Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 836
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Wullt Marlene - - 2004
OBJECTIVES: Few treatment options are currently available to treat patients suffering from an initial episode of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective, randomized controlled, double-blind trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of fusidic acid and metronidazole for treatment of patients experiencing a first episode of CDAD. ...
Nicholson Thomas J - - 2004
INTRODUCTION: Oral metronidazole has been previously demonstrated to decrease postoperative pain after open diathermy hemorrhoidectomy. The current study investigates the efficacy of topical metronidazole (10 percent) in reducing postoperative pain and promoting wound healing after Harmonic Scalpel hemorrhoidectomy. METHODS: A prospective, randomized trial was conducted to compare posthemorrhoidectomy pain and ...
Boulanger L Lucy - - 2004
Streptomycin, an antimicrobial with limited availability, is the treatment of choice for plague, a fulminating and potentially epidemic disease that poses a bioterrorism concern. We evaluated the efficacy of gentamicin and tetracyclines for treating human plague. A medical record review was conducted on all 75 patients with plague who were ...
Allewelt M - - 2004
Aspiration pneumonia, necrotising pneumonia and primary lung abscess are complications arising from the aspiration of infectious material from the oral cavity or stomach. There is limited information on optimal antibacterial therapeutic regimens. Patients with pulmonary infection following aspiration (n = 95) were included in a prospective, open, randomised, comparative multicentre ...
Esposito Silvano - - 2004
To investigate possible differences in prophylaxis with ceftriaxone compared with other antimicrobial agents for surgical-site infections and remote infections such as respiratory tract infections (RTIs) and urinary tract infections (UTIs). The efficacy of ceftriaxone was compared with that of other antibiotics in the perioperative prophylaxis of local (surgical wound) and ...
Cormio G - - 2003
Numerous studies have been published in recent years about antimicrobial prophylaxis in gynecologic surgery, but the optimal drug and schedule for the different surgical procedures is still a matter of debate. The aim of the present study was to compare two ultra-short term antimicrobial prophylaxis regimens (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cefazolin) ...
Lindeboom Jerome A H - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: A pilot study was conducted to assess the efficacy of a single-dose preoperative prophylactic of the penicillin pheneticillin compared with placebo in the antibiotic prophylaxis of surgical wound infections in intra-oral bone grafting procedures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty patients (age range 20-45 years) underwent an intra-oral buccal onlay graft ...
Cormio Gennaro - - 2003
BACKGROUND: To compare amoxicillin-clavulanic acid with cefazolin as ultra-short-term prophylaxis in laparotomic gynecologic surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective randomized study was conducted to compare two antimicrobial regimens in surgical prophylaxis of laparotomic surgery. Patients were randomly allocated to receive amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (2.2 g) [Group A] or cefazolin (2 g) ...
Harbarth Stephan - - 2003
PURPOSE: To examine the effect of inappropriate initial antimicrobial therapy on the prognosis of patients with sepsis who were enrolled in a clinical trial of an immunomodulating agent conducted in 108 hospitals in North America and Europe. METHODS: We assessed initial antimicrobial choice and results of microbiologic cultures in 904 ...
Sandoe J A T - - 2003
Intravascular catheter-related infections (CRI) account for one third of nosocomial bloodstream infections in England. UK Department of Health guidelines state that antibiotic prophylaxis is not required during placement, or use of, central venous catheters, to prevent CRI. However, some clinicians continue to use antibiotics in an attempt to prevent CRI. ...
Mansour-Ghanaei Fariborz - - 2003
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of metronidazole in patients who did not cure after treatment with triclabendazole, in Guilan (Northern Province of Iran). MATERIAL/METHODS: Patients, who passed fasciola egg in stool and had positive serum anti fasciola antibody (ELISA), at least three months after ...
Butler Regina B - - 2003
A survey was conducted to ascertain practice patterns for haemophilia A therapy in the United States. Questionnaire data were supplied by 52 haemophilia centres with a total of 4129 patients under treatment. Most participating centres were affiliated with academic/teaching hospitals or institutions. Patients below 5 years comprised 17% of the ...
