Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 2918
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Wu Ying - - 2005
BACKGROUND: This study examined the proarrhythmic potential of the novel antiarrhythmic agent AZD7009 and dofetilide. METHODS AND RESULTS: The electrophysiological and proarrhythmic effects of AZD7009 and dofetilide were assessed in the arterially perfused canine and rabbit left ventricular wedge preparation. The proarrhythmic potential of AZD7009, dofetilide, and azimilide was further ...
Sohn Ju-Tae - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The authors tested the hypothesis that the intravenous anesthetic fentanyl would attenuate the pulmonary vasoconstrictor response to alpha1-adrenoceptor activation. They also investigated the alpha1-adrenoceptor subtypes that could potentially mediate this effect of fentanyl. METHODS: Endothelium-denuded canine pulmonary arterial rings were suspended for isometric tension recording. Dose-response curves for the ...
de Groot Patricia - - 2005
PURPOSE: The main aim of the study was to assess the effect and time course of 4 wk of electrically induced leg training on arterial compliance and endothelial function. METHODS: Six spinal cord-injured (SCI) individuals participated in 4 wk of daily one-leg functional electrical stimulation (FES) training for 30 min ...
Busija D W - - 2005
Insulin resistance (IR) has profound, negative effects on the function of arteries and arterioles throughout the body and leads to arterial hypertension and vascular occlusive diseases such as heart attacks and strokes. IR affects arteries and arterioles at both the endothelium and smooth muscle levels. One major, underlying mechanism of ...
Müller-Schweinitzer Else - - 2005
PURPOSE: Cryopreserved human blood vessels may become important tools in bypass surgery. Optimal cryopreservation of an arterial graft should, therefore, preserve both histological and physiological characteristics of smooth muscle and endothelium comparable to the unfrozen artery. METHODS: Rings from human internal mammary arteries (IMA) were investigated in vitro either unfrozen ...
Wangemann Philine - - 2005
The cochlea receives its main blood supply from the basilar artery via the anterior inferior cerebellar artery and the spiral modiolar artery. Morphologic studies have shown sympathetic innervation along the spiral modiolar artery of the gerbil and the guinea pig and functional studies in the isolated in vitro superfused spiral ...
Wareing M - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Preliminary data suggest that K(ATP) channels may be expressed in placental arteries and veins [Wareing M, Turner C, Greenwood SL, Baker PN, Fyfe GK. Expression of mRNA encoding K+ channels in chorionic plate arteries and veins. J Soc Gynecol Investig 2004;11:353A]. However, no data exist on glibenclamide's effects in ...
Li Fang - - 2005
Angiotensin II (ANG II) promotes neointimal growth in the balloon-injured rat carotid artery. However, the mechanism by which ANG II stimulates neointimal growth during vascular injury is not known. In cultured vascular smooth muscle cells, ANG II activates Akt through cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2)-dependent phospholipase D2 (PLD2). This study was ...
Zulli Anthony - - 2006
In this study, caveolin-1 (cav-1), an inhibitor of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), was semi-quantified in diseased human and rabbit blood vessels. New Zealand White rabbits were fed, for 12 weeks, a high methionine diet (to induce intimal hyperplasia), 0.5% cholesterol diet, a normal diