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Results 351 - 400 of 836
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Taylor E W - - 1994
The controversy over the route of administration of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing elective colorectal operations persists for oral, parenteral, and a combination of the two routes. The oral antibiotics commonly administered for colorectal prophylaxis, neomycin and eythromycin base, are not absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). However, the 4-fluoroquinolones ...
Dilworth J P - - 1994
Patients who smoke heavily and those with pre-existing airflow obstruction are at particular risk of postoperative respiratory infection following upper abdominal surgery. This invariably prolongs hospital stay and increases morbidity. In order to determine whether high dose bronchodilator therapy in the perioperative period reduced the risk of infection, all patients ...
Grandis J R - - 1994
This prospective, randomized trial was designed to determine the efficacy and mechanism of action of topical mouthwash versus parenterally administered perioperative prophylactic antibiotics in contaminated head and neck surgery. Patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: 1 day of parenteral clindamycin (standard prophylaxis), 1 day of topical ...
Angel J V - - 1994
The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of outpatient intravenous (IV) therapy with a third-generation cephalosporin, cefotaxime, in patients > or = 60 years of age and to determine its effect on length of hospital stay. Subset analysis was performed with 62 patients with various ...
Foot A B - - 1994
Prophylaxis against toxoplasmosis with weekly administration of pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine (Fansidar) was assessed for efficacy and toxicity in bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients over a 21 month period. Sixty-nine of 90 consecutive seropositive patients were evaluable. Fansidar was administered from the time of established engraftment (median day 40, range days 13-100). Medication ...
Lapointe R W - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: To compare the safety, tolerance and prophylactic effectiveness of a single 2-g dose of cefotetan with a standard prophylactic regimen of cefoxitin in reducing the incidence of postoperative infections after elective, open biliary tract surgery. DESIGN: Multicentre, double-blind, randomized comparative study with a 4-week follow-up. SETTING: Five Canadian university ...
Barboza E - - 1994
BACKGROUND: A prospective, randomized, single-blind study evaluated the efficacy and safety of clindamycin plus amikacin versus clindamycin plus aztreonam (Cl-Az) in treating intraabdominal infections in adults. METHODS: Patients were treated intravenously for 7 to 10 days, clindamycin 900 mg plus amikacin 5.0 mg/kg three times a day or clindamycin 900 ...
Ho K K - - 1994
The objectives of this study were: (a) to assess whether treatment outcome with gentamicin in pediatric oncology patients could be improved by a pharmacy based therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) service that included pharmacokinetic interpretation; and (b) to describe the challenges in comparing treatment outcome from a prospective to a retrospective ...
Black J R - - 1994
The objective of this prospective, noncomparative study was to assess the safety and efficacy of clindamycin and primaquine therapy for mild-to-moderate pneumocystis pneumonia (defined as a difference of < 40 mm Hg between the alveolar and the arterial oxygen determinations) in patients with AIDS. In the first part of the ...
Madden M V - - 1994
Metronidazole has been used to treat pouchitis, but there are no controlled data that show it is effective. Chronic unremitting pouchitis is a form of the disorder particularly difficult to manage. Diarrhea is the main symptom of pouchitis, which results from acute inflammation of the mucosa of an ileal reservoir. ...
Lloyd C J - - 1994
Metronidazole, used for prevention and treatment of infections in oral and maxillofacial surgery is frequently prescribed three times daily, but research into its pharmacokinetics has shown that a twelve hourly dosage regimen achieves and maintains therapeutic serum concentrations. No clinical data is available to support this and consequently a single ...
Nygaard K - - 1994
Patients with pouchitis usually respond to oral metronidazole treatment, but side effects of the treatment are common. Eleven patients with pouchitis were given local treatment by instillation of metronidazole in doses of 40-160 mg daily into the reservoir. The effects of the treatment on the bacterial flora and short-chain fatty ...
Morris W T - - 1994
A controlled randomized trial with blind assessment of end results is described comparing the efficacy of 1 g of intravenous ceftriaxone at induction of anesthesia with 1 g of intravenous cefoxitin (three times) administered every 8 hours starting at induction in preventing pulmonary and wound infection after upper abdominal operations. ...
