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Cober Eric D - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) represents a cause of substantial morbidity, particularly for older adults. Although older age is a risk factor for CDI, few studies have specifically focused on clinical outcomes in older adults, particularly the "oldest" old. DESIGN: Retrospective review. SETTING: University of Michigan Health System. PARTICIPANTS: All ...
Nishanth S - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Peripheral venous thrombophlebitis (PVT) is a common complication of intravenous cannulation, occurring in about 30% of patients. We evaluated the effect of elective re-siting of intravenous cannulae every 48 hours on the incidence and severity of PVT in patients receiving intravenous fluids/drugs. METHODS: We randomized 42 patients who were ...
Lauritano E C - - 2009
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Few controlled trials on antibiotic therapy for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth are available at present. Aim of the study was to assess efficacy, safety and tolerability of rifaximin with respect to metronidazole for the treatment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We enrolled 142 consecutive ...
Yokoyama Minato - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the feasibility of discarding antimicrobial prophylaxis (AMP) for transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT). METHODS: One-hundred and sixty-two patients undergoing TURBT, with no risk factors for infectious complications were included in this prospective study between April 2006 and April 2008. Forty-four patients received single oral dose of ...
Buchholtz Kristine - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Gentamicin is often used to treat infective endocarditis (IE). Gentamicin is highly effective, but its applicability is reduced by its nephrotoxic effect. The aim of this study was to quantify the nephrotoxic effect of gentamicin and the association between the nephrotoxic effect and mortality in patients with IE. METHODS: ...
Tamayo Eduardo - - 2008
Use of single-dose antibiotic prophylaxis is associated with reduced antibiotic resistance, lower costs, and fewer problems with drug toxicity and superinfections. We tested the hypothesis that single doses of cefazolin are as effective as a 24-hour regimen of cefazolin in preventing surgical site infections in adults undergoing cardiac procedures. This ...
Hu Mary Y MY Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, - - 2008
Recent studies of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have indicated a dramatic increase in metronidazole failure. The aims of this study were to compare current and historical rates of metronidazole failure and to identify risk factors for metronidazole failure. Eighty-nine patients with CDI in 2004 to 2006 were followed for 60 ...
Santagostino E - - 2008
At present, when resources allow, the main issue in preventing arthropathy in patients with haemophilia is determining the 'optimal' prophylaxis regimen rather than the choice between primary prophylaxis and on-demand treatment. Barriers to prophylaxis implementation are still relevant and include difficulties with venous access, adherence to treatment regimens and costs. ...
Pareek Anil - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Beta-lactamase producing bacteria present a major problem in treating lower respiratory tract infections. The objective of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of cefotaxime-sulbactam combination versus amoxicillin-clavulanic acid injection as an alternative therapeutic option for treatment of lower respiratory tract infections in pediatric patients. METHODS: This randomized, ...
Moro J A - - 2008
INTRODUCTION: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among heart transplant (HT) patients. Various prophylactic and preemptive treatment regimens have been used for its prevention. We sought to assess the impact of oral valganciclovir on CMV prophylaxis in HT patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis ...
Sarvikivi Emmi - - 2008
BACKGROUND: This study examined the rate of nosocomial infection (NI) in children who underwent cardiac surgery, and also investigated the impact of postdischarge infection surveillance. Risk factors for surgical site infections (SSIs) also were evaluated. METHODS: All patients who underwent open-heart cardiac surgery in the Hospital for Children and Adolescents, ...
Suffoletta Terri J - - 2008
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare 30-day postoperative surgical site infections (SSIs) and rates of antibiotic discontinuation within 24 hours after surgery in patients receiving continuous-infusion versus intermittent-infusion cefoxitin for postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis. DESIGN: Retrospective, cohort-matched pilot study. SETTING: Tertiary-care medical center. PATIENTS: One hundred sixteen adults undergoing colorectal surgery between August ...
