Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 850
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Paradiso-Hardy Fran L - - 2002
To characterize national and regional patterns of antimicrobial prophylaxis in adult cardiac surgery across Canada. Retrospective, cross-sectional analysis. Thirty-three adult cardiac surgical centres across Canada. A one-page questionnaire collecting information regarding institutional demographics and antimicrobial prophylaxis regimens for adult cardiac surgical procedures was mailed to all adult surgical centres across ...
Rojas de Morales T - - 2001
Mucositis, gingivitis, herpetic stomatitis and candidiasis are a potential source of systemic infection in patients undergoing chemotherapy. Their severity and incidence may be reduced with procedures based on the prevention and elimination of sources causing oral infection and irritation. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness ...
Fischer K - - 2001
A cohort study was performed to assess adherence to early prophylactic therapy and its effects on outcome in 49 patients with severe haemophilia born 1970-1980. Median age at start of prophylaxis was 5.5 years. The majority (69%) of patients interrupted prophylactic treatment one or more times of their own accord ...
Mittelkötter U - - 2001
The objective of the present multicenter observational study was to assess postoperative infections as a function of risk factors and antibiotic prophylaxis under everyday clinical conditions. 2513 patients from 114 centers in Germany who received infection prophylaxis prior to elective colonic resection were included in the study between 1st September ...
Sobel J D - - 2001
Treatment of patients with metronidazole-refractory vaginal trichomoniasis constitutes a major therapeutic challenge, and treatment options are extremely limited. Although the majority of patients infected with trichomonads, who demonstrate reduced in vitro susceptibility to metronidazole, respond to high-dose but poorly tolerated regimens of metronidazole, clinical failure is by no means uncommon. ...
Maltezou H C - - 2001
The efficacy of piperacillin/tazobactam at 100/12.5 mg/kg every 8 h (35 patients) was compared to cefotaxime plus metronidazole at 50/7.5 mg/kg every 8 h (35 patients) in 70 children with intra-abdominal infections requiring surgery. Diagnoses were gangrenous or perforated appendicitis (n =56), peritonitis (n =12), and abscess (n =2). Clinical ...
Zhu X L - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The use of prophylactic antibiotics has been shown to decrease the rate of surgical-site infections after clean neurosurgical operations, although previous clinical trials have provided no evidence that one antibiotic is superior to another for this purpose. OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to compare the rates of postoperative infectious ...
Svenungsson B - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To study the detection rate of Clostridium difficile cytotoxin B in stool specimens from adults with diarrhea as related to previous antimicrobial treatment. METHODS: Stool specimens from 802 adult patients with diarrhea and 203 healthy controls were tested for C. difficile cytotoxin B using a cell cytotoxicity assay. Antibiotic ...
- - 2001
(1) The reference prophylaxis of attacks of hereditary angioneurotic oedema is oral danazol, an androgenic steroid, which takes a few days to act. There was previously no curative treatment authorised in France. (2) C1 esterase inhibitor is now licensed in France as replacement therapy for patients with hereditary angioneurotic oedema ...
Viscoli C - - 2001
Published data have suggested a correlation between antifungal prophylaxis and bacteremia in febrile neutropenia. This correlation was investigated among 3002 febrile neutropenic patients enrolled in 4 trials during 1986-1994. Globally, 1322 patients (44%) did not receive antifungal prophylaxis; 835 (28%) received poorly absorbable antifungal agents and 845 (28%) received absorbable ...
Webb J C - - 2001
To evaluate the efficacy of metronidazole versus no treatment for the empiric treatment of inflammatory cytologic changes. Patients with inflammatory changes on Pap smear were serially assigned to receive no treatment or metronidazole by one of three regimens: 2 grams orally as a single dose, 500 milligrams orally twice daily ...
Pedraza-Avilés A G - - 2001
Treatment options for bacterial vaginosis are numerous, however for urinary tract infection (UTI) by Gardnerella vaginalis have been not reported. Our purpose was to compare the efficacy and treatment complications of oral metronidazole versus oral ampicillin for treatment of this condition in a prospective randomized, nonblinded study. Fifty-seven women who ...