Graf W - - 1994
Fifty patients were randomized to receive adjuvant intraperitoneal 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, 500 mg/m2/day) and intravenous leucovorin (60 mg/m2/day) and 51 to receive placebo after curative surgery for colorectal cancer. Treatment started on the day after surgery and continued for 6 days. One case of stomatitis, one of leucopenia and one case ...
Brook I - - 1994
The aerobic and anaerobic microbiology and management of 69 children who had chronic suppurative otitis media were studied retrospectively. A total of 188 isolates (103 anaerobic and 85 aerobic) were recovered. Anaerobic organisms alone were isolated from 11 (16%), aerobic bacteria only in 21 (30%) and mixed aerobic and anaerobic ...
Bernard A - - 1994
The aim of this study was to determine whether a 48-hour antibiotic prophylaxis regimen with a second-generation cephalosporin was more efficient than a flash antibiotic prophylaxis regimen in pulmonary operations. All the included patients underwent lung resection. Patients with preoperative infection were excluded. All the patients were given cefuroxime (1.5 ...
Knowles S - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: To report a case of a possible hypersensitivity reaction induced by metronidazole. CASE SUMMARY: An Asian woman with a history of recurrent vaginitis had previously developed localized erythema while on intravaginal metronidazole and nystatin. While receiving oral metronidazole for treatment of a current bacterial vaginosis, she developed chills, fever, ...
Salam I M - - 1994
A randomized prospective study of antibiotic prophylaxis using a single dose of either cefoxitin or piperacillin is presented. The trial was carried out in Al Ain Hospital in the period 1989-1992 on 250 adult patients with non-perforated appendicitis. One group (124 patients) received 2 g cefoxitin, the other group (126 ...
McGregor J A - - 1994
In a series of three double-blind, controlled, clinical studies, the efficacy and safety of a single 1 gram dose of ceftizoxime were compared with those of a standard regimen, three 2 gram doses of cefoxitin, for prophylaxis of perioperative infection in women undergoing abdominal or vaginal hysterectomy. Two hundred and ...
Garcia P - - 1994
Purulent otorrhea is the most common complication of tympanostomy tube (TT) insertion. It may occur in the postoperative period or at any time during the sojourn of the tube. The efficacy of topical antimicrobial prophylaxis against purulent postoperative otorrhea (PPO) has been examined in 5 prospective, randomized studies; all demonstrated ...
Fast C - - 1994
We conducted a prospective randomized trial to compare the efficacy of oral gentamicin versus oral IgA-IgG for the prophylaxis of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC); 200 newborns considered at high risk for NEC were assigned to group A (oral IgA-IgG, n = 100) or group B (oral Gentamicin, n = 100). NEC ...
Paiement G D - - 1994
Antibioprophylaxis has been proven to be efficient for some orthopaedic procedures. However, its efficacy for clean limited procedures with metallic implants is not clear. One hundred twenty-two closed ankle fracture patients undergoing open reduction and internal fixation were randomized, double-blindly, to receive either cephalothin (1 g i.v. every 6 h ...
Mauerhan D R - - 1994
The efficacy of cefuroxime was compared with the efficacy of cefazolin for prophylaxis against postoperative wound infection in a prospective, double-blind, multicenter study of 1354 patients who had had elective primary or revision total hip or knee arthroplasty. The patients were randomly assigned to receive either 1.5 grams of cefuroxime ...
Hotz G - - 1994
The clinical efficacy of short-term antimicrobial prophylaxis with either one shot of ceftriaxone (1 g) or a course of 3 injections of a fixed combination of mezlocillin (2 g) and oxacillin (1 g) administered over 24 h was studied in a prospective randomized clinical study of 100 patients undergoing elective ...
de Lalla F - - 1993
Twenty-four patients undergoing monolateral or bilateral total knee replacement (TKR) procedures were randomized to receive teicoplanin (T) either systemically or regionally. Subjects scheduled for systemic prophylaxis and undergoing monolateral (six patients) or bilateral (five patients) TKR received a single 800-mg dose of T in 100 ml of saline as a ...