Tao Xiao-juan - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To study the principle of clearing Fei (), cooling blood, and detoxification as well as nourishing yin and moisening Fei (abbr. as CCD-NM) in regulating the levels of peripheral T-lymphocyte subsets Th and Tc cells to explore its mechanism for lowering the incidence of infection in patients with systemic ...
Tagliaferri Annarita - - 2008
Progressive arthropathy of large joints of the limbs (knees, ankles, elbows), resulting from recurrent joint bleeds and subsequent long-term degenerative phenomena, is one of the main causes of morbidity and of deterioration of quality of life in adult severe hemophiliacs. While primary prophylaxis (i.e. the regular continuous long-term infusion of ...
Petignat Christiane - - 2008
STUDY DESIGN: Double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of 1 preoperative 1.5 g dose of cefuroxime in preventing surgical site infection after surgery for herniated disc. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Antibiotic prophylaxis was only tested in nonconclusive trials in this setting. METHODS: The study was conducted ...
Talaie Haleh - - 2008
Different antimicrobial treatments have proved to be effective in patients with aspiration pneumonia. However, resistant bacterial strains are commonly observed in hospital settings challenging the empirical treatment of these patients. In this study, we aimed to compare the efficacy of cefepime/clindamycin and ceftriaxone/clindamycin for empiric therapy of poisoned patients with ...
D'Haens Geert R GR Department of Gastroenterology, Leuven University Hospitals, Leuven, Belgium. - - 2008
More than 80% of Crohn's disease (CD) patients undergoing resection suffer recurrence of their disease. Therapy with aminosalicylates, antimetabolites, or antibiotics leads to a modest reduction in the incidence of recurrence. We sought to examine whether metronidazole for 3 months together with azathioprine (AZA) for 12 months is superior to ...
Al-Nassir Wafa N - - 2008
BACKGROUND: There have been recent reports of frequent treatment failure associated with the use of metronidazole for treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated disease. We tested the hypothesis that treatment failure with metronidazole is associated with a suboptimal microbiological response in comparison with that of vancomycin. METHODS: We conducted a 9-month prospective ...
Weber Walter P - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To obtain precise information on the optimal time window for surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Although perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis is a well-established strategy for reducing the risk of surgical site infections (SSI), the optimal timing for this procedure has yet to be precisely determined. Under today's recommendations, antibiotics ...
Kobayashi Minako - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infection (SSI) prolongs hospital stay, increases medical costs, and occasionally leads to mortality. Our goal was to clarify the differences in SSI incidence between our own data and the National Nosocomial Infections Surveillance (NNIS) data. METHODS: From January 2003 to December 2006, we prospectively collected surveillance data ...
Tasher Diana - - 2008
AIM: To review our experience with colchicine for the prophylaxis of PFAPA (periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, adenitis). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prophylaxis with colchicine was offered to patients with frequent PFAPA episodes defined as episodes occurring every < or =14 days. Nine patients, aged 3.5-11.0 years, were treated with colchicine ...
Hagerty Jennifer - - 2008
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether vesicourethral reflux diagnosed by positioned instillation of contrast (PIC-VUR) shows clinical importance by comparing the incidence rates of febrile urinary tract infection (FUTI) before and after treatment of PIC-VUR. METHODS: Beginning in 2001 we used a multi-institutional registry to prospectively enroll consecutive pediatric patients with a ...
Falagas Matthew E - - 2008
We evaluated the prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) after pelvic floor operations for non-malignant etiology and the effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis. This was made possible by a review of the evidence from relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Nineteen out of 879 initially identified studies met the criteria for inclusion ...
Mattila Eero - - 2008
A prospective, randomized, double-blind study was designed to compare Clostridium difficile immune whey (CDIW) with metronidazole for treatment of laboratory-confirmed, recurrent, mild to moderate episodes of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea (CDAD). CDIW was manufactured by immunization of cows in their gestation period with inactivated C. difficile vaccine. The resulting colostrum was ...