Kolben M - - 2001
A prospective, randomized study was performed in order to evaluate the effect of cefotiam in the prevention of postoperative infectious morbidity in patients undergoing low-risk elective cesarean section. A total of 146 patients were randomly assigned to receive either intraoperative single-shot prophylaxis with 2 g cefotiam (study group, n =76) ...
Rowles D M - - 2000
PURPOSE: To describe our evaluation of basic trainees exposed to influenza A and our experience with mass prophylaxis. METHODS: Using a structured interview, 101 individuals were evaluated for symptoms of influenza A. Nasopharyngeal wash specimens were obtained from symptomatic troops; amantadine prophylaxis was prescribed for all. Diagnosis was confirmed using ...
Yoda T - - 2000
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether oral levofloxacin was as effective as intravenous cefazolin sodium for preventing postoperative infections in patients undergoing sagittal split ramus osteotomy of the mandible. METHODS: Forty-four patients were randomized to treatment with levofloxacin or cefazolin sodium. Levofloxacin (100 mg t.d.s.) was administered orally, and cefazolin sodium (1 ...
Kirton O C - - 2000
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the safety and therapeutic efficacy of a 24-hour versus 5-day course of ampicillin/sulbactam for the prevention of postoperative infections in high-risk patients sustaining hollow viscus injury from penetrating abdominal trauma. METHODS: A total of 317 patients from four Level I trauma ...
Rodriguez J C - - 2000
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: An increased incidence of post-surgical infectious complications in children admitted with a diagnosis of perforated appendicitis led to development of a disease-specific antibiogram and modification of our post-operative antibiotic regimen. METHODS: A historical control group comprised of 32 pediatric patients receiving ampicillin, gentamicin, and clindamycin (group AGC) ...
Cavcić J - - 2000
AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of metronidazole in combination with corticosteroids in enema and mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid) in comparison with the same protocol without metronidazole in the treatment of chronic radiation proctitis. METHODS: Sixty patients with rectal bleeding and diarrhea were randomly divided into two groups. Patients in the first ...
Farello G A - - 2000
This study is one of the first in the literature with the aim of assessing the effectiveness of antimicrobial prophylaxis with a single preoperative dose of long-acting ceftriaxone in a retrospective analysis of 3,603 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. All patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy between October 1990 and December 1997 ...
Mecchia P - - 2000
A comparative study of 103 consecutive patients who required antibiotic prophylaxis for elective colorectal surgery was carried out. All eligible patients received either ceftriaxone (2 g) as a single intravenous dose at anesthetic induction or cefazolin (1 g) plus clindamycin (0.6g) administered intravenously at anesthetic induction and for two more ...
Summers A N AN Medical College of Wisconsin, Department of Surgery, Milwaukee, USA. - - 2000
This two-part study consisted of: (1) a survey to assess current practice patterns, and (2) an experiment designed to assess the results of varying intraoral preparations. A 48 percent response rate was obtained from the survey of the 318 active members of the American Society of Maxillofacial Surgeons. This survey ...
Büyük A Y - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Oral metronidazole has been reported to be effective in some patients with idiopathic lichen planus (LP) who did not have concomitant protozoal infections of the intestinal or genital tracts. OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to evaluate the efficacy of this drug in the treatment of generalized LP. METHODS: Nineteen patients ...
Karthaus M - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Invasive fungal infections are an increasing cause of morbidity in acute leukemia (AL) patients. METHODS: In a prospective pilot trial, the safety and efficacy of antifungal prophylaxis with intravenous (i.v.) amphotericin B (AMB; 1 mg/kg every 48 h) was studied in 46 consecutive cycles. Prophylaxis with i.v. AMB was ...
Bucknell S J - - 2000
BACKGROUND: This study was carried out to determine if single-dose antimicrobial prophylaxis is sufficient for cardiac surgery. METHODS: The study was a prospective non-randomized trial of 353 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Group A (n = 151) received 48 h of prophylaxis and Group B (n = 202) received a ...
Hayashi H - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Although postoperative infections continue to be a major problem in gynecologic surgery, there is still no consensus on the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis. METHODS: This prospective randomized trial was conducted to investigate the prevention of major operating site infections after nonlaparotomy surgery, with treatment regimens as follows: the first ...
