Search Results
Results 601 - 650 of 928
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Ghosh Angaj - - 2003
A short cut review was carried out to establish whether the addition of intravenous calcium folinate to standard (ethanol) therapy reduced the visual complications of antifreeze (methanol and ethyleny glycol). Altogether 12 papers were found using the reported search, of which one animal study presented the best evidence to answer ...
Heymen Steve - - 2003
PURPOSE: This review was designed to 1) critically examine the research design used in investigations of biofeedback for pelvic floor dyssynergia, 2) compare the various biofeedback treatment protocols for pelvic floor dyssynergia-type constipation used in this research, 3) identify factors that influence treatment outcome, and 4) identify goals for future ...
Tondo L - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To compare responses to long-term treatment of rapid-cycling (RC) vs. non-RC bipolar disorder patients and assess relative effectiveness of specific agents in RC patients. METHOD: Studies identified by literature searching were analyzed for effects of RC status and treatment-type on clinical outcome (recurrence or non-improvement per exposure-time), using random-effects ...
Hogg Kerstin - - 2003
A short cut review was carried out to establish whether outpatient treatment of patients with pulmonary embolus is a safe strategy. Sixty six papers were found using the reported search, of which one presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient ...
Froelicher Erika Sivarajan - - 2003
The report aims to review the literature and describe the methods used for retention of patients in a clinical study. The Enhanced Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD) trial was a multicenter, randomized clinical trial designed to evaluate the effects of a psychosocial intervention on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A ...
Fallon Brian A - - 2003
The authors conducted a 12-week, open-label trial of fluvoxamine among 18 patients with DSM-IV hypochondriasis. Response was defined as a physician-rated CGI improvement rating of at least "much improved." Four patients discontinued during the 2-week placebo run-in phase. Among 14 patients given fluvoxamine, the response rate was 72.7% (N=8 of ...
Haddad Peiman - - 2003
Assessment of outcomes is essential in order to improve available palliative treatments. Collecting follow-up information can be a challenging task in the palliative setting. We compared the effectiveness of data collection by telephone contact and clinic visit in 112 patients with brain metastases treated with whole-brain radiotherapy. The first 56 ...
Vivekananthan Deepak P - - 2003
INTRODUCTION: Oxidised LDL is thought to play an important part in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Observational studies have associated alpha tocopherol (vitamin E), beta carotene, or both, with reductions in cardiovascular events, but not clinical trials. We did a meta-analysis to assess the effect of these compounds on long-term cardiovascular ...
Kokoszka Agnieszka - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Cryosurgery has been used to treat basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and it has many technical advantages over other methods. It is therefore important to establish its efficacy as a treatment for BCC. OBJECTIVE: To review systematically the body of literature reporting on the efficacy of cryosurgery of BCC in ...
Verhagen Ronald A W - - 2003
The aim of this study was to summarize all eligible studies to compare the effectiveness of different treatment strategies for osteochondral defects (OCD) of the talus. Electronic databases from January 1966 to June 2000 were systematically screened. Based on our inclusion criteria, 39 studies describing the results of treatment strategies ...
Paul Mical - - 2003
To compare the effectiveness of beta lactam monotherapy versus beta lactam-aminoglycoside combination therapy in the treatment of patients with fever and neutropenia. Medline, Embase, Lilacs, the Cochrane Library, and conference proceedings to 2002. References of included studies and contact with authors. No restrictions on language, year of publication, or publication ...
Hübler Sabine - - 2003
An increase in the number of patients with end stage heart failure is leading to increased use of ventricular assist devices (VAD). However, sometimes the optimal time point for implantation of left ventricular or biventricular support remains unclear. Data analysis using an electronic database may help to make the decision ...
Roos Daniel E - - 2003
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Trans-Tasman Radiation Oncology Group 96.05 is a prospective randomized controlled trial comparing a single 8 Gy with 20 Gy in five fractions of radiotherapy (RT) for neuropathic pain due to bone metastases. This paper summarizes the quality assurance (QA) activities for the first 234 patients (accrual target ...
Bench Suzanne - - 2003
This review aims to identify which method of humidification is most effective in Intensive Care patients intubated and ventilated for longer than 48hours with regard to the prevention of tracheal tube occlusion and the incidence of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP). The Cochrane Library, Medline, CINAHL and Embase databases were searched ...
McDowell H P - - 2003
The overall survival of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma has improved dramatically over the past 10 years. Early diagnosis and appropriate referral to a specialised centre leading to an accurate and timely diagnosis reflects on overall outcome. Recent molecular studies have identified different biological subtypes resulting in the recognition of poorer subgroups and ...
Weir Christopher J - - 2003
Achieving balance on prognostic factors between treatment groups in a clinical trial is important to ensure that any observed treatment effect may be attributed to the treatment itself. Improving the balance on prognostic factors also potentially increases the statistical power attained in a trial. Substantial imbalances may occur by chance ...
Moehrer Birgit - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of laparoscopic colposuspension for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. DESIGN: Systematic review. SETTING: Teaching hospitals. POPULATION: Women with symptoms or urodynamic diagnosis of stress, urge or mixed incontinence. METHODS: Randomised and 'quasi-randomised trials' in women with symptoms or urodynamic diagnoses of stress, urge or ...
