Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 928
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Hartgrink H H - - 2004
AIMS: Gastric cancer in Western countries is often diagnosed in an advanced stage and prognosis is poor. We performed a randomised trial with pre-operative FAMTX vs. surgery alone in order to evaluate the effect of pre-operative chemotherapy on resectability and survival. METHODS: Patients with proven adenocarcinoma of the stomach were ...
Caracappa S - - 2004
The authors describe the status of bluetongue (BT) since 13 October 2000, when the first outbreak was reported in Sicily. The results of the epidemiological surveillance programme, based on sentinel animals distributed over the entire region, are also given. In Sicily, the incidence of the disease is relatively low compared ...
Johnson Brent A - - 2004
After a treatment is found to be effective in a clinical study, attention often focuses on the effect of treatment duration on outcome. Such an analysis facilitates recommendations on the most beneficial treatment duration. In many studies, the treatment duration, within certain limits, is left to the discretion of the ...
Wiklund Ingela - - 2004
As the patient is the primary recipient of treatment, there is a need to recognize and value the patient's perception of change in response to treatment in clinical trials. A new outcomes classification, patient-reported outcomes (PROs), has been proposed by regulators. The PROs are used as an umbrella term and ...
Chan An-Wen - - 2004
CONTEXT: Selective reporting of outcomes within published studies based on the nature or direction of their results has been widely suspected, but direct evidence of such bias is currently limited to case reports. OBJECTIVE: To study empirically the extent and nature of outcome reporting bias in a cohort of randomized ...
Vaitkus Paul T - - 2004
BACKGROUND: While each of the available femoral arterial sealing devices claims equivalent safety to manual compression following invasive cardiac procedures, these claims are based on small, underpowered studies. Our aim was to increase the ability to detect a clinically meaningful difference by performing a meta-analysis. METHODS: We identified studies via ...
Rothman Kenneth J - - 2004
PURPOSE: To describe a bias that can occur in the analysis of data from certain randomized trials. METHODS AND RESULTS: Although randomized trials are effective at preventing confounding, a potentially strong confounding can arise in certain therapeutic drug trials in which follow-up is extended in an open-label phase that allows ...
Bernier Valérie - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) is commonly used for medulloblastoma patients and some others; for example, those with ependymoma. It is a complex technique where accuracy of field placement and choice of irradiation source and energy can play a major role in determining success or failure. PROCEDURE: A literature review of ...
Trudel Daniel - - 2004
The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the effectiveness of conservative treatments for lateral epicondylitis and to provide recommendations based on this evidence. Five reviewers searched computerized bibliographic databases for articles on the conservative treatment of lateral epicondylitis from the years 1983 to 2003. A total of 209 ...
Capra William B - - 2004
The discontinuation design has been proposed as an alternative to the classic randomized design for evaluating the effect of an experimental agent on time-to-disease progression and survival duration. With this design, all enrolled patients are treated with an experimental agent for a fixed course of therapy. Those patients with progressive ...
Paul Mical - - 2004
To compare beta lactam monotherapy with beta lactam-aminoglycoside combination therapy for severe infections. Medline, Embase, Lilacs, Cochrane Library, and conference proceedings, to 2003; references of included studies; contact with all authors. No restrictions, such as language, year of publication, or publication status. All randomised trials of beta lactam monotherapy compared ...
Hootman Jennifer M. - - 2004
REFERENCE: Phillips AM, Smart C, Groom AFG. Acromioclavicular dislocation: conservative or surgical therapy. Clin Orthop. 1998;353:10-17. CLINICAL QUESTION: Among patients with acromioclavicular (AC) dislocation, does surgical intervention produce better outcomes than conservative therapy? DATA SOURCES: Studies were identified by a MEDLINE search (1966-1997) and a manual search of the reference ...
