Search Results
Results 651 - 700 of 928
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Ferguson M J - - 2002
The aim of this study was to assess among a population of women who had taken adjuvant tamoxifen for 5 years, how many were prepared to enter a randomised trial looking at the duration of tamoxifen treatment and what was the preference of those who declined trial entry. There is ...
Le Saux Nicole - - 2002
Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis (AHO) occurs primarily in children and is believed to evolve from bacteremia followed by localization of infection to the metaphysis of bones. Currently, there is no consensus on the route and duration of antimicrobial therapy to treat AHO. We conducted a systematic review of a short versus ...
Yoshihisa Fujita
Two zoeal and one megalopal stages of Petrolisthes unilobatus Henderson, 1888, are described and illustrated on the basis of laboratory-reared material. Petrolisthes unilobatus is easily distinguished from other species of Petrolisthes by the absence of setules (first zoea) or plumose setae (second zoea) on the dorsal surface of the second ...
Legrand C - - 2002
The objective of a treatment outcome study is to investigate the heterogeneity in outcome between patients according to factors other than treatment, such as country, institution or physician. Results of treatment outcome studies have already been extensively presented in the medical literature. However, no clear methodology has emerged to perform ...
Frangakis Constantine E - - 2002
In many studies comparing a new 'target treatment' with a control target treatment, the received treatment does not always agree with assigned treatment-that is, the compliance is imperfect. An obvious example arises when ethical or practical constraints prevent even the randomized assignment of receipt of the new target treatment but ...
Keough-Ryan Tammy - - 2002
We reviewed prognostic studies for patients treated with renal replacement therapy by using an electronic database and bibliographic review for 1990 to 1998. Using the inclusion criteria of English language, adult patients, primary article, minimum 50 patients, primary focus on prognostic factors, and mortality outcome, 104 articles were identified. The ...
McCarney R - - 2002
There is a need for large scale, pragmatic trials of complementary and alternative medicine in a primary care setting to answer questions about the 'real world' effectiveness of such methods. Randomisation and treatment in such trials should be prospective, but retrospective recruitment is possible, especially in chronic conditions. This involves ...
Wall Geoffrey C - - 2002
We reviewed the current literature concerning the treatment of dry mouth in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome (SJS). Computerized MEDLINE search engines were used with the terms Sjögren, xerostomia, dry mouth, and treatment. References from key articles were searched, and all pertinent articles were procured and reviewed. Primary SJS is ...
Clark Taane G - - 2002
Completeness of follow-up is important, especially in clinical trials, since unequal follow-up in the treatment groups can bias the analysis of results. In survival studies, information on participants who do not complete the study is often omitted because their data can be included up to the time at which they ...
Ofman Joshua J - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Prior metaanalyses of the risk of upper gastrointestinal (GI) complications associated with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID) have focused on the published English language epidemiologic literature and/or only a portion of the relevant evidence, restrictions that are now known to be associated with bias in metaanalysis. We synthesized the published ...
Ko Clifford Y - - 2002
INTRODUCTION: Evidence-based medicine relies on reproducible, high-quality reporting in the literature. Previous evaluations, which have assessed 11 basic elements of design and analysis in top impact clinical journals (both nonsurgical and surgical), have demonstrated that the reporting quality is less than perfect, although improving. The current study evaluates the quality ...
Basmadjian-Charles C L - - 2002
The purpose of this review of the literature is to examine the factors and their influence on the outcome of endodontic treatments, and also to attempt to have an authors' consensus concerning the impact of these factors on long-term results. The documentary research was conducted using the meta-analysis principles of ...
Furberg Curt D - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) showed no overall benefit of postmenopausal hormone treatment in women with coronary heart disease (CHD). We analyzed the HERS data to determine whether there were specific subgroups of women who responded differently to treatment, either during the first year or in the ...
W. D. Johnstone
The effects of partial cutting in an immature, complex stand in the Interior Cedar--Hemlock zone are analyzed 40 years after treatment. Three partial cutting treatments --- improvement cut, diameter-limit cut, and salvage cut --- were carried out in southern British Columbia. The results are presented for individual trees and the ...
Chapman A E - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The aim of this systematic review was to compare the safety and efficacy of dynamic graciloplasty with colostomy for the treatment of faecal incontinence. METHODS: Two search strategies were devised to retrieve literature from the Medline, Current Contents, Embase and Cochrane Library databases up until November 1999. Inclusion of ...
Kondratyuk, S
Two new species of Caloplaca are described, C. pseudocitrina (in the C. citrina group), which is characterized by rather long spores with a thin septum, and a squamulose thallus and C. akbarica (C. saxicola-group) characterized by rather thick, brightly yellowish pruinose apothecia and a paraplectenchymatous proper exciple. The characters of ...
