Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 828
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Karthaus M - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infections are an increasing cause of morbidity in acute leukemia (AL) patients. METHODS: In a prospective pilot trial, the safety and efficacy of antifungal prophylaxis with intravenous (i.v.) amphotericin B (AMB; 1 mg/kg every 48 h) was studied in 46 consecutive cycles. Prophylaxis with i.v. AMB was ...
Bucknell S J - - 2000
BACKGROUND: This study was carried out to determine if single-dose antimicrobial prophylaxis is sufficient for cardiac surgery. METHODS: The study was a prospective non-randomized trial of 353 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Group A (n = 151) received 48 h of prophylaxis and Group B (n = 202) received a ...
Hayashi H - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Although postoperative infections continue to be a major problem in gynecologic surgery, there is still no consensus on the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis. METHODS: This prospective randomized trial was conducted to investigate the prevention of major operating site infections after nonlaparotomy surgery, with treatment regimens as follows: the first ...
Wenisch C - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Cancer surgery is known to lead to a deterioration in host defence mechanisms and an increase in susceptibility to infection after operation. Filgrastim enhances important antimicrobial functions of neutrophils including chemotaxis, phagocytosis and oxidative killing mechanisms. METHODS: The effects of additional (all patients received perioperative 3 ' 25 mg ...
Aron M - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis on infective complications after transrectal needle biopsy of the prostate. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between June 1996 and September 1998, 231 patients who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria entered the study; the patients were randomized into three groups. Each patient underwent transrectal ...
Ychou M - - 2000
Delayed diarrhea is the main toxicity of irinotecan at the currently recommended dose of 350 mg/m2 30-minute intravenous infusion, once every 3 weeks. This phase II, multicenter, open-label, randomized study was primarily designed to evaluate the effect of a 15-day Tiorfan (racecadotril) treatment on the incidence and severity of irinotecan-induced ...
Bailey C M - - 2000
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of laparostomy in the management of patients with severe intra-abdominal infection resulting from colorectal disease. METHODS: Seven patients, four with inflammatory bowel disease, two with colorectal carcinoma, and one with diverticular perforation, underwent laparostomy during a six-year period for ...
Zijderveld S A - - 1999
PURPOSE: This study evaluated the need for antibiotic prophylaxis in orthognathic surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-four patients (age range, 18 to 40 years) underwent bimaxillary orthognatic surgery. After randomization, a placebo (n = 19), 2,200 mg amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (n = 18), or 1,500 mg cefuroxime (n = 17) was administered ...
Brook I - - 1999
The objective of the review was to study the aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of subphrenic abscesses in relation with predisposing conditions. A retrospective review of clinical and laboratory data of 52 patients treated between 1974 and 1988 was conducted. Forty-three (83%) patients developed the abscesses after an operative procedure. These ...
Dormann A J - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). METHODS: An open prospective, randomised, multicenter study was conducted in 141 patients; 72 received ceftriaxone 1 g i.v. 30 min preintervention, and 69 received no study medication. A standardized protocol was ...
Preclik G - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of antibacterial prophylaxis in preventing infectious complications after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. DESIGN: Prospective, randomised, placebo controlled, double blind, multicentre study. SETTING: Departments of internal medicine at six German hospitals. SUBJECTS: Of 106 randomised adult patients with dysphagia, 97 received study medication, and 84 completed the ...
Schmidt-Matthiesen A - - 1999
This study was designed to compare the clinical efficacy of a single dose of ceftriaxone with cefoxitin given 3 times a day for 3 days. METHODS: Patients had to have a penetrating injury to only one part of the body, reach the hospital within 2 h and be operated on ...
Ohlin B - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of piperacillin/tazobactam compared with cefuroxime/metronidazole in the treatment of patients with intra-abdominal infections. DESIGN: Randomised open study. SETTING: 16 Swedish and 6 Norwegian hospitals. SUBJECTS: 269 patients with intra-abdominal infections were randomised and treated with at least one dose of each study drug. 205 patients, ...