Farag S S - - 2004
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) remains a significant cause of late morbidity and mortality following allogeneic stem cell transplantation. However, patients with chronic GvHD are very heterogeneous, making evaluation and treatment difficult. Corticosteroids remain the most effective primary treatment of this condition. Randomized trials have not confirmed the beneficial effect of ...
Powell Pauline - - 2004
BACKGROUND: An earlier trial demonstrated good outcomes after 1 year for patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) who received an educational intervention designed to encourage graded activity. AIMS: To determine 2-year outcomes for the same treated patients and the response to treatment of patients formerly in the control condition. METHOD: ...
Thomas Elaine - - 2004
BACKGROUND: In randomised clinical trials (RCTs), outcome may be influenced by the opinions of the participants about the efficacy of treatments. AIM: To examine how initial treatment preferences of participants in a shoulder pain trial affected functional outcome and future treatment preferences. DESIGN OF STUDY: Observational cohort study nested within ...
Koreny Maria - - 2004
CONTEXT: Arterial puncture closing devices (APCDs) were developed to replace standard compression at the puncture site and to shorten bed rest following percutaneous coronary intervention. OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and efficacy of APCDs (Angioseal, Vasoseal, Duett, Perclose, Techstar, Prostar) compared with standard manual compression in patients undergoing coronary angiography ...
Griffiths, Rhonda
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this systematic review was to determine the effect of the timing of removal of indwelling urethral catheters (IUCs) on the duration to and volume of first void, length of hospitalization, number of patients developing urinary retention and requiring recatheterization, patient satisfaction, and the percentage of IUCs ...
C. Riley Nelson
Within the genus Capnia, the Capnia californica species group is demonstrated to be monophyletic and limited in zoogeographic distribution to western North America. A new species, Capnia kersti, is described. It is remarkable in coming from central Oregon, well north of the known range of all other closely related members ...
Gaur, P.M.
JGK 1, a new large-seeded, short-duration, high-yielding kabuli chickpea cultivar for Central India, was derived from a 3-way cross (ICCV 2 x Surutato 77) x ICC 7344 made at ICRISAT, Patancheru, India, during the 1987/88 season. On an average, it gave 9.5% higher yield over the control cultivar L 550, ...
Rosenberger William F - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Response-adaptive randomization procedures have a long history in the theoretical statistics literature over the past four decades. The main idea historically was to develop randomization procedures that place fewer patients on the inferior treatment. More recent research has changed the main focus to that of usual considerations in typical ...
Krupinski Elizabeth A - - 2004
We retrospectively reviewed the follow-up and outcomes of 50 store-and-forward teledermatology patients, and compared the findings with those from a control group of 50 patients who had been seen in person. Patient records were examined for a six-month period following the initial referral to a dermatologist. Variables examined included medical ...
Schwartzberg Lee S - - 2004
An important clinical question is the relative efficacy of the most common dosages of darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp; Amgen Inc.; Thousand Oaks, CA) 200 microg every 2 weeks (Q2W) and epoetin alfa (Procrit; Ortho Biotech Products, LP; Raritan, NJ) 40,000 U weekly (QW) for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced anemia. We designed ...
Hartling L - - 2004
Graduated driver licensing (GDL) has been proposed as a means of reducing crash rates among novice drivers by gradually introducing them to higher risk driving situations. To examine the effectiveness of GDL systems in reducing crash rates of young drivers. Studies were identified through searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Healthstar, ...
Kranke P - - 2004
Chronic wounds are common and present a health problem with significant effect on quality of life. The wide range of therapeutic strategies for such wounds reflects the various pathologies that may cause tissue breakdown, including poor blood supply resulting in inadequate oxygenation of the wound bed. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) ...
Fransen M - - 2004
Heterotopic bone formation (HBF) in the soft tissues surrounding the hip joint is a frequent complication of hip surgery. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) administered in the immediate perioperative period reduce the risk of HBF. However, the magnitude of the effect on HBF, and the effects on other associated outcomes, such ...