Wenisch C - - 2000
BACKGROUND: Cancer surgery is known to lead to a deterioration in host defence mechanisms and an increase in susceptibility to infection after operation. Filgrastim enhances important antimicrobial functions of neutrophils including chemotaxis, phagocytosis and oxidative killing mechanisms. METHODS: The effects of additional (all patients received perioperative 3 ' 25 mg ...
Aron M - - 2000
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of antibiotic prophylaxis on infective complications after transrectal needle biopsy of the prostate. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between June 1996 and September 1998, 231 patients who satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria entered the study; the patients were randomized into three groups. Each patient underwent transrectal ...
Ychou M - - 2000
Delayed diarrhea is the main toxicity of irinotecan at the currently recommended dose of 350 mg/m2 30-minute intravenous infusion, once every 3 weeks. This phase II, multicenter, open-label, randomized study was primarily designed to evaluate the effect of a 15-day Tiorfan (racecadotril) treatment on the incidence and severity of irinotecan-induced ...
Bailey C M - - 2000
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of laparostomy in the management of patients with severe intra-abdominal infection resulting from colorectal disease. METHODS: Seven patients, four with inflammatory bowel disease, two with colorectal carcinoma, and one with diverticular perforation, underwent laparostomy during a six-year period for ...
Zijderveld S A - - 1999
PURPOSE: This study evaluated the need for antibiotic prophylaxis in orthognathic surgery. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-four patients (age range, 18 to 40 years) underwent bimaxillary orthognatic surgery. After randomization, a placebo (n = 19), 2,200 mg amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (n = 18), or 1,500 mg cefuroxime (n = 17) was administered ...
Brook I - - 1999
The objective of the review was to study the aerobic and anaerobic microbiology of subphrenic abscesses in relation with predisposing conditions. A retrospective review of clinical and laboratory data of 52 patients treated between 1974 and 1988 was conducted. Forty-three (83%) patients developed the abscesses after an operative procedure. These ...
Dormann A J - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). METHODS: An open prospective, randomised, multicenter study was conducted in 141 patients; 72 received ceftriaxone 1 g i.v. 30 min preintervention, and 69 received no study medication. A standardized protocol was ...
Preclik G G Medizinische Universitätsklinik und Poliklinik, D-89070 Ulm, - - 1999
To determine the efficacy of antibacterial prophylaxis in preventing infectious complications after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy. Prospective, randomised, placebo controlled, double blind, multicentre study. Departments of internal medicine at six German hospitals. Of 106 randomised adult patients with dysphagia, 97 received study medication, and 84 completed the study. The median age ...
Schmidt-Matthiesen A - - 1999
This study was designed to compare the clinical efficacy of a single dose of ceftriaxone with cefoxitin given 3 times a day for 3 days. METHODS: Patients had to have a penetrating injury to only one part of the body, reach the hospital within 2 h and be operated on ...
Ohlin B - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of piperacillin/tazobactam compared with cefuroxime/metronidazole in the treatment of patients with intra-abdominal infections. DESIGN: Randomised open study. SETTING: 16 Swedish and 6 Norwegian hospitals. SUBJECTS: 269 patients with intra-abdominal infections were randomised and treated with at least one dose of each study drug. 205 patients, ...
Dellinger E P - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Postoperative infections remain common after high-risk gastrointestinal procedures. PGG-glucan (Betafectin; Alpha Beta Technology Inc, Worcester, Mass), derived from yeast cell walls, promotes phagocytosis and intracellular killing of bacterial pathogens by leukocytes, prevents infection in an animal model of wound infection, and acts synergistically with antibiotics to reduce mortality in ...
Kress H G - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a commercial immunoglobulin (Ig) A- and IgM-enriched immunoglobulin preparation containing high antibody titers against various human pathogens in the prevention of postoperative infections in anergic patients undergoing cardiac surgery. DESIGN: A single-center, prospective, double-blind, randomized study comparing the effect of a polyvalent intravenous human ...
Warkentin D - - 1999
To determine the safety of single daily dose (SDD) gentamicin in recipients of stem cell transplantation (SCT), we evaluated all adult patients at MD Anderson Cancer Center who received SDD gentamicin for treatment of febrile neutropenia. Thirty-three patients received gentamicin 5 mg/kg i.v. every 24 h. Mean duration of therapy ...
