Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 848
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Hjortrup A - - 1991
In a controlled trial 219 high risk patients undergoing biliary surgery were allocated at random by sealed envelopes to one of two treatment groups. Group I (n = 112) received a single dose ceftriaxone 1 g intravenously at the time of skin incision, and group II (n = 107) was ...
Rodolico G - - 1991
A randomized study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of aztreonam plus clindamycin with that of gentamicin plus clindamycin for prophylaxis of infection following colorectal surgery. A total of 138 patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery were randomized to treatment with clindamycin (600 mg) plus either aztreonam (1 g) or gentamicin ...
Lewis R T - - 1991
Although a single preoperative dose of antibiotic is now the accepted means of preventing postoperative surgical infection, the method has not been investigated adequately. In patients at high risk of infection who underwent gastroduodenal operations, the authors compared single-dose prophylaxis by intravenous cefotaxime (26 patients) with short-course perioperative prophylaxis (27 ...
Weersink A - - 1991
In a single-blind, prospective randomized and controlled trial, amoxicillin-clavulanate was compared with gentamicin plus clindamycin as perioperative prophylaxis for 24 hours in clean-contaminated abdominal surgery. Proven infections of the abdominal incision occurred in one of 59 evaluable patients given amoxicillin-clavulanate and one of 43 with gentamicin/clindamycin. In the latter group ...
Rolston K V - - 1991
The combination of pyrimethamine and clindamycin, both administered orally, was evaluated for initial and maintenance therapy of toxoplasmosis in eight AIDS patients who were either allergic to sulfonamides or unresponsive to standard therapy. Symptomatic and neuroradiographic improvement occurred in the majority of patients. The regimen was well tolerated and associated ...
Cuthbertson A M - - 1991
A prospective, randomized, single-blind, controlled clinical trial was undertaken to determine whether two doses of systemic Timentin provided superior prophylaxis against postoperative sepsis in elective colorectal surgery compared with a single dose of the same antibiotic. Timentin, a combination of ticarcillin and clavulanic acid was administered intravenously (3.1 g) at ...
Salim A S - - 1991
Distension of the gallbladder and bacterial infection can perpetuate an attack of acute calculous cholecystitis and produce its local and systemic complications. This prospective randomized trial was conducted on patients with their first episode of acute calculous cholecystitis which was associated with pyrexia and tachycardia to examine whether ultrasound guided ...
Gaillard T - - 1991
In this prospective, randomized and controlled study the effect of cefotiam for the prevention of wound infections following trepanations was investigated. The main interest was centered on the rate of post-operative bone flap infections requiring operative revision. Administration of cefotiam was randomized for patients undergoing major craniotomies. The antibiotic was ...
Tsimoyiannis E C - - 1991
In the last 2 years, 50 patients who underwent elective colorectal surgery were prospectively studied about antibiotic prophylaxis. Two groups of 25 patients each were randomly selected. Both received: (a) a colic preparation: hypactic drugs and two enemas during the day before surgery and (b) metronidazole 0.5 g plus neomycin ...
Shwed J A - - 1991
Safety and efficacy were evaluated and compared retrospectively in 77 patients who received cefotetan (CTN) and 51 patients who received cefoxitin (CFX) for surgical prophylaxis. Both groups were similar with respect to age and gender. Surgical procedures were similar between groups (e.g., obstetric/gynecologic, renal transplant, colon, exploratory laparotomy, gastroduodenal, hernia ...
Aznar R - - 1991
A total of 127 patients (57 given placebo and 70 given a single preoperative dose of 1 g cefazolin) undergoing thoracic surgery were included in a randomized double-blind trial. The two groups were similar in regard to mean age, sex ratio, in-hospital stay before surgery, underlying disease, risk factors, type ...
Sirinek K R - - 1991
Secondary bacterial peritonitis is usually a polymicrobial infection of facultative gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic organisms. Treatment consists of operation and broad-spectrum antibiotic administration. The antibiotic treatment of choice in these infections has been the combination of gentamicin and clindamycin. However, this combination can have toxic side effects and necessitates frequent ...