Jesus E C - - 2004
There is little agreement on prophylactic use of drains in anastomoses in elective colorectal surgery despite many randomized clinical trials. Results of these trials are contradictory, quality and statistical power of these individual studies have been questioned. Once anastomotic leakage has occurred it is generally agreed that drains should be ...
Wallen M - - 2004
Cardiac tamponade may occur following cardiac surgery as a result of blood or fluid collecting in the pericardial space compressing the heart and reducing cardiac output. Mediastinal chest drains (including pericardial drains) are inserted as standard post-operative practice following cardiac surgery to assist the clearance of blood from the pericardial ...
Adhikari N - - 2004
Multiple pharmacologic treatments have been studied for acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Our objective was to determine the effects of pharmacologic treatments on clinical outcomes in adults with ALI or ARDS. We searched OVID versions of CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2003), MEDLINE (1966 ...
Mtitimila E I - - 2004
Early acquired infection may cause severe illness or death in the neonatal period. Prompt treatment with antibiotics has shown to reduce mortality. It is not clear which antibiotic regimen is suitable for treatment of presumed early neonatal sepsis. To compare effectiveness and adverse effects of antibiotic regimens for treatment of ...
Rerkasem K - - 2004
Carotid endarterectomy reduces the risk of stroke in people with recently symptomatic, severe carotid artery stenosis. However, there are significant perioperative risks which may be lessened by performing the operation under local rather than general anaesthetic. The aim of this review was to assess the risks of endarterectomy under local ...
Parker M J - - 2004
The majority of people with hip fracture are treated surgically, requiring anaesthesia. To compare different types of anaesthesia for surgical repair of hip fractures (proximal femoral fractures) in adults. We searched the Cochrane Musculoskeletal Injuries Group specialised register (November 2003), MEDLINE (1996 to February week 2 2004), EMBASE (1988 to ...
Alderson P - - 2004
Induced hypothermia has been used in the treatment of head injury for many years. Encouraging results from small trials and laboratory studies led to renewed interest in the area and some larger trials. To estimate the effects of mild induced hypothermia in moderate and severe head injury on mortality, long-term ...
Crystal E - - 2004
Post-operative atrial fibrillation is a common complication of cardiac surgery and has been associated with increased incidence of other complications including post-operative stroke, increased hospital length of stay and increased cost of hospitalisation. Prevention of atrial fibrillation is a reasonable clinical goal and, consequently, many randomised trials have evaluated the ...
Ayub K - - 2004
Early endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography with or without endoscopic sphincterotomy (ERCP+/-ES) has been advocated to reduce complications in patients presenting with a severe attack of gallstone-associated acute pancreatitis (GAP). However, a recent trial has reported contradictory results. Importantly, patients with acute cholangitis were excluded suggesting it may be a major confounding ...
Coats T - - 2004
Uncontrolled bleeding is an important cause of death in trauma victims. Antifibrinolytic treatment has been shown to reduce blood loss following surgery and may also be effective in reducing blood loss following trauma. To quantify the effect of antifibrinolytic drugs in reducing blood loss, transfusion requirement and mortality after acute ...
He L - - 2004
Bell's palsy or idiopathic facial palsy is an acute facial paralysis due to inflammation of the facial nerve. A number of studies published in China have suggested acupuncture is beneficial for facial palsy. The objective of this review was to examine the efficacy of acupuncture in hastening recovery and reducing ...
Hartling L - - 2004
Bronchodilators are commonly used in the management of bronchiolitis. A recent systematic review showed that bronchodilators produce modest short-term benefit among patients with mild or moderate bronchiolitis. To compare epinephrine versus placebo and other bronchodilators in infants less than 2 years of age with bronchiolitis. Electronic searches were conducted on ...
Chande N - - 2004
Collagenous colitis is a disorder that is recognized as a cause of chronic diarrhea. Treatment has been based mainly on anecdotal evidence. This review was performed to identify therapies for collagenous colitis that have been proven in randomized trials. To determine effective treatments for patients with clinically active collagenous colitis. ...