Dellinger E P - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Postoperative infections remain common after high-risk gastrointestinal procedures. PGG-glucan (Betafectin; Alpha Beta Technology Inc, Worcester, Mass), derived from yeast cell walls, promotes phagocytosis and intracellular killing of bacterial pathogens by leukocytes, prevents infection in an animal model of wound infection, and acts synergistically with antibiotics to reduce mortality in ...
Kress H G - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a commercial immunoglobulin (Ig) A- and IgM-enriched immunoglobulin preparation containing high antibody titers against various human pathogens in the prevention of postoperative infections in anergic patients undergoing cardiac surgery. DESIGN: A single-center, prospective, double-blind, randomized study comparing the effect of a polyvalent intravenous human ...
Warkentin D - - 1999
To determine the safety of single daily dose (SDD) gentamicin in recipients of stem cell transplantation (SCT), we evaluated all adult patients at MD Anderson Cancer Center who received SDD gentamicin for treatment of febrile neutropenia. Thirty-three patients received gentamicin 5 mg/kg i.v. every 24 h. Mean duration of therapy ...
Higgins A - - 1999
HYPOTHESIS: Prophylactic antibiotic treatment in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy does not lower the already low infection rate associated with this procedure. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective double-blind randomized trial at a community-based training hospital. PATIENTS: Four hundred fifty patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized into 1 of 3 treatment arms: (1) ...
Thomas R - - 1999
Postoperative infectious complications after breast surgery may result in significant morbidity, psychological trauma, and additional costs. We assessed the efficacy of preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis for surgery in a randomized, double-blind trial of 1,766 patients undergoing breast surgery. From January 1, 1996 to August 31, 1997, all eligible patients were assigned ...
Farkas H - - 1999
PURPOSE: This study evaluated the efficacy of short-term danazol prophylaxis in hereditary angioedema patients undergoing maxillofacial or dental procedures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twelve patients with a history of edema after dental procedures were administered danazol (600 mg/d) 4 days preoperatively and 4 days postoperatively. The serum levels of complement components ...
Kester R C - - 1999
A total of 272 patients were enrolled into this prospective, unblinded, randomized comparison of single-dose teicoplanin vs three doses of cephradine plus metronidazole as prophylaxis for vascular surgery at St James's and Seacroft Hospitals, Leeds, UK. In all, 71.3% of patients (194/272) were enrolled at St James's University Hospital. Patients ...
Davey P - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To compare achievement of previously agreed standards for administration of antibiotic prophylaxis for surgical patients in the three acute trusts in Tayside. SETTING: Angus, Dundee Teaching Hospitals and Perth & Kinross Trusts. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Administration of antibiotic prophylaxis and achievement of three general standards of administration. STUDY DESIGN: ...
Augot D - - 1999
Single-miracidium infections of Lymnaea truncatula by Fasciola hepatica were experimentally carried out to identify the redial generations of this trematode when the larval development was unusual (when the first-appearing mother redia, or R1a redia, died after its exit from the sporocyst). Four parameters were measured in the body and pharyngeal ...
Akgun Y - - 1999
Amebiasis and amebic liver abscess (ALA) continue to be a major fatal disease in developing countries where unhygienic environmental conditions prevail. Between January 1975 and December 1984 there were 60 patients and from January 1985 to December 1994 there were 44 patients with ALA who were diagnosed and treated. In ...
Lin L - - 1999
PURPOSE: Previous studies have reported an association between bacterial vaginosis (BV) and postoperative fever and infection. This prospective study investigated whether the intermediate or definite stages of BV are risk factors for postoperative infection after major gynecologic surgery. METHODS: Vaginal cultures were obtained preoperatively from 175 women undergoing gynecologic surgery. ...
Kapoor K - - 1999
Metronidazole is an antimicrobial, antiprotozoal agent that has been widely used in the treatment of a variety of infections. Some therapeutic indications necessitate prolonged treatment with metronidazole. Peripheral neuropathy is a potential metronidazole-induced toxicity, which has been reported in only a few isolated retrospective studies. This prospective study was designed ...