Kremer M - - 1991
Thirty-six patients who had suffered two or more episodes of erysipelas or cellulitis during the previous year were randomly divided into two equal groups; one group received erythromycin base 250 mg b.i.d. for 18 months, while the other group received no prophylaxis for a similar period. No patients in the ...
Yoshioka K - - 1991
A prospective randomised study was undertaken in 80 patients to assess the combined regimen of ciprofloxacin with metronidazole against amoxicillin/clavulanic acid with metronidazole as treatment for established intra-abdominal infection. Treatment was for five days. Seventy-eight patients were clinically evaluable (38 patients on ciprofloxacin with metronidazole and 40 patients on amoxicillin/clavulanic ...
Sawyer R - - 1990
Previous studies of antibiotic prophylaxis have shown that treatment for 24 hours has been beneficial for head and neck surgery and that longer periods of antibiotic therapy have not improved results. Metronidazole (Flagyl), unlike other antibiotics tested, has been shown to be effective in an experimental abscess, even if treatment ...
Takegami K T - - 1990
This study used microbiologic counts to evaluate bacterial contamination during cutaneous surgeries of the head and neck. Aerobic bacterial counts of the surgical field in cases with immediate closure (group A, n = 10 patients) and prolonged procedures such as Mohs micrographic surgery (group B, n = 15 patients) were ...
Sutthijumroon S - - 1990
Prophylactic effect of cefoxitin against postoperative infection at a dose of 2 g intravenous (single dose 30 minutes before the operation) was investigated using fever index in patients who underwent the elective, nonradical abdominal hysterectomy. The results obtained are summarized as follows. Total fever index values were 12.9 +/- 10.0 ...
Mozzillo N - - 1990
One hundred and ninety-one patients, all candidates for major clean-contaminated surgery, were classified according to the risk of developing postoperative wound infection, using clinical and nutritional factors. A widely validated nutritional assessment model, the Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI), was used preoperatively to evaluate the risk and probability of post-operative septic ...
Kemper C A - - 1990
The efficacy, toxicity and cost of orally administered dapsone (50-100 mg/day) for prophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) were evaluated in 30 patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex (ARC). Six patients received primary and 24 secondary prophylaxis. Ten patients received a maximum dose of 100 mg/day and 20 a maximum ...
Miedzinski L J - - 1990
Between 1986 and 1988, 450 adults undergoing coronary artery bypass, cardiac valve replacement, or both were enrolled into a prospective, randomized, comparative trial of cephalothin versus cefamandole as perioperative prophylaxis. They were assessed during their hospitalization and at 6 weeks and 6 months after discharge for postoperative infectious complications. Eleven ...
Tio T T - - 1990
In a randomized comparative study, 83 male patients suffering from acute uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis were treated with a single dose of either 0.8 g pefloxacin, given orally, or 1.0 g cefotaxime, given intramuscularly. The cure rates were 100% in both treatment groups four to seven days and 21 to 31 ...
Winslet M C - - 1990
In a prospective, open, randomized controlled trial, 173 patients requiring surgery for potentially "contaminated" lower gastrointestinal surgery were allocated to receive either two doses of ceftizoxime (2 gm) with one dose of metronidazole (1.5 gm) or gentamicin 3 mg/kg/day for five days with one dose of metronidazole (1.5 gm). Eighty-nine ...
Carlson C - - 1990
The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether an extended-spectrum antibiotic with a long duration of action was more effective for prophylaxis for cesarean delivery than a limited-spectrum agent with a shorter duration of action. Patients were eligible for the study if they were in labor or had ruptured ...
Fourcade R O - - 1990
This French multicentre, placebo-controlled, double-blind study investigated the efficacy of a single dose of cefotaxime 1 g iv in the prophylaxis of patients undergoing endoscopic extraction of urinary tract stones. Postoperative fever occurred in 12 patients in the placebo group and in nine in the cefotaxime group (no significant difference). ...
Martens M G - - 1990
Patients with uncomplicated pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) (acute salpingitis and no pelvic masses) were randomly assigned for treatment with either cefotaxime or cefoxitin. A clinical cure was achieved in 17 of 20 cases (82%) and 19 of 22 cases (84%), respectively. Within the complicated PID group, patients were assigned to ...
