Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 828
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Kavakli K - - 1997
Prophylaxis has been practiced for many years in Europe and is gaining acceptance worldwide with current viral inactivation procedures. Unfortunately, the high cost of prophylaxis is currently the major obstacle to its implementation in developing countries such as Turkey. The aim of this controlled preliminary study is to evaluate the ...
Li J T - - 1997
We conducted a randomized, open-label, controlled, multicenter study to compare sulbactam/cefoperazone with cefotaxime in terms of efficacy and safety for the treatment of hospitalized patients with moderate-to-severe bacterial infections. More than two-thirds of the pathogens recovered from these patients produced beta-lactamase. Two hundred-seven (88.1%) of the 235 patients enrolled completed ...
Houang E T - - 1997
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is no certain cure available for patients suffering from recalcitrant trichomoniasis. Zinc sulfate is reported to have antitrichomonal properties. We report our experience in treating four patients empirically with a combination of zinc sulfate douche and metronidazole. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective case analysis. Patients who presented ...
Rutten H J - - 1997
Preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis is known to significantly reduce the incidence of postoperative wound infection in elective colorectal surgery, and is a recognized part of surgical management. Antibiotics are usually given systemically or orally, or by a combination of the two routes. Local antibiotic delivery to the wound site using an ...
Bracero L A - - 1997
The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of a single intravenous dose of 1 g ampicillin plus 0.5 g sulbactam to a single intravenous dose of 1 g cefotetan in the prevention of postoperative infection following cesarean delivery in high-risk patients. In this single-center comparative ...
Jemsek J G - - 1997
Objective: The safety and efficacy of ampicillin plus sulbactam were compared with those of cefoxitin in the treatment of women with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID).Methods: This single-site, randomized, prospective, third-party-blinded, comparative, parallel-treatment study enrolled 93 women with a diagnosis of PID. Patients were treated with either ampicillin/sulbactam (2 g/1 g, ...
van Duijkeren E - - 1996
Twenty horses, ponies, and foals referred with acute diarrhoea were divided at random into two treatment groups. One group was treated intravenously with trimethoprim/ sulfadiazine and the other group with ampicillin/gentamicin. Both groups were given the same standardized symptomatic therapy. All animals were evaluated clinically and 5 variables (general impression, ...
Gyssens I C - - 1996
Following a one-month prospective study of antimicrobial drug use in surgical departments, new guidelines were implemented. The review was repeated after two years. In both study periods, one third of patients were prescribed antimicrobial drugs. Prophylactic antibiotic consumption decreased from 0.75 to 0.53 defined daily doses/operation. Compliance with guidelines improved ...
Kempf P - - 1996
In an open, randomised, multicentre trial, the efficacy and tolerability of empirical meropenem monotherapy (1 g intravenously every 8 hours) and cefotaxime (2 g every 8 hours) plus metronidazole (0.5 g intravenously every 8 hours) for 5 to 10 days was compared in 94 patients with serious intra-abdominal infection who ...
Ueberall M A - - 1996
Conventional and quantitative aspects of electroencephalographic recordings obtained during a follow-up surveillance study in long-term survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood were investigated with respect to differences in central nervous system prophylaxis given during antileukemic therapy and compared with data derived from healthy controls. Central nervous system prophylaxis consisted ...
Redding P J - - 1996
Following the recommendations of a previous audit, specific objectives were chosen for reaudit. The aim was to measure the adherence to agreed protocols for the use of prophylactic antimicrobial agents; including the use of the once only part of the Kardex and to measure the adherence to protocols for the ...
Saha S K - - 1996
In a prospective study, 182 consecutive patients were included for the treatment of intraabdominal sepsis with adjuvant metronidazole lavage that was carried out at the end of the operative procedures. Eighty of them underwent emergency surgery for peritonitis and 102 elective surgery for a variety of lesions. Although fecal peritonitis ...
Ewig S - - 1996
Aerosolized pentamide is a well-tolerated primary prophylaxis regimen for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. It is now commonly administered for prolonged periods. We therefore studied the effect of long-term inhalation on breakthrough PCP. We recorded clinical, immunological, radiological and microbiological data, as well as therapy ...