Melian Ezequiel Balmori - - 2002
Beraprost sodium (beraprost) is a stable, orally active prostacyclin analogue with vasodilatory, antiplatelet and cytoprotective effects. Beraprost acts by binding to prostacyclin membrane receptors ultimately inhibiting the release of Ca2+ from intracellular storage sites. This reduction in the influx of Ca2+ has been postulated to cause relaxation of the smooth ...
Galandi D - - 2002
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant diseases worldwide. The only possibly curative therapeutic option is surgical resection. Due to impaired liver function and/or anatomical reasons only a low percentage of patients can be treated surgically. For the remainder, several non-surgical treatment approaches have been developed. In ...
Struijs P A A - - 2002
Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is a frequently reported condition. A wide variety of treatment strategies has been described. As of yet, no optimal strategy has been identified. To assess the effectiveness of orthotic devices for the treatment of tennis elbow. We searched Medline, Embase, CINAHL, the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register, ...
Denton A - - 2002
Chronic radiation proctitis (inflammation of the rectum) may develop after the completion of pelvic radiotherapy. Presently there is no recommended standard management. To assess the effects of various non-surgical treatment options for the management of late chronic radiation proctitis. We searched the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, issue 1, 2001, MEDLINE ...
Bond R - - 2002
Temporary interruption of cerebral blood flow during carotid endarterectomy can be avoided by using a shunt across the clamped section of the carotid artery. This may improve outcome. The objective of this review was to assess the effect of routine versus selective, or never, shunting during carotid endarterectomy, and to ...
Flenady V J - - 2002
Chest physiotherapy has been used to clear secretions and help lung ventilation in newborns who have needed mechanical ventilation for respiratory problems. However concerns about the safety of some forms of chest physiotherapy have been expressed. To assess the effects of active chest physiotherapy on babies being extubated from mechanical ...
Paul M - - 2002
Chemotherapy treated cancer patients are prone to neutropaenia and life-threatening infections. Early, empirical antibiotic treatment is therefore administered routinely to febrile neutropaenic patients. Currently, either beta-lactam-aminoglycoside combination treatment or beta-lactam monotherapy are recommended. We compared beta-lactam monotherapy versus beta-lactam-aminoglycoside combination therapy for cancer patients with fever and neutroepaenia. Cochrane Library ...
Snellingen T - - 2002
Cataract is the major cause of global blindness, accounting for 40 to 80% of all blindness in developing countries. The number of people blind from cataract is expected to rise due to the changing age distribution and increasing life expectancy. There is currently no proven intervention to prevent cataract and ...
Gøtzsche P C - - 2002
Nystatin is sometimes used prophylactically in patients with severe immunodeficiency or in the treatment of fungal infection in such patients, although the effect seems to be equivocal. To study whether nystatin decreases morbidity and mortality when given prophylactically or therapeutically to patients with severe immunodeficiency. MEDLINE and The Cochrane Library ...
Ramaker C - - 2002
Drugs that mimic dopamine such as bromocriptine were introduced as monotherapy or in a combination with LD in the hope that this approach would prevent or delay the onset of motor complications in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, hitherto, the role of bromocriptine (BR) in this issue has remained ...
Wright J T JT - - 2001
The Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) is a randomized clinical outcome trial of antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapy in a diverse population (including substantial numbers of women and minorities) of 42,419 high-risk hypertensives aged > or = 55 years with a planned mean follow-up of 6 ...
Vickers A - - 2001
Complementary therapies are often used to treat patients with persisting conditions. In a typical randomized trial, patients are assessed for symptom severity at baseline, randomized to treatment or control and then reassessed after a suitable follow-up period. It can be shown that the number of patients required for such trials ...
Haidich A B - - 2001
The authors evaluated whether early enrollment affects the significance of the results and the time to completion and publication of randomized controlled trials. Seventy-seven efficacy randomized controlled trials (total enrollment, 28,992 patients) initiated by the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Clinical Trials Group between 1986 and 1996 were evaluated. After adjustment for ...
Osborne J P - - 2001
This paper argues for a standardized use of definitions and outcome measures in publications on West syndrome. Specific recommendations include the need for a validated definition of hypsarrhythmia, the use of the term non-symptomatic and abandoning the terms cryptogenic and idiopathic, talking about underlying disease association and not aetiology or ...
Andrews C O - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature concerning intraventricular administration of fibrinolytic agents to treat patients with intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). DATA SOURCES: An extensive literature search (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Conference Proceedings) was conducted to identify articles in English published between 1966 and May 2000 pertaining to the pathophysiology of IVH and its treatment ...
Pua H L - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The authors evaluated the quality of clinical trials published in four anesthesia journals during the 20-yr period from 1981-2000. METHODS: Trials published in four major anesthesia journals during the periods 1981-1985, 1991-1995, and the first 6 months of 2000 were grouped according to journal and year. Using random number ...
Gattellari M - - 2001
PURPOSE: Although the randomized, controlled trial has gained preeminence as the criterion standard for evaluating pharmaceutical treatments, randomized controlled trials in surgery have been perceived as difficult to surmount. Furthermore, attitudes of surgeons toward randomized, controlled trials are not well understood. We determined the views of Australian surgeons about feasibility ...