De Lalla F - - 1990
A prospective, randomized study was carried out in order to assess the efficacy and safety of the mezlocillin-netilmicin combination in the prophylaxis of first permanent transvenous cardiac pacemaker implantation. Five hundred and fifty-two consecutive patients were randomly administered either 2 g mezlocillin and 200 mg netilmicin both as an i.v. ...
Schoetz D J DJ - - 1990
The efficacy of cefoxitin, a perioperative parenteral antibiotic, combined with mechanical bowel preparation and oral antibiotics to prevent wound infections and other septic complications in patients undergoing elective colorectal operations, was examined in a prospective randomized study. All 197 patients who completed the study received mechanical bowel preparation and oral ...
Burkitt D S - - 1990
A single preoperative dose of imipenem/cilastatin was compared with metronidazole for the prevention of infectious sequelae following emergency appendicectomy. Patients with established sepsis received in addition 72 h of either intravenous imipenem or ampicillin, gentamicin and metronidazole postoperatively. Two hundred and sixty-eight patients were studied. Wound infection rate in low-risk ...
Fragapane P - - 1990
The authors evaluated the peroperative immunologic state of patients with colorectal tumors and controlled the postoperative incidence of infections. Twenty-one patients were studied, and delayed type hypersensitivity reactivity determined by the CMI multitest (Merieux) eight days before and eight days after surgery. A lymphocytogram was performed using monoclonal antibodies. A ...
Marcucci L - - 1990
An open prospective randomized trial was conducted in three Italian ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgery departments on 120 patients aged 10 to 84 years, to compare a single pre-operative dose vs. three peri-operative doses of ceftazidime in surgical prophylaxis. Sixty patients in group I received 1 g ceftazidime intramuscularly ...
McQueen M M - - 1990
A prospective randomized double-blind trial was carried out to assess the effectiveness of one dose of prophylactic cefuroxime versus placebo in 502 patients who underwent surgery for a proximal femoral fracture. With an overall deep infection rate of 2.2 per cent there was no significant difference in the superficial or ...
McGregor J A - - 1990
In an open study, ticarcillin/clavulanate was used to treat upper genital tract infections in 91 women. The clinical success rate was 92% in outpatient-acquired salpingitis (pelvic inflammatory disease), 50% in salpingitis with tuboovarian abscess, 85% in postpartum endometritis, 87% in endometritis after chorioamnionitis and 90% in postoperative parametritis. The primary ...
Nøhr M - - 1990
Two antibiotic regimens for the prophylaxis of infection after colorectal operations were compared in a prospective, double blind, randomised controlled trial in 244 patients. Ninety-five patients (39%) were either excluded before randomisation or withdrawn, leaving 149 for analysis. Group 1 (n = 72) received a single infusion of 8 g ...
Peterson C M - - 1990
This study included 207 patients in a double-blind, prospective randomized trial of cefazolin versus cefamandole single-dose prophylaxis by both intravenous (IV) and lavage routes in patients laboring with ruptured membranes who eventually had nonelective cesareans. No significant differences (P less than .05) were noted in the rates of infectious morbidity ...
Seco J L - - 1990
Two hundred forty-six patients with acute appendicitis were randomly assigned to one of two groups. One group of 120 patients received systemic clindamycin preoperatively. Another group of 126 patients received, in addition to systemic clindamycin, a solution of topical ampicillin applied to subcutaneous tissues. No differences were found in the ...
Gerding D N - - 1990
One hundred fifty-six patients with presumed or documented abdominal infections were treated with amikacin/metronidazole/placebo (Group 1, 56 patients), amikacin/clindamycin/placebo (Group 2, 57 patients), or amikacin/clindamycin/ampicillin (Group 3, 43 patients) to determine both the therapeutic efficacy of the various regimens and the type of complications due to Clostridium difficile. C. difficile ...
Hershman M J - - 1990
This study compared one dose of cefotetan with three doses of piperacillin as prophylaxis against wound infection in 153 patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. The patients were randomized into two groups: the first received 2 g cefotetan intravenously with induction of anaesthesia (n = 75), and the second received three ...