Itani Kamal M F - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotics in the prevention of surgical site infection (SSI) after elective colorectal surgery is dependent on many factors, including the body mass index (BMI) of the patient. In this study, the association of BMI and type of antibiotic prophylaxis with SSI was evaluated in patients ...
Del Rio Paolo - - 2008
A multicenter, open labelled, randomized study was carried out to compare the prophylactic efficacy of Cefepime and Ceftriaxone in patients undergoing biliary tract surgery. Two hundred and nine patients were included in the study and randomized to receive preoperative infusion of 2 g Cefepime (n=107) or 2 g Ceftriaxone (n=102) ...
Ala Shahram - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Topical metronidazole (10 percent) has been previously demonstrated to decrease postoperative pain after hemorrhoidectomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of topical metronidazole (10 percent) in reducing postoperative and after-defecation pain of hemorrhoidectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A double-blind, randomized trial was conducted to compare posthemorrhoidectomy ...
Yamamoto Seiichiro - - 2008
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the wound infection (WI) rate in laparoscopic surgery (LS) for colorectal cancer is lower than that in open surgery (OS), and to evaluate the influence of perioperative intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis on the development of WI in LS. METHODS: We performed ...
Farran L - - 2008
Our aim in this study is to evaluate the efficacy of decontamination of the high digestive tract in reducing the incidence of anastomotic dehiscence, pulmonary infection and mortality after resective gastro-esophageal surgery. A prospective randomized and double-blinded study was conducted in patients undergoing total gastrectomy for gastric cancer and esophagectomy ...
Minozzi M - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: At the present the clinical treatment of choice of bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the use of systemic or local metronidazole or clindamycin. Aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a single dose of gynaecologic solution, Polyhexamethylene Biguanide (PHMB), Monogin, in the treatment of BV ...
Darwish Atef - - 2007
AIM: To estimate the efficacy of different therapeutic modalities on proven cases of bacterial vaginosis (BV) in patients at high risk of preterm labor and premature rupture of membranes. METHODS: This was a longitudinal prospective comparative study set in the antenatal outpatient clinic of the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ...
Martire Baldassarre - - 2008
A retrospective clinical and immunological survey was conducted in 60 patients with Chronic Granulomatous Disease. A prospective controlled non-randomized study of the efficacy of long-term IFNgamma treatment was carried out. The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 4.4 years; mean duration of follow-up was 10.4 years. Lung and ...
Garey K W - - 2008
The increased incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the emergence of community-acquired MRSA, and the continued high incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis have required that certain institutions choose vancomycin for surgical prophylaxis. However, the data supporting the use of vancomycin for surgical prophylaxis are controversial. The purpose of this project ...
Mastoraki Ekaterini - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of post-operative infections in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery who received generic cefuroxime (gCFX) instead of original cefuroxime (oCFX) as antimicrobial prophylaxis. METHODS: The study had two parts, a prospective and a retrospective one (4 weeks ...
Couris C M - - 2007
The aim of this study was to estimate temporal trends in the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) using a large SSI surveillance network in southeast France from 1995 to 2003. Data were analysed from 187 surgical wards that had participated in the network for at least two years. The ...
Wesarachawit Warin - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to compare early post-operative complications and length of hospital stay of hemorrhoidectomy patients between those who had and had not received metronidazole perioperatively. RESEARCH DESIGN: Retrospective, matched pair case-control study. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Medical records of all hemorrhoidal patients hospitalized between January ...
Guinier D - - 2007
PURPOSE: Unplanned readmission after colorectal surgery is a relatively frequent event, knowledge of which often is inaccurate. This study was designed to examine the incidence and causes of readmissions and to determine the criteria that could predict them. METHODS: From June to September 2002, 1,421 patients were enrolled in a ...