Malfair S C - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To characterize cefuroxime and cefuroxime axetil use under the influence of a parenteral-to-oral (iv-po) stepdown program. DESIGN: Open single-center retrospective review. SETTING: Tertiary care teaching and referral Canadian hospital with 1100 beds. PATIENTS: A random sample of 78 patients receiving cefuroxime was compared with a random sample of 50 ...
Kurz X - - 1996
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the current practice of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis in Belgium. DESIGN: Prospective multicentre incidence study. SETTING: 58 of the 206 acute hospitals in Belgium. SUBJECTS: 19746 patients who had operations between October 1992 and June 1993, with detailed analysis of 7983 procedures for which the antimicrobial regimens were ...
Kramer W B - - 1996
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if the prevalence of neonatal and maternal infectious morbidity in patients with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM) who received ampicillin prophylaxis for presemptive group B streptococcal colonization is increased compared to those who received no prophylaxis.Methods: The charts of all ...
Sobel J D - - 1996
We sought to compare the efficacy of metronidazole gel vs. triple-sulfa cream in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV). In a double-blinded study, 247 women with symptomatic BV were randomly assigned to receive either 5 g of 0.75% metronidazole gel twice daily for 5 days or triple-sulfa cream twice daily ...
Zhao J Z - - 1995
An open label study was conducted in the department of neurosurgery, Beijing Tiantan Hospital in China to determine the incidence of postoperative infections following the use of one or two doses of ceftriaxone administered perioperatively. A total of 343 patients, who required neurosurgery and had satisfied the inclusion criteria, was ...
Lewis R T - - 1995
BACKGROUND: The incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) after clean surgical procedure has traditionally been regarded as too low for routine antibiotic prophylaxis. But we now know that host factors may increase the risk of SSI to as high as 20%. We assessed the value of prophylactic cefotaxime in patients ...
Söderquist-Elinder C - - 1995
544 children operated upon for uncomplicated appendicitis were randomised into three groups. Group I received no antibiotics, patients in Group II were administered one single pre-operative dose of metronidazole (10 mg/kg) and patients in Group III received both both metronidazole (20 mg/kg) and cefuroxime (50 mg/kg) in a single preoperative ...
Grant S W - - 1995
Toward the completion of elective colorectal operations, 75 patients had qualitative aerobic and anaerobic cultures of specimens obtained from peritoneal irrigation fluid, anastomoses sites, and abdominal wound irrigation fluid to determine if a correlation exists between intraoperative flora and postoperative infectious complications. Patients enrolled in this prospective study received a ...
Wilcox M H - - 1995
One hundred patients, known to have been excreting Clostridium difficile cytotoxin in faeces, were reviewed retrospectively to determine the response time for treatment with oral metronidazole and vancomycin, and the effect of the additional administration of anti-motility agents. Records were available for 78 patients of whom 58 had received treatment ...
Brewster S F - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical and microbiological outcome of a single-dose administration of cefuroxime or combined piperacillin/tazobactam (PT) after transrectal prostatic core-biopsy (TPB) in a prospective, randomized, open-label study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Of 111 eligible men consecutively undergoing ultrasonographically guided TPB, 56 received 1.5 g cefuroxime and 55 received 4.5 ...
Rijhsinghani A - - 1995
To study the effectiveness of anaerobic coverage in prevention of postpartum endometritis in women undergoing nonelective cesarean sections, we conducted a randomized prospective double-blind study of women undergoing cesarean sections and requiring antibiotic prophylaxis from April 1, 1989, through December 31, 1990. Ninety-four patients were enrolled in the study. Forty-five ...
Shyr Y M - - 1995
BACKGROUND: Concerned about the inactivation of piperacillin by beta-lactamase and the risk of aminoglycoside-induced nephrotoxicity and clindamycin-induced enterocolitis, we conducted the following phase III clinical trial. METHODS: Between November 1991 and March 1993, 77 surgical patients with intraabdominal infections were enrolled and randomly assigned in a 3:2 ratio to receive ...