Higgins A - - 1999
HYPOTHESIS: Prophylactic antibiotic treatment in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy does not lower the already low infection rate associated with this procedure. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective double-blind randomized trial at a community-based training hospital. PATIENTS: Four hundred fifty patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized into 1 of 3 treatment arms: (1) ...
Thomas R - - 1999
Postoperative infectious complications after breast surgery may result in significant morbidity, psychological trauma, and additional costs. We assessed the efficacy of preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis for surgery in a randomized, double-blind trial of 1,766 patients undergoing breast surgery. From January 1, 1996 to August 31, 1997, all eligible patients were assigned ...
Farkas H - - 1999
PURPOSE: This study evaluated the efficacy of short-term danazol prophylaxis in hereditary angioedema patients undergoing maxillofacial or dental procedures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twelve patients with a history of edema after dental procedures were administered danazol (600 mg/d) 4 days preoperatively and 4 days postoperatively. The serum levels of complement components ...
Kester R C - - 1999
A total of 272 patients were enrolled into this prospective, unblinded, randomized comparison of single-dose teicoplanin vs three doses of cephradine plus metronidazole as prophylaxis for vascular surgery at St James's and Seacroft Hospitals, Leeds, UK. In all, 71.3% of patients (194/272) were enrolled at St James's University Hospital. Patients ...
Davey P - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To compare achievement of previously agreed standards for administration of antibiotic prophylaxis for surgical patients in the three acute trusts in Tayside. SETTING: Angus, Dundee Teaching Hospitals and Perth & Kinross Trusts. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Administration of antibiotic prophylaxis and achievement of three general standards of administration. STUDY DESIGN: ...
Augot D - - 1999
Single-miracidium infections of Lymnaea truncatula by Fasciola hepatica were experimentally carried out to identify the redial generations of this trematode when the larval development was unusual (when the first-appearing mother redia, or R1a redia, died after its exit from the sporocyst). Four parameters were measured in the body and pharyngeal ...
Akgun Y - - 1999
Amebiasis and amebic liver abscess (ALA) continue to be a major fatal disease in developing countries where unhygienic environmental conditions prevail. Between January 1975 and December 1984 there were 60 patients and from January 1985 to December 1994 there were 44 patients with ALA who were diagnosed and treated. In ...
Lin L - - 1999
PURPOSE: Previous studies have reported an association between bacterial vaginosis (BV) and postoperative fever and infection. This prospective study investigated whether the intermediate or definite stages of BV are risk factors for postoperative infection after major gynecologic surgery. METHODS: Vaginal cultures were obtained preoperatively from 175 women undergoing gynecologic surgery. ...
Kapoor K - - 1999
Metronidazole is an antimicrobial, antiprotozoal agent that has been widely used in the treatment of a variety of infections. Some therapeutic indications necessitate prolonged treatment with metronidazole. Peripheral neuropathy is a potential metronidazole-induced toxicity, which has been reported in only a few isolated retrospective studies. This prospective study was designed ...
Milsom J W - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Alatrofloxacin, the prodrug of trovafloxacin, is a novel fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agent with a broad spectrum, including activity against gram-positive and gram-negative aerobes and anaerobes. Its pharmacokinetic properties (long half-life, excellent tissue distribution, and good safety profile) suggest a role in surgical prophylaxis. This prospective, multicenter, double-blind trial compared alatrofloxacin ...
Brumfitt W - - 1998
Case records from 219 female patients between 1975 and 1992 who were given long-term prophylaxis (1 year) with nitrofurantoin for the prevention of recurrent urinary infections have been reviewed. Patients' age ranged from 9 to 89 years (median 31-35 years, mode 26-30 years); most (61%) were < 40 years old. ...
Song F - - 1998
BACKGROUND: A systematic review was carried out to assess the relative efficacy of antimicrobial prophylaxis for the prevention of postoperative wound infection in patients undergoing colorectal surgery. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Trials Register and the references cited in retrieved studies were searched to identify relevant trials published between 1984 ...
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