Milsom J W - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Alatrofloxacin, the prodrug of trovafloxacin, is a novel fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agent with a broad spectrum, including activity against gram-positive and gram-negative aerobes and anaerobes. Its pharmacokinetic properties (long half-life, excellent tissue distribution, and good safety profile) suggest a role in surgical prophylaxis. This prospective, multicenter, double-blind trial compared alatrofloxacin ...
Brumfitt W - - 1998
Case records from 219 female patients between 1975 and 1992 who were given long-term prophylaxis (1 year) with nitrofurantoin for the prevention of recurrent urinary infections have been reviewed. Patients' age ranged from 9 to 89 years (median 31-35 years, mode 26-30 years); most (61%) were < 40 years old. ...
Song F - - 1998
BACKGROUND: A systematic review was carried out to assess the relative efficacy of antimicrobial prophylaxis for the prevention of postoperative wound infection in patients undergoing colorectal surgery. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Trials Register and the references cited in retrieved studies were searched to identify relevant trials published between 1984 ...
Newton E R - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of prophylactic antibiotics on endometrial and endocervical microflora upon diagnosis of postcesarean endometritis. METHODS: The medical records of patients enrolled in open-label comparative trials of therapeutic antibiotics for postpartum endometritis between 1989 and 1994 were reviewed (n = 682). Endometritis was diagnosed by a standard ...
Pietrantoni M - - 1998
Objective: The primary objective of this prospective, randomized, clinical study was to compare the safety, clinical and microbiologic efficacy, and cost of oral ofloxacin in combination with clindamycin vs intravenous (IV) clindamycin/gentamicin in the early empiric treatment for hospitalized patients with mild to moderate postpartum endomyometritis. The secondary objective is ...
Jernigan J A - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that use of disposable thermometers would result in lower rates of nosocomial Clostridium difficile diarrhea and of total nosocomial infections, compared with electronic thermometers. DESIGN: Prospective randomized crossover trial. SETTING: A 700-bed university hospital providing primary and tertiary care. PATIENTS: All patients admitted to a ...
Madhavan H N - - 1998
The aim of this study was to determine the bacterial growth inhibitory activities of ampicillin in aqueous humor and serum of patients administered ampicillin-sulbactam combination intramuscularly prior to cataract surgery. 43 patients received a combination of both antibiotics intramuscularly at varying periods (60-140 minutes) prior to surgery. Aqueous humor and ...
Nankivell B J - - 1998
While oral ganciclovir (OGCV) has been used as primary prophylaxis in patients at high risk for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection after solid organ transplantation, its value in secondary prophylaxis is unknown. We have examined the use of OGCV as maintenance therapy following confirmed CMV infection on 16 occasions in 15 patients, ...
Jaspers C A - - 1998
In this multicenter study, the efficacy of and tolerability for meropenem were compared with those for the combination of cefuroxime-gentamicin (+/- metronidazole) for the treatment of serious bacterial infections in patients > or = 65 years of age. A total of 79 patients were randomized; thirty-nine received meropenem (1 g/8 ...
Rastegar L A - - 1998
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatic cirrhosis is a common, chronic disease. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is a dangerous complication, which must be treated as soon as it has been diagnosed. This usually requires hospitalization of the patient and parenteral antibiotic therapy for 10 to 14 days. The present study was carried out to ...
Cleary R K - - 1998
PURPOSE: Antibiotics suppress normal gut flora, allowing overgrowth of acquired or native Clostridium difficile, with release of toxins that cause mucosal inflammation. Oral metronidazole is used to treat antibiotic-associated colitis (pseudomembranous colitis). This study was designed to determine whether oral metronidazole, as part of preoperative bowel preparation, prevents or decreases ...
Nyirjesy P - - 1998
Vaginal trichomoniasis poses a difficult therapeutic challenge when metronidazole is ineffective or contraindicated. We conducted a retrospective study of 6.25% paromomycin cream in the treatment of nine women referred with cases of vaginal trichomoniasis where metronidazole resistance or allergy was present. Results obtained immediately and 1 month after treatment were ...
Morlet N - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Although peri-operative prophylaxis to prevent endophthalmitis is commonly practised by ophthalmologists, no one method has clearly been demonstrated to be more effective than another. We surveyed 570 Fellows of the Royal Australian College of Ophthalmologists to determine what their methods of prophylaxis were and whether these differed for patients ...