McArdle C S - - 1995
A total of 169 patients undergoing colorectal surgery were randomly allocated to receive either gentamicin plus metronidazole or oral ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole as prophylaxis; they were also allocated to receive cover for 1 or 3 days. Twenty-eight patients (17 per cent) developed postoperative wound infections. The proportion of patients with ...
Rutgeerts P - - 1995
BACKGROUND/AIMS: New lesions recur within weeks to months after ileal resection and ileocolonic anastomosis for Crohn's ileitis. A double-blind controlled trial was performed using metronidazole to prevent recurrence after ileal resection. METHODS: Sixty patients who underwent curative ileal resection and primary anastomosis were included within 1 week after surgery. Thirty ...
Ballow Charles H. - - 1995
Seventy patients with intraabdominal infections were randomly assigned in double-blinded fashion to receive either the combination of tobramycin plus clindamycin (TM/C) or aztreonam plus clindamycin (AZ/C). Thirty-four patients received AZ/C and 36 were given TM/C. Average ages were 62 years (TM/C) and 66 years (AZ/C). In approximately one-half of both ...
Stevenson P - - 1995
The duration of prophylaxis provided by isometamidium chloride and homidium bromide, each at a dose rate of 1 mg kg-1 bodyweight, was compared in a 12-month field trial involving groups of 30 zebu cattle in south-west Kenya. The trial took place between February 1990 and February 1991 and included several ...
Byl B - - 1995
We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of antibiotic prophylaxis before diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in 82 uninfected patients with cholestasis due to biliary tree obstruction of single or multiple causes. The patients were assigned to receive piperacillin (4 g) or placebo three times daily; prophylaxis was ...
Bergquist S O - - 1995
In a Swedish multicenter, comparative, retrospective study, patients with different types of infections--bacteremia-septicemia, genitourinary, intra-abdominal, central nervous system, and lower respiratory tract infections--were randomly selected from the hospital records. Patients treated with cefotaxime twice or three times a day as monotherapy (excluding metronidazole) for at least 1 day (240 cases) ...
Tin L Y - - 1995
A retrospective analysis of the clinical and economic outcome of a regimen of cefotaxime 1 g given every 12 h was conducted following the introduction of an institutional policy recommending this new dosing strategy. Patients were identified from a log order entry in the pharmacy, and the medical records were ...
Mortensen J - - 1995
Gentacoll (Schering-Plough A/S, DK-3520 Farum, Denmark) implant is a biologically absorbable collagen with gentamicin, which enables local use of gentamicin in an abscess cavity. PURPOSE: To increase healing rate in treatment of perianal abscess with primary suture, the effect of intraoperative parenteral clindamycin and Gentacoll was investigated against monotherapy with ...
Jauregui L - - 1995
Fifty-three hospitalized patients suffering from lower respiratory tract infections were evaluated in a randomized, comparative trial studying the safety and efficacy of ampicillin/sulbactam (2 g ampicillin plus 1 g sulbactam intravenously every 6 h) versus cefotaxime (2 g intravenously every 6 h). Thirty-four of the 36 and 16 of the ...
Chan J C - - 1995
This randomized, double-blind study compared 1 g of ampicillin plus 0.5 g of sulbactam with 0.5 g of cefazolin in the treatment of cellulitis and with 1 g of cefoxitin in other skin and skin-structure infections. Study drugs were administered intravenously every 6 hours to 58 hospitalized patients. Each indication ...
Søndenaa K - - 1995
BACKGROUND: Treatment of chronic pilonidal sinus with excision and primary suture is followed by a relatively high proportion of wound infections. The role of preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in improving results is not clear. STUDY DESIGN: One hundred fifty-three patients with chronic pilonidal sinus were operated on with radical excision and ...
Stewart M - - 1995
Antibiotics used for prophylaxis in elective colorectal surgery should be effective against the organisms contaminating the soft tissues and isolated from postoperative infections. These are usually the enterobacteriaceae commensal to the colon. However, staphylococcal and anaerobic infections are not uncommon. Piperacillin has been used as antibiotic prophylaxis and been shown ...
Tollemar J - - 1995
Eighty-six consecutive liver transplant recipients were prospectively randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled antifungal prophylaxis study. Seventy-seven patients received 5 days of prophylaxis starting during the transplantation with either liposomal amphotericin B (AmBisome) 1 mg/kg/day or placebo. Among 40 AmBisome-treated patients, no invasive Candida infection was seen during the first month, ...