Ziran Bruce H - - 2003
To assess the impact of a dedicated musculoskeletal infection team, 70 musculoskeletal infections (traumatic and non-traumatic chronic osteomyelitis, Cierny-Mader Type III or IV) in 58 patients with were treated in two groups. Group I (43 infections) was treated with the assistance of an on-call infectious disease specialist. Group II (27 ...
Baethge Christopher - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: To analyze new and reviewed findings to evaluate relations between treatment response and latency from onset of bipolar disorder (BD) to the start of mood-stabilizer prophylaxis. METHOD: We analyzed our own new data and added findings from research reports identified by computerized searching. RESULTS: We found 11 relevant studies, ...
Lowe Nicholas J - - 2003
Rosacea is a chronic condition requiring long-term therapy for control and maintenance. Numerous controlled studies have shown that metronidazole 0.75% in combination with oral antibiotics significantly reduces the number of papules and pustules and erythema severity scores in patients with severe disease. Topical metronidazole 0.75% also maintains long-term remissions after ...
Carroll William R - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Twenty-four hours of perioperative antibiotics provides effective prophylaxis for most head and neck cancer resections. Many reconstructive surgeons have been hesitant to apply this standard to free-flap reconstruction of the head and neck. This prospective clinical trial compared short-course and long-course clindamycin prophylaxis for wound infection in patients with ...
Knopf H-J - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: This study shall settle the question whether a perioperative single shot prophylaxis in connection with a ureteroscopic stone removal has an influence on the rate of postoperative urinary tract infections (UTIs) and inflammable complications or not. METHODS: 113 patients were included in this prospective randomized study. In 57 patients ...
van den Berg H M - - 2003
Published retrospective reports from France, the Netherlands and Sweden were analysed for data relating to the long-term outcomes (primarily the development of arthropathy) of three regimens for the management of severe haemophilia: on-demand treatment, intermediate-dose prophylaxis and high-dose prophylaxis. The mean annual consumption of factor concentrate was also compared. These ...
Turna A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Infection is one of the major morbidity factors after thoracic surgery. Although different prophylactic regimens have been used to prevent this complication, the ideal prophylactic agent, dose and duration of administration remain unknown. METHODS: All patients included underwent elective lung resection. 102 selected patients consecutively scheduled for major thoracic ...
Baethge C - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the impact of latency (the time between illness onset and initiation of prophylactic treatment) on the outcome of prophylaxis in bipolar disorders. METHOD: The effect of prophylaxis delay (latency) on the course of illness was assessed in 147 patients. Dependent variables were: reduction of days spent ...
Mesa F L - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Drug-induced gingival overgrowth (GO) remains a challenge in periodontics. Partial and total regressions of this GO have been reported after a short course of antibiotics. METHODS: We conducted a double-blinded controlled randomised study to determine the effect of metronidazole (MNZ) or azithromycin (AZM) on the regression of incipient cyclosporin ...
Lu Kun-Chia - - 2003
This retrospective study examined the characteristics of 338 pediatric patients presenting with a first episode of symptomatic urinary tract infection at Taichung Veterans General Hospital from November 1996 to December 2001. Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen (72.5%), followed by Proteus mirabilis (8.3%), Enterococcus (5.6%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (4.7%). ...
Scott Shane D - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Filgrastim prophylaxis lessens the occurrence of febrile neutropenia in patients with non-Hodgkin.s lymphoma (NHL) treated with chemotherapy, but differences in days of therapy and mode (primary or secondary) of prophylaxis may affect clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To describe the patterns of use of filgrastim prophylaxis, especially days of therapy and ...
Dos S K - - 2003
Eighty patients with moderate acne vulgaris were enrolled from out-patient department for the comparative evaluation of clindamycin phosphate 1% and clindamycin phosphate 1% with nicotinamide gel 4%. In group I forty patients were given clindamycin phosphate 1% alone.ln group II forty patients were given clindamycin phosphate 1% and nicotinamide gel ...
Zahid M A - - 2003
BACKGROUND: This study was conducted in Surgical Unit-I at Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad from October 2000 to March 2002. The objective of the study was to compare the results of single dose versus three-dose prophylaxis by cefotaxime sodium in patients undergoing elective cholecystectomy. METHODS: Intravenous Cefotaxime sodium ...