Rowe-Jones D C - - 1990
OBJECTIVE: To establish whether a single preoperative dose of cefotaxime plus metronidazole was as effective as a standard three dose regimen of cefuroxime plus metronidazole in preventing wound infection after colorectal surgery. DESIGN: Prospective randomised allocation to one of two prophylactic antibiotic regimens in a parallel group trial. Group sequential ...
Eskilsson J - - 1990
The most common cardiotoxic effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) are chest pain and ischemic ECG abnormalities. Coronary vasospasm may be the underlying mechanism. If so, prophylactic treatment with calcium channel blockers might have a beneficial effect. In the present study, prophylaxis with verapamil (120 mg three times daily) was given to ...
Thorsteinsson S B - - 1990
In this prospective, randomized study, the efficacy of one dose ceftriaxone or 48 hour cephradine therapy was compared to a control group to prevent urinary infection in 179 patients undergoing TUS. Only patients with low risk of developing infections were included. Both cephalosporins significantly reduced the incidence of UTI (ceftriaxone ...
Brismar B - - 1990
During recent years the impact of different antimicrobial agents on the intestinal microflora in patients undergoing colorectal surgery has been investigated by our research group. Thus the effects on the microflora by parenteral administration of piperacillin, cefoxitin, cefbuperazone, moxalactam, aztreonam, imipenem, ampicillin + sulbactam, clindamycin, tinidazole, ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin have ...
Heimdahl A - - 1990
Postsurgical infections after oral surgery in healthy patients are almost exclusively wound infections caused by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms endogenous to the oral cavity. Available data indicate that, in otherwise healthy patients, infectious complications after dentoalveolar surgery are decreased after penicillin prophylaxis. However, prophylaxis is still not recommended as a ...
Misan G M - - 1990
A prospective, two-phase, drug utilization review (DUR) was performed at the Royal Adelaide Hospital (RAH) to determine the extent and pattern of vancomycin use. For all patients commencing oral or parenteral vancomycin, treatment indication, route of administration, duration of therapy, results of culture and sensitivity tests, adverse drug reactions and ...
Thomsen S - - 1990
The efficiency of prophylactic antibiotic therapy in amputation surgery was studied in a prospective, randomized trial of a first-generation cephalosporin (cephalothin) compared with a narrow-spectrum beta-lactam stable penicillin (methicillin). Eighty-eight patients received cephalothin 2 g X 4 on the day of operation, while 86 patients received methicillin 1 g X ...
Verlicchi F - - 1990
We performed a pilot study on 13 heavily treated hematologic patients, in whom a systemic broad-spectrum antimicrobial prophylaxis was started after the end of the antineoplastic treatment. Results were compared to a historical control group of patients with similar characteristics, in whom antibody were started at the appearance of fever. ...
Wagman L D - - 1990
The ability of perioperative cefazolin to reduce the incidence of postoperative wound infection in patients undergoing ablative surgical treatment for carcinoma of the breast was tested in this prospective, randomized, double-blinded study. From May 1983 until December 1985, 118 women were divided into two groups at random. Group 1 consisted ...
Wittmann D H - - 1990
A retrospective analysis of 809 biliary tract operations revealed postoperative wound infections in 13.4% of 278 patients with bactericholia, compared to 6.9% in patients without bactericholia. More than one third of isolated bacteria were resistant to ampicillin. This was the basis to conduct a prospective randomized single-blind study to compare ...
McGregor J A - - 1990
A single dose of ceftizoxime was comparable to three perioperative doses of cefoxitin as adjunctive antibiotic chemoprophylaxis against infectious morbidity in women undergoing elective abdominal (60% of patients) or vaginal (40% of patients) hysterectomy. In a double-blind, randomized, prospective, controlled trial, patients were randomized to receive either a single 1-gm ...
Askew C - - 1989
A small prospective trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of a single antibiotic regimen, Augmentin, compared with a combination regimen of cefuroxime and metronidazole in the treatment of serious post-operative sepsis. Both regimens used were effective against Bacteroides and other anaerobes, with a similar satisfactory cure rate ...
Naber K G - - 1989
According to available studies the experience with cefotaxime in the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTI) is presented. Because of its broad spectrum antibacterial activity cefotaxime is active against most of the causative organisms, including multiresistant strains (except enterococci). Of 400 isolates cultured from 400 urological inpatients with complicated and/or ...
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