Rathore Saif S - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Risk-stratification scores derived from randomized clinical trial (RCT) data should be evaluated in community-based populations. A simple risk-stratification index for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction derived from an RCT population was recently proposed, but it has not been validated in a community-based cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated ...
Chen Y H Joshua - - 2003
Mortality is often used as the clinical endpoint in clinical trials for acute diseases and takes precedence over any other outcome. A composite outcome such as death plus disease occurrence (or recurrence) or death plus hospitalization may also be considered, sometimes even as the primary outcome due to practical sample ...
Yu Rosie Z - - 2003
ISIS 2302, an antisense phosphorothioate oligonucleotide (ODN) targeting human intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA, is currently being evaluated for treatment of patients with Crohn's disease. From data collected in phase II clinical studies with ISIS 2302, validated population pharmacokinetic and exposure-response models were developed and used to simulate the plasma ...
Hofmeijer Jeannette - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Patients with a hemispheric infarct accompanied by massive edema have a poor prognosis; the case fatality rate may be as high as 80%, and most survivors are left severely disabled. Various treatment strategies have been proposed to limit brain tissue shifts and to reduce intracranial pressure, but their use ...
Pedersen Tom - - 2003
Monitoring with pulse oximetry might improve patient outcome by enabling an early diagnosis and, consequently, correction of perioperative events that might otherwise cause postoperative complications or even death. The aim of the study was to clarify the effect of perioperative monitoring with pulse oximetry and to identify the adverse outcomes ...
Hestbaek Lise - - 2003
It is often claimed that up to 90% of low back pain (LBP) episodes resolve spontaneously within 1 month. However, the literature in this area is confusing due to considerable variations regarding the exact definitions of LBP as well as recovery. Therefore, the claim--attractive as it might be to some--may ...
Reidel Margot A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: There are two ways to open the abdominal cavity in elective general surgery: vertically or transversely. Various clinical studies and a meta-analysis have postulated that the transverse approach is superior to other approaches as regards complications. However, in a recent survey it was shown that 90 % of all ...
Ziment Irwin - - 2003
Alternative therapies for allergic diseases may be prescribed by physicians or provided by other practitioners or selected by patients without resorting to consultation with a health advisor. The most popular alternative therapies include dietary manipulation and exaggerated avoidance of allergens. Established medical therapies include herbs (Western and Asian), homeopathy and ...
Mydlo Jack H - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: To assess the current and past literature relating to the differential treatment of emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN). Some of the newer literature suggests percutaneous drainage (PCD), as compared to the standard nephrectomy, as a better modality. Since these two may complement each other, we sought to seek indications when to ...
Hogg Kerstin - - 2003
A short cut review was carried out to establish whether osteopathy or chiropractic treatments improve outcome in patients with neck sprain. Altogether 206 papers were found using the reported search, of which nine presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The author, date and country of publication, patient ...
Langer H E - - 2003
Data from 166 patients who had completed 6 months of anakinra (Kineret, r-metHuIL-1Ra) therapy under the conditions of daily clinical practice showed an efficacy and safety profile comparable to the data known from clinical trials. Patients significantly responded as early as 1 month following initiation of therapy. The data suggest ...
Isaacsohn Jonathan L - - 2003
In order to evaluate the effects of a particular treatment strategy on mortality and major morbidity within a disease entity, large, multinational, relatively long-term clinical endpoint studies are often conducted. The primary challenge of conducting these studies is to maintain consistency in the interpretation of the clinical endpoints across different ...
Abraham P - - 2003
Antithyroid drugs are widely used in the therapy of hyperthyroidism. There are wide variations in the dose, regimen or duration of treatment used by health professionals. To assess the effects of dose, regimen and duration of antithyroid drug therapy for Graves' hyperthyroidism. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled ...
Brady M - - 2003
Fasting before general anaesthesia aims to reduce the volume and acidity of stomach contents during surgery, thus reducing the risk of regurgitation/aspiration. Recent guidelines have recommended a shift in fasting policy from the standard 'nil by mouth from midnight' approach to more relaxed policies which permit a period of restricted ...
De Schryver E L L M - - 2003
Patients with transient ischaemic attacks (TIA) and minor ischaemic strokes are at risk of serious vascular events (death from all vascular causes, non-fatal stroke, or non-fatal myocardial infarction). Their risk of vascular events lies between 4 and 11 percent per year. Aspirin only, in a daily dose of 30 mg ...
Volmink J - - 2003
Up to half the people with tuberculosis do not complete their treatment. Thus strategies that improve adherence to treatment regimens are important. To compare policies of directly observed therapy with self treatment at home in people requiring treatment for clinically active tuberculosis, or requiring medication for prevention of active disease, ...
Hayashi M - - 2003
In recent decades ceramic inlays have been used with the increasing requirements from patients for tooth-coloured restorations in posterior teeth. Ceramic inlays can offer an excellent appearance, however, their long-term prognosis is uncertain, as only a few studies have reported the long-term clinical performance of these restorations. To compare the ...