Fischer K - - 2002
A multicentre study was performed in Sweden and the Netherlands, comparing effects of two prophylactic regimens in 128 patients with severe haemophilia, born 1970-90. 42 Swedish patients (high-dose prophylaxis), were compared with 86 Dutch patients (intermediate-dose prophylaxis). Patients were evaluated at the date of their last radiological score according to ...
Burnett Kathryn M - - 2002
AIM: The aim of this study was to introduce a protocol for the use of antimicrobials in surgical prophylaxis for the described procedures in Antrim Area Hospital. METHOD: Historical data of antimicrobial use were obtained from retrospective analysis of patients' charts, for those patients identified as having one of the ...
Maher Kevin O - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Optimal antimicrobial prophylaxis for the pediatric cardiac surgical patient is unknown. We have reviewed our experience with more than 4,000 pediatric cardiac surgical patients at the University of Michigan to evaluate antibiotic prophylaxis regimens. METHODS: Three antibiotic prophylaxis protocols were serially used during a 6-year period: Protocol 1 (n ...
Tonelli F - - 2002
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (amoxicillin 2 g/clavulanic acid 200 mg) has been administered in comparison to cefotaxime (2 g) for antimicrobial prophylaxis in 476 evaluable patients undergoing abdominal surgery at high risk of septic complications. Both antibiotics were administered as a single infusion. 205 evaluable patients (110 in amoxicillin/clavulanic acid group and ...
Thibon Pascal - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To take into account the proportion of patients lost to follow-up when calculating surgical-site infection (SSI) rates. DESIGN: A multicenter SSI monitoring network in Basse-Normandie, France, using the definitions for SSI of the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance System of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PATIENTS: Between January ...
Marras T K - - 2002
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) poses a serious risk to allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) patients, who are often intolerant of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), the traditional first-line prophylactic agents. There are limited published data supporting the use of aerosolized pentamidine (AP) prophylaxis in the BMT population. We assessed the effectiveness of AP ...
Lewis Ronald T - - 2002
To compare the efficacy of combined oral and systemic antibiotics (combined) versus systemic antibiotics (systemic) alone in preventing surgical site infection in elective surgery of the colon, and to perform a meta-analysis of randomized studies comparing combined versus systemic antibiotics in elective colon surgery. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. ...
Grayson M Lindsay - - 2002
A once-daily regimen of cefazolin (2 g intravenously [iv]) plus probenecid (1 g by mouth) was compared with a once-daily regimen of ceftriaxone (1 g iv) plus oral placebo in a randomized, double-blind equivalence trial of home-based therapy for moderate-to-severe cellulitis in adults. For the assessable recipients of cefazolin-probenecid (n=59) ...
Schürmann D - - 2002
The safety and efficacy of a fixed 25 mg pyrimethamine-500 mg sulfadoxine combination supplemented with 15 mg folinic acid twice a week as primary prophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) and toxoplasmic encephalitis was evaluated in 106 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. All patients had a CD4+ T-lymphocyte ...
Waltrip Todd - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Animal studies have shown that continuous infusion of beta-lactam antibiotics is more effective than intermittent dosing. We studied several dosing regimens of cefazolin in humans to determine safety and whether or not adequate serum and tissue antibiotic concentrations could be achieved in patients undergoing cardiac bypass. METHODS: A prospective, ...
Otegbayo J A - - 2002
A retrospective analysis of cases diagnosed as typhoid fever over a ten-year period at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria was carried out to assess the presentation pattern, laboratory investigation, mortality and mode of therapy. Incidence was of typhoid fever was highest in the dry months of the year. The ...
Paradiso-Hardy Fran L - - 2002
To characterize national and regional patterns of antimicrobial prophylaxis in adult cardiac surgery across Canada. Retrospective, cross-sectional analysis. Thirty-three adult cardiac surgical centres across Canada. A one-page questionnaire collecting information regarding institutional demographics and antimicrobial prophylaxis regimens for adult cardiac surgical procedures was mailed to all adult surgical centres across ...
Rojas de Morales T - - 2001
Mucositis, gingivitis, herpetic stomatitis and candidiasis are a potential source of systemic infection in patients undergoing chemotherapy. Their severity and incidence may be reduced with procedures based on the prevention and elimination of sources causing oral infection and irritation. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness ...