Fejgin M D - - 1993
OBJECTIVES: To assess prospectively the efficiency and safety of two extended spectrum cephalosporins used as pre-operative prophylaxis in nonelective cesarean sections, and compare the results to those of a third group of patients that received cefamezine post cord clamping. METHODS: Two hundred and forty one patients undergoing a nonscheduled cesarean ...
Tollemar J - - 1993
Invasive fungal infection is a problem in patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation (BMT). To determine if a liposomal formulation of amphotericin B (Ambisome) is safe and can prevent fungal infection we performed a placebo controlled double-blind randomized prophylactic trial. Study drug was administered from when neutrophil count had decreased to ...
Viitanen J - - 1993
We studied 599 evaluable patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy at 7 urological units. Before transurethral prostatectomy the patients were randomized into 3 groups: group 1--197 patients given single-dose ceftriaxone (2 gm.), group 2--203 patients given 160/800 mg. trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole and group 3--199 controls given no antimicrobial prophylaxis. Patients with a preoperative ...
Stovall T G - - 1993
Seventy-seven patients were prospectively enrolled in a randomized clinical trial to compare two antimicrobial regimens for the treatment of post-cesarean section endometritis. The two groups were not significantly different with respect to age, race, gravidity, parity, hours in labor, cesarean section indication, preoperative or postoperative hemoglobin/hematocrit, pretreatment white blood cell ...
Sjölin J - - 1993
The aim of the present investigation was to prospectively study the clinical and bacteriologic outcome of 15 consecutive patients with brain abscesses who were treated with surgical excision and cefotaxime (3 g every 8 hours) plus metronidazole (0.5 g every 8 hours) for at least 3 weeks. The patients were ...
Hall J C - - 1993
This clinical trial, which was composed of 1,031 adults undergoing cardiac operations, compared the efficacy of a single dose of 1 g of ceftriaxone with a 48-our regimen consisting of flucloxacillin and gentamicin. There was no significant difference (p = 0.89) in the overall incidence of major infections: 30 of ...
Rombo L - - 1993
One hundred and five healthy nonimmunes in Colombia took part in a randomize, double-blind comparison of 250 mg of Lariam (L) (active ingredient: mefloquine) on alternate weeks or one tablet of Fansidar (F) (active ingredients: sulfadoxine and pyrimethamine) weekly for malaria prophylaxis during at least six months. Volunteers also gave ...
Pons V G - - 1993
In a prospective, randomized, blinded study, 826 patients undergoing clean neurosurgical procedures received single intravenous doses of ceftizoxime (2 g) (n = 422) or a combination of vancomycin (1 g) and gentamicin (80 mg) (n = 404) 1 hour before an incision was made. Patients with infected or contaminated wounds ...
Matikainen M - - 1993
A single dose preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis of ceftriaxone 2 g and tinidatsole 500 mg was compared with netilmycin (150 mg) or tobramycin (80 mg) in patients undergoing colorectal surgery by a prospective randomised single-blind trial. There were 628 patients from seven Finnish hospitals. The wound infection rate of 3% in ...
McCormack W M - - 1993
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cefotaxime is a third-generation cephalosporin that has in vitro activity against Neisseria gonorrhoeae, including beta-lactamase-producing strains. A single 1-g intramuscular dose is effective and is recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as an alternative treatment for uncomplicated gonorrhea. GOAL OF THIS STUDY: This study ...
Fischbach F - - 1993
To compare the efficacy and tolerance with 2% clindamycin vaginal cream versus oral metronidazole for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind study in which patients were randomly assigned to one of the following two regimens in a 1:1 ratio: clindamycin phosphate vaginal cream 2% (5 ...
Dhar K K - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a single dose (2 g) of tinidazole before abdominal hysterectomy could reduce the incidence of postoperative infection. METHOD: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was undertaken with a single oral dose (2 g) of tinidazole, 12 h before surgery, in 100 patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy for various ...
Wathne B - - 1993
Of 101 women, 15-50 years of age, presenting with vaginal discharge, 34 had bacterial vaginosis and were randomly assigned to a seven-day course of oral treatment with either erythromycin (0.5 g b.i.d.) or metronidazole (0.4 g b.i.d.) in a single-blind, cross-over study. Treatment failure (> or = three clinical signs ...