Jauregui L - - 1995
This was a randomized, prospective, parallel study of the efficacy and safety of ampicillin/sulbactam (2 g/1 g) and cefotaxime (2 g), administered intravenously every 6 hours, in 53 hospitalized patients with lower respiratory tract infections. Thirty-four of the 36 patients treated with ampicillin/sulbactam and 16 of the 17 patients treated ...
Claesson B E - - 1995
We evaluated a bacterial culture system for the assessment of surgical performance during colorectal operations, and for assessing the impact of selective postoperative antibiotics in contaminated cases. Surgically related infections were recorded and their risk factors were estimated, using univariate and multivariate methods, in 1079 patients undergoing elective colorectal operations. ...
Liebergall M - - 1995
A double-blind, prospective randomized study was performed to compare cefazolin and cefonicid given for prophylaxis to 102 patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. Risk factors (e.g., age, sex, type of operation performed) among the two groups were similar. All patients had foreign material (prosthesis or other hardware) inserted at operation. There was ...
Chatwani A - - 1995
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy and safety of cefmetazole given by IV push with that of parenterally administered cefoxitin for the treatment of endometritis following cesarean delivery. METHODS: In a single-blind, multicenter, prospective, randomized study, 355 patients with endometritis after cesarean delivery were ...
Taylor E W - - 1994
The controversy over the route of administration of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing elective colorectal operations persists for oral, parenteral, and a combination of the two routes. The oral antibiotics commonly administered for colorectal prophylaxis, neomycin and eythromycin base, are not absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). However, the 4-fluoroquinolones ...
Dilworth J P - - 1994
Patients who smoke heavily and those with pre-existing airflow obstruction are at particular risk of postoperative respiratory infection following upper abdominal surgery. This invariably prolongs hospital stay and increases morbidity. In order to determine whether high dose bronchodilator therapy in the perioperative period reduced the risk of infection, all patients ...
Grandis J R - - 1994
This prospective, randomized trial was designed to determine the efficacy and mechanism of action of topical mouthwash versus parenterally administered perioperative prophylactic antibiotics in contaminated head and neck surgery. Patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups: 1 day of parenteral clindamycin (standard prophylaxis), 1 day of topical ...
Angel J V - - 1994
The purpose of this study was to determine the safety and efficacy of outpatient intravenous (IV) therapy with a third-generation cephalosporin, cefotaxime, in patients > or = 60 years of age and to determine its effect on length of hospital stay. Subset analysis was performed with 62 patients with various ...
Foot A B - - 1994
Prophylaxis against toxoplasmosis with weekly administration of pyrimethamine/sulfadoxine (Fansidar) was assessed for efficacy and toxicity in bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients over a 21 month period. Sixty-nine of 90 consecutive seropositive patients were evaluable. Fansidar was administered from the time of established engraftment (median day 40, range days 13-100). Medication ...
Lapointe R W - - 1994
OBJECTIVE: To compare the safety, tolerance and prophylactic effectiveness of a single 2-g dose of cefotetan with a standard prophylactic regimen of cefoxitin in reducing the incidence of postoperative infections after elective, open biliary tract surgery. DESIGN: Multicentre, double-blind, randomized comparative study with a 4-week follow-up. SETTING: Five Canadian university ...
Barboza E - - 1994
BACKGROUND: A prospective, randomized, single-blind study evaluated the efficacy and safety of clindamycin plus amikacin versus clindamycin plus aztreonam (Cl-Az) in treating intraabdominal infections in adults. METHODS: Patients were treated intravenously for 7 to 10 days, clindamycin 900 mg plus amikacin 5.0 mg/kg three times a day or clindamycin 900 ...
Ho K K - - 1994
The objectives of this study were: (a) to assess whether treatment outcome with gentamicin in pediatric oncology patients could be improved by a pharmacy based therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) service that included pharmacokinetic interpretation; and (b) to describe the challenges in comparing treatment outcome from a prospective to a retrospective ...
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