Fischer K - - 2001
A cohort study was performed to assess adherence to early prophylactic therapy and its effects on outcome in 49 patients with severe haemophilia born 1970-1980. Median age at start of prophylaxis was 5.5 years. The majority (69%) of patients interrupted prophylactic treatment one or more times of their own accord ...
Mittelkötter U - - 2001
The objective of the present multicenter observational study was to assess postoperative infections as a function of risk factors and antibiotic prophylaxis under everyday clinical conditions. 2513 patients from 114 centers in Germany who received infection prophylaxis prior to elective colonic resection were included in the study between 1st September ...
Sobel J D - - 2001
Treatment of patients with metronidazole-refractory vaginal trichomoniasis constitutes a major therapeutic challenge, and treatment options are extremely limited. Although the majority of patients infected with trichomonads, who demonstrate reduced in vitro susceptibility to metronidazole, respond to high-dose but poorly tolerated regimens of metronidazole, clinical failure is by no means uncommon. ...
Maltezou H C - - 2001
The efficacy of piperacillin/tazobactam at 100/12.5 mg/kg every 8 h (35 patients) was compared to cefotaxime plus metronidazole at 50/7.5 mg/kg every 8 h (35 patients) in 70 children with intra-abdominal infections requiring surgery. Diagnoses were gangrenous or perforated appendicitis (n =56), peritonitis (n =12), and abscess (n =2). Clinical ...
Zhu X L - - 2001
BACKGROUND: The use of prophylactic antibiotics has been shown to decrease the rate of surgical-site infections after clean neurosurgical operations, although previous clinical trials have provided no evidence that one antibiotic is superior to another for this purpose. OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to compare the rates of postoperative infectious ...
Svenungsson B - - 2001
OBJECTIVE: To study the detection rate of Clostridium difficile cytotoxin B in stool specimens from adults with diarrhea as related to previous antimicrobial treatment. METHODS: Stool specimens from 802 adult patients with diarrhea and 203 healthy controls were tested for C. difficile cytotoxin B using a cell cytotoxicity assay. Antibiotic ...
- - 2001
(1) The reference prophylaxis of attacks of hereditary angioneurotic oedema is oral danazol, an androgenic steroid, which takes a few days to act. There was previously no curative treatment authorised in France. (2) C1 esterase inhibitor is now licensed in France as replacement therapy for patients with hereditary angioneurotic oedema ...
Viscoli C - - 2001
Published data have suggested a correlation between antifungal prophylaxis and bacteremia in febrile neutropenia. This correlation was investigated among 3002 febrile neutropenic patients enrolled in 4 trials during 1986-1994. Globally, 1322 patients (44%) did not receive antifungal prophylaxis; 835 (28%) received poorly absorbable antifungal agents and 845 (28%) received absorbable ...
Webb J C - - 2001
To evaluate the efficacy of metronidazole versus no treatment for the empiric treatment of inflammatory cytologic changes. Patients with inflammatory changes on Pap smear were serially assigned to receive no treatment or metronidazole by one of three regimens: 2 grams orally as a single dose, 500 milligrams orally twice daily ...
Pedraza-Avilés A G - - 2001
Treatment options for bacterial vaginosis are numerous, however for urinary tract infection (UTI) by Gardnerella vaginalis have been not reported. Our purpose was to compare the efficacy and treatment complications of oral metronidazole versus oral ampicillin for treatment of this condition in a prospective randomized, nonblinded study. Fifty-seven women who ...
Kolben M - - 2001
A prospective, randomized study was performed in order to evaluate the effect of cefotiam in the prevention of postoperative infectious morbidity in patients undergoing low-risk elective cesarean section. A total of 146 patients were randomly assigned to receive either intraoperative single-shot prophylaxis with 2 g cefotiam (study group, n =76) ...
Rowles D M - - 2000
PURPOSE: To describe our evaluation of basic trainees exposed to influenza A and our experience with mass prophylaxis. METHODS: Using a structured interview, 101 individuals were evaluated for symptoms of influenza A. Nasopharyngeal wash specimens were obtained from symptomatic troops; amantadine prophylaxis was prescribed for all. Diagnosis was confirmed using ...
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