Romanelli V A - - 1993
OBJECTIVES: In response to an increased frequency of Staphylococcus epidermidis infections in postoperative cardiac surgery patients, antibiotic prophylaxis was changed to include both vancomycin and cefazolin pre- and intraoperatively. Subsequent to the addition of vancomycin prophylaxis, clinical impression and retrospective analysis supported a correlation between vancomycin administration and post-cardiopulmonary bypass ...
Sajben P - - 1993
In a retrospective study the incidence of infections, number of afebrile days, duration of antimicrobial chemotherapy, and cost of antibacterials and antimycotics were compared in two groups of patients. One was a group of 57 patients who received no prophylaxis during induction remission therapy of acute leukemia treated in 1989-1990, ...
van der Linden M C - - 1993
A prospective, randomized, open study was performed in 199 patients at the Leyenburg Hospital comparing amoxycillin/clavulanate (AMX/CL) with cefuroxime plus metronidazole (CR/MN) in the prophylaxis of infection following gynaecological surgery. AMX/CL was given as a single dose of 2200 mg i.v. at the start of the operation. CR/MN, 750/500 mg ...
Link H - - 1993
Following BMT there is a 5-15% risk of interstitial pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis carinii (PcP). Cotrimoxazole is therefore administered prophylactically, but may cause myelodepression, allergic reactions and nephrotoxicity. As PcP prophylaxis with pentamidine aerosol is effective in patients with AIDS, we conducted a prospective trial with regular inhalations of pentamidine. ...
Rohwedder R - - 1993
From 1983 until 1990 our standard antibiotic prophylaxis in colorectal surgery has been 80 mg gentamicin plus 500 mg metronidazole, both administered intravenously at the beginning of anesthesia, and then 80 mg gentamicin every 8 h for 3 days. In this time period, 718 patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery by ...
Fingerhut A - - 1993
Patients undergoing elective left colectomy for colonic carcinoma or diverticulosis (n = 341) were randomly assigned to three groups. Patients in groups 1 (102 patients) and 2 (122 patients) had two 5% povidone-iodine enemas whereas those in group 3 (117 patients) had saline enemas. Groups 1 and 3 received 24-hour ...
Garland S M - - 1993
A case of pelvic actinomycosis is described which occurred in association with the use of an intrauterine device (IUD). Initially medical management alone was used, but surgical intervention was necessitated for multiple pelvic abscesses. We would strongly recommend that any IUD be removed should it be associated with actinomyces on ...
Rolando N - - 1993
To compare the efficacy of a selective parenteral and enteral antimicrobial regimen in patients with fulminant liver failure, we classified 104 patients on reaching grade II encephalopathy as infected or non-infected. Patients who were infected were randomly assigned to receive IV cefuroxime (group 1) or selective parenteral and enteral antimicrobial ...
Sims E H - - 1993
The therapeutic efficacy and safety of piperacillin (4.5 g, every 6 hours) were compared with combined gentamicin (80 mg, every 8 hours) and metronidazole (500 mg every 6 hours) therapy in 246 patients hospitalized for penetrating abdominal injuries. Sixty-five patients had penetrating injury of the colon, rectum, or terminal ileum. ...
Galbraith U - - 1993
With the intention of reducing prophylactic antibiotic dosage, previous studies in the Zurich University Hospital have shown that a one/day prophylactic antimicrobial regimen with cefazolin was as effective as a single dose of ceftriaxone. In this prospective randomized study one day cefazolin prophylaxis (1 g q 8 h i.v.) was ...
Martín-Luengo F - - 1993
A randomized study compared the efficacy of a single dose of lomefloxacin given orally vs. cefuroxime given intravenously for prophylaxis against urinary tract infection in patients who were undergoing transurethral surgery. Patient groups were demographically similar; 25 received 400 mg lomefloxacin orally 2-6 h before surgery and 26 received 1.5 ...
Mayer H O - - 1993
A prospective, randomized study comparing single dose intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis with multiple-dose regimen in patients undergoing radical surgery for gynecologic malignancy was carried out. The majority of patients had cervical cancer. Thirty-seven patients in group A received one dose of 4 g piperacillin and 800 mg tinidazole 30 minutes before ...
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