O'Leary D - - 2001
BACKGROUND: We reviewed suicide rates in affective disorder and their variation with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and antidepressant availability. METHOD: Suicide rates were calculated from 75 follow-up studies, identified by systematic literature searches and analyzed for differences over time eras characterized by the availability of specific treatments. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY ...
Overend T J - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the evidence examining the use of incentive spirometry (IS) for the prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs). METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, HealthSTAR, and Current Contents databases from their inception until June 2000. Key terms included "incentive spirometry," "breathing exercises," "chest physical therapy," and "pulmonary complications." ...
Rakow T - - 2001
Doctors, patients, and their relatives face a complex decision when there are multiple treatment options that differ in their profiles of risk and benefit over time. Doctors from a single specialist paediatric cardiac unit participated in a correlational study that used a novel tool (subjective multi-state survival graphs) to elicit ...
Hanefeld M - - 2001
The safety profile of pioglitazone has been evaluated in trials including over 5,400 subjects, of whom over 3,500 received active treatment resulting in over 2,500 patient-years of exposure. Since its launch, over 1.4 million patients have been prescribed pioglitazone. This paper will examine the clinical trial tolerability and safety data ...
Barbui C - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to investigate whether the quality of antidepressant drug trials has improved during the last 40 years. METHOD: A sample of 314 randomized clinical trials published between 1962 and 1998 was analysed. RESULTS: From 1962 to 1970 the median number of patients per trial was 56 ...
Weigand J V - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review of the emergency medicine literature to assess the appropriateness of an intervention to identify, counsel, and refer emergency department (ED) patients >64 years old who are at high risk for falls. METHODS: The systematic review was facilitated through the use of a structured template, ...
Berger R L - - 2001
Although unanswered questions remain, scores of observational studies and several small randomized clinical trials (RCTs) indicate that lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) offers safe and effective palliation for a relatively well defined subset of patients with advanced emphysema. Nonetheless, Medicare and other insurers stopped reimbursement for the procedure. Subsequently, two ...
Hahn S - - 2001
To compare reduced osmolarity oral rehydration solution with standard World Health Organization oral rehydration solution in children with acute diarrhoea. Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. 15 randomised controlled trials including 2397 randomised patients. The primary outcome was unscheduled intravenous infusion; secondary outcomes were stool output, vomiting, and hyponatraemia. In ...
Lavine E - - 2001
Humidification is a time-honoured therapy for childhood croup (acute laryngotracheobronchitis). Despite a paucity of evidence supporting its use, many physicians, nurses and parents still apply this treatment. Our objective was to summarize available evidence and assess the rationale for the ongoing use of humidity to treat childhood croup. Searches of ...
Kim M Y - - 2001
The purpose of this study was to identify and quantify the endodontic literature available for clinical decision making. A search strategy based on Medical Subject Headings for endodontics was developed to examine MEDLINE. The identified articles were limited to human subjects and English. Sensitive and specific methodological search filters identified ...
Verdú-Pascual F - - 2001
Advances in medicine are closely linked to clinical research, but certain study procedures may be in conflict with the fundamental principles of ethics and codes of conduct in medicine. Following an analysis of two studies involving treatments for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the admissibility of continuing a study was questioned ...
Guria J - - 2001
A control chart system was developed in an earlier paper to identify the occurrence of actual risk changes or deviation from the expected levels of road crash fatalities during the course of a year. This paper discusses the development of a prediction method for estimating number of fatalities during a ...
Logan H L - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effects of pain and stress associated with a dental procedure, root canal treatment (RCT), on natural killer cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) and the subsequent development of symptoms of upper respiratory illness during the following month. METHODS: Patients (N = 33) were recruited from those scheduled for ...
Boonen A - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate work status and its determinants among patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). METHODS: A systematic literature review of original studies published after 1980 in which work status in AS was an outcome. Medline was searched and references of retrieved reports were checked for additional studies. RESULTS: Sixteen full ...
Tillmann H C - - 2001
Intention-to-treat (ITT) analyses are the gold standard in endpoint analyses of randomized clinical trials. Valuable information, however, may be lost in this approach as the actual time on trial medication is not accounted for in patients who withdraw early. Since compliance per se can be a prognostic factor and the ...
Miller R G - - 2001
Preclinical and clinical studies of gabapentin in patients with ALS led the authors to undertake a phase III randomized clinical trial. Patients were randomly assigned, in a double-blinded fashion, to receive oral gabapentin 3,600 mg or placebo daily for 9 months. The primary outcome measure was the average rate of ...
Marschner I C - - 2001
This paper discusses interim analysis of randomized clinical trials for which the primary endpoint is observed at a specific long-term follow-up time. For such trials subjects only yield direct information on the primary endpoint once they have been followed through to the long-term follow-up time, potentially eliminating a large proportion ...
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