Soyer Tutku - - 2007
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of topical estrogen therapy as a therapeutic or a prophylactic agent in labial adhesions in children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who were diagnosed with labial adhesions were evaluated in three different groups according to a modified algorithm. A conservative treatment (CT) group consists of asymptomatic ...
Wang S - - 2007
The purpose of the study was to compare the clinical efficacy of once-daily versus multiple dose regimens of metronidazole in inpatients with serious/systemic Bacteroides fragilis infections, i.e., intraabdominal/pelvic and diabetic foot infections. A retrospective chart review was performed on 145 adult inpatients who received combination therapy with metronidazole for B. ...
Kato Yuko - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: To examine the efficacy of a protocol for the prophylactic use of antimicrobials in pediatric cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Nonrandomized comparison of two groups of patients studied sequentially. SETTING: Pediatric intensive care unit of university hospital. PATIENTS: Infants and children <18 yrs of age who had undergone cardiac surgery. INTERVENTIONS: ...
Celik Suat E - - 2007
STUDY DESIGN: A prospective randomized clinical study. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether shaving the incision site before spinal surgery causes postsurgical infection. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Spine surgeons usually shave the skin of the incision site immediately before surgery is performed. However, evidence from some surgical series suggests that presurgical shaving ...
Zar Fred A - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been increasing, and there have been recent reports of metronidazole treatment failure. Metronidazole is still commonly used as first-line treatment for CDAD but has never been compared with vancomycin in a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. We conducted such ...
Vu Debie - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Oseltamivir is safe and effective in immunocompetent persons, and prophylactic use is recommended during influenza outbreaks. However, no data exist regarding the use of oseltamivir as prophylaxis among patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). METHODS: In January 2002, an influenza A outbreak was identified when 4 cases occurred ...
Fennessy B G - - 2007
Prophylactic antimicrobial therapy is defined as the administration of an antimicrobial agent prior to contamination of previously sterile tissues or fluids, in an attempt to reduce the microbial burden of intraoperative contamination. Prophylactic antimicrobial therapy should cover the anticipated floral contamination, with therapeutic levels from incision to closure. There is ...
Schwarzberg Abraham B AB Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA. - - 2007
Temozolomide is utilized as a treatment for a variety of solid tumors and has been associated with the development of selective lymphopenia. We evaluated the incidence of lymphopenia and opportunistic infections during treatment and up to 12 months following treatment discontinuation in a cohort of 39 patients receiving temozolomide for ...
Yoshida Soichiro - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Recently, some studies suggested that antimicrobial prophylactics (AMP) are not needed to prevent surgical site infection (SSI) for clean operations despite worldwide acceptance of AMP. However, appropriate use of AMP in urological surgery has not been fully studied. Herein, we report an attempt of gradual decrease of AMP to ...
Wullt Marlene - - 2007
Our objective was to document how intake of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v affects the concentrations of fecal organic acids during and after metronidazole treatment in 19 patients with recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. Fecal samples were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. After intake of metronidazole a significant decrease in total short-chain fatty acids ...
Kaczmarzyk T - - 2007
The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of single- and multi-dose (5-day) clindamycin therapy for the prevention of inflammatory complications in patients undergoing lower third molar surgical extraction with bone removal. Patients who qualified for the prospective, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial were randomly divided into three groups: ...
Cormio G - - 2007
The aim of this prospective, randomized study was to compare amoxicillin-clavulanic acid with cefazolin as ultra-short term prophylaxis in vaginal gynecologic surgery. It was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Bari. Patients were randomly allocated to receive amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (2.2 g) [Group A] or cefazolin (2 ...
Musher Daniel M - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Clostridium difficile-associated disease has increased in incidence and severity. Recommended treatments include metronidazole and vancomycin. Recent investigations, however, document the failure of metronidazole to cure a substantial proportion of patients with Clostridium difficile colitis, but oral administration of vancomycin raises concerns over selection of antibiotic-resistant organisms in the hospital ...
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