Bath F J - - 2003
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin malignancy in humans. BCCs are defined as slow-growing, locally invasive, malignant (but not life threatening), epidermal skin tumours which mainly affect white skinned people. The first line treatment is usually surgical excision, but numerous alternatives are available. To assess the effects ...
Kirtschig G - - 2003
Mucous membrane pemphigoid and epidermolysis bullosa acquisita are acquired autoimmune blistering diseases of the skin. Although they are rare, both can result in scarring of mucous membranes, which may lead to blindness and life threatening respiratory complications. To assess the effects of treatments for mucous membrane pemphigoid and epidermolysis bullosa ...
Andersen B R - - 2003
Appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdominal pain requiring surgical intervention. The cause of appendicitis is unclear and the mechanism of pathogenesis continues to be debated. Despite improved asepsis and surgical techniques, postoperative complications, such as wound infection and intraabdominal abscess, still account for a significant morbidity. Several ...
Wormald R - - 2003
In neovascular age-related macular degeneration, new vessels grow under the retina, distorting vision and leading to scarring. This is further exacerbated if the blood vessels leak. Photodynamic therapy, originally used in cancer treatment, has been investigated as a way to treat the neovascular membranes without affecting the retina. The aim ...
Da Silva A F - - 2003
End Stage Renal Failure (ESRF) patients often require either the formation of an arteriovenous (A-V) fistula or an A-V interposition prosthetic shunt for haemodialysis. To determine the effects of adjuvant drug treatment on the patency of fistulae and shunts in patients with ESRF undergoing haemodialysis by assessing the number of ...
Cilliers A M - - 2003
Rheumatic heart disease remains the most important cause of acquired heart disease in developing countries. Although the prevention of rheumatic fever and the management of recurrences is well established the optimal management of active rheumatic carditis is still unclear. To assess the effects of anti-inflammatory agents such as aspirin, corticosteroids ...
Bamigboye A A - - 2003
Caesarean section is a very common surgical procedure world wide. Suturing the peritoneal layers at caesarean section may or may not confer benefit, hence the need to evaluate whether this step should be omitted or not. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of non-closure as an ...
Paul M - - 2003
Chemotherapy treated cancer patients are prone to neutropaenia and life-threatening infections. Early, empirical antibiotic treatment is therefore administered routinely to febrile neutropaenic patients. Currently, either beta-lactam-aminoglycoside combination treatment or beta-lactam monotherapy are recommended. We compared beta-lactam monotherapy versus beta-lactam-aminoglycoside combination therapy for cancer patients with fever and neutroepaenia. We searched ...
Paci Matteo M Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Casa di Cura Villa Fiorita, Prato, Italy. - - 2003
The Bobath concept, also known as neurodevelopmental treatment, is a widely used approach in the rehabilitation of hemiparetic subjects in many countries. Despite 50 years of clinical use its effectiveness is questionable. This paper aims to examine whether there is evidence to accept neurodevelopmental treatment as an effective approach. A ...
Daniel Otte
The genus Melanoplus is currently subdivided into numerous species groups, mostly informally by arrangement in collections. Most of the groups need further study. This paper treats the Viridipes Group which previously included 11 species. In this paper we have described two new species: M. lilianae n. sp. and M. benni ...
Scott Neil W - - 2002
Minimization is a largely nonrandom method of treatment allocation for clinical trials. We conducted a systematic literature search to determine its advantages and disadvantages compared with other allocation methods. Minimization was originally proposed by Taves and by Pocock and Simon. The latter paper introduces a family of allocation methods of ...
Büchner Thomas - - 2002
Most multicenter randomized AML studies use randomizations of patients early or later in complete remission which necessarily occur with exclusions and positive selection of patients included. Since the exclusion criterias are regimen related and do not follow common standards, incomparabilities between treatment results across different studies are produced by these ...
Hansrani M - - 2002
INTRODUCTION: Intravascular brachytherapy (IVBT) utilises the percutaneous insertion of a radioactive source to inhibit myointimal hyperplasia in arteries treated by balloon angioplasty or stenting. A systematic review was performed of trials of IVBT in patients with Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD). METHODS: Search strategy - the reviewers searched Medline, Embase, the ...
Goodwin D - - 2002
The restricted access to pasture experienced by many competition horses has been linked to the exhibition of stereotypic and redirected behaviour patterns. It has been suggested that racehorses provided with more than one source of forage are less likely to perform these patterns; however, the reasons for this are currently ...
Pienaar E D ED South African Cochrane Centre, Medical Research Council, Tygerberg, W - - 2002
To describe randomised controlled trials (RCTs) published in the South African Medical Journal (SAMJ) over a 50-year period from 1948 to 1997 with regard to number, topic and quality. We hand searched all issues of the SAMJ published during the study period to identify all published RCTs. Number, topic and ...
Burrett Julie A - - 2002
This report presents a historical and descriptive account of randomized trials in childhood leukaemia since the earliest such studies in the 1960s. It focuses on trials that began before 1988, making use of the register of trials developed for a systematic review of treatments for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children. ...
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