Carapeti E A - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Haemorrhoidectomy is commonly an inpatient procedure because patients and doctors worry about postoperative pain. Day-case haemorrhoidectomy (DCH) is possible if patient anxiety is addressed and postoperative pain and bowel function are managed. Pain sometimes increases a few days after haemorrhoidectomy, possibly because of secondary infection. We studied the effect ...
Henriksson L - - 1998
METHODS: In a randomized double-blind study, 134 patients were given 500 mg metronidazole as an intravenous infusion immediately before operation for abdominal total hysterectomy and again 8 hours later and 124 patients received placebo. RESULTS: There was more wound infection, postoperative hospitalization was longer and the sedimentation rate on the ...
Moesgaard F - - 1998
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: To study the potential effect of ranitidine on postoperative infectious complications following emergency colorectal surgery. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial was carried out in three university clinics and two county hospitals in Denmark. PATIENTS AND TREATMENT: One hundred and ninety-four consecutive patients undergoing acute colorectal surgery for ...
Kriaras I - - 1997
BACKGROUND: A prospective, randomised study was conducted among 1009 cardiac surgery patients in order to compare the prophylactic efficacy of a second generation cephalosporin (cefuroxime) given as single shot, versus a broad spectrum double regimen (amoxycillin-netilmicin). METHODS: Cefuroxime received 501 patients (Group A), while a 4-day combination of amoxycillin-netilimicin 508 ...
Kumarakrishnan S - - 1997
A three year prospective randomised study was undertaken to study the efficacy of three regimens of antimicrobial drug combinations in reducing postoperative wound sepsis in acute appendicitis. Group A--Metronidazole and gentamicin; Group B--Metronidazole and ciprofloxacin; Group C--Metronidazole and cefotaxime. Randomization was done by drawing from a set of sealed envelopes. ...
Shubing W - - 1997
From January 1991 to July 1995, 260 patients with acute appendicitis were operated on. After excluding 21 patients, the remaining 239 cases were randomly divided into two groups. Group A was given the treatment and group B was the control group. Precisely 0.915 g metronidazole disodium phosphate injection (Tongzhen Pharmaceutical ...
Niederhäuser U - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: In a prospective, randomized study, postoperatively prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis is evaluated in a high-risk group of patients undergoing cardiac operations. These patients had postoperative low cardiac output necessitating inotropic support and intraaortic balloon pumping. METHODS: Between January 1991 and 1994, 53 patients were enrolled in the study (42 men, ...
Johnson J T - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Patients requiring major oncologic head and neck surgery are at high risk for postoperative wound infection when the surgical site is contaminated by secretions from the upper aerodigestive tract. Studies to identify agents active in the prevention of postoperative wound infection may serve to reduce patient morbidity. METHODS: Patients ...
Mehtar S - - 1997
We conducted a prospective, multi-centre, open, randomized study in 11 UK hospitals to compare iv meropenem 1 g tds with the combination of iv cefotaxime 1 g tds and iv metronidazole 500 mg tds in patients with serious infections. One hundred and sixty-one patients were enrolled, of whom 131 were ...
Rodrigo J P - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Although appropriate perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis has significantly reduced wound infection rates in clean-contaminated head and neck surgical procedures, controversy still remains regarding the optimal antibiotic regimen. METHODS: In this prospective, double-blind clinical trial, 159 patients were randomized to receive amoxicillin-clavulanate, clindamycin plus gentamicin, or cefazolin intravenously up to 1/2 ...
MacGowan A P - - 1997
We conducted a prospective observational study on the medical management and health service resource utilization associated with the hospital care of patients with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infection. Between January 1994 and June 1995, 28 such patients developed Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea; these 28 patients were matched with 56 age-matched patients, ...
Huam S H - - 1997
This prospective, randomised, controlled trial was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis in decreasing the infectious morbidity following elective caesarean section. Two hundred women undergoing elective caesarean section were randomly assigned to receive either 1.2 g of Augmentin intravenously, or no treatment, just before the start of ...
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