior physiotherapists throughout Australasia. This consensus definition is compared retrospectively with a definition of maintenance physiotherapy given in response to interview of 91 physiotherapists treating non-catastrophically injured motor vehicle ...
Prasad K - - 2000
Cerebral malaria is associated with swelling of the brain. Corticosteroid drugs could reduce the harmful effects of this swelling, but could also suppress host immunity to infection. This review aimed to assess the effects of steroids in patients with cerebral malaria in relation to survival and long-term disability. The Cochrane ...
Roos Y B - - 2000
Re-bleeding is an important cause of death and disability in people with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. This is probably due to dissolution of the clot by natural fibrinolytic activity. The objective of this review was to assess the effect of antifibrinolytic treatment in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage. We searched the ...
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