Holdgate A - - 2004
Renal colic is a common cause of acute severe pain. Both opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are recommended for treatment, but the relative efficacy of these drugs is uncertain. To examine the benefits and disadvantages of NSAIDs and opioids for the management of pain in acute renal colic. We ...
Munari L - - 2004
Some clinical data have shown that glatiramer acetate (Copaxone), a synthetic amino acid polymer empirically found to suppress experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, might help improve the outcome of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). We performed a Cochrane review of all randomised, placebo-controlled trials of glatiramer ...
Worthington H V - - 2004
Treatment of cancer is increasingly effective but associated with short and long-term side effects. Oral side effects, including oral mucositis (mouth ulceration), remain a major source of illness despite the use of a variety of agents to treat them. To assess the effectiveness of interventions for treating oral mucositis or ...
Villanueva E - - 2004
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) consists of intermittently administering 100% oxygen at pressures greater than 1 atmosphere in a pressure vessel. This technology has been used to treat a variety of disease states and has been described as helping patients who have sustained burns. The aim of this review was to ...
Rinkel G J E - - 2004
Secondary ischaemia is a frequent complication after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH), and responsible for a substantial proportion of patients with poor outcome after SAH. The cause of secondary ischaemia is unknown, but hypovolaemia and fluid restriction are important risk factors. Therefore, volume expansion therapy (hypervolaemia) is frequently used in patients ...
Watson L I LI Cochrane PVD Group, University of Edinburgh, Dept of Public Health Sciences, Teviot Place, Edinburgh, UK, EH3 9AG. - - 2004
Standard treatment for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) aims to reduce immediate complications. Use of thrombolysis or clot dissolving drugs could reduce the long-term complications of post-thrombotic syndrome (pain, swelling, skin discolouration, or venous ulceration) in the affected leg. To determine the efficacy and safety of thrombolysis for DVT. Publications describing ...
McDonald S S Australasian Cochrane Centre, Monash University, Monash Medical Centre, Locked Bag 29, Clayton, Victoria, - - 2004
Hip or knee replacement is a major surgical procedure which can be physically and psychologically stressful for patients. It is hypothesised that education before surgery reduces anxiety and enhances postoperative outcomes. To determine whether preoperative education improves postoperative outcomes (anxiety, pain, mobility, length of stay and the incidence of deep ...
Pasquina Patrick - - 2003
To assess whether respiratory physiotherapy prevents pulmonary complications after cardiac surgery. Searches through Medline, Embase, Cinahl, the Cochrane library, and bibliographies, for randomised trials comparing any type of prophylactic respiratory physiotherapy with another type or no intervention after cardiac surgery, with a follow up of at least two days, and ...
Dunning Joel - - 2003
A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was, what is the optimal dose of aspirin post cardiac surgery that should be given to prevent graft occlusion and prolong survival. Altogether, 114 papers were found from Medline and 59 papers were ...
Tian L - - 2003
Suppose that the response variable in a well-executed clinical or observational study to evaluate a treatment is the time to a certain event, and a set of baseline covariates or predictors was collected for each study patient. Furthermore, suppose that a significant number of study patients had nontrivial, long-term adverse ...
Bhandari Mohit - - 2004
INTRODUCTION: There have been a number of non-randomized studies comparing arthroplasty with internal fixation in patients with femoral neck fractures. However, there remains considerable debate about whether the results of non-randomized studies are consistent with the results of randomized, controlled trials. Given the economic burden of hip fractures, it remains ...
Haynes G R - - 2003
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The advantages of albumin over less costly alternative fluids continue to be debated. Meta-analyses focusing on survival have been inconclusive, and other clinically relevant end-points have not been systematically addressed. We sought to determine whether albumin confers significant clinical benefit in acute illness compared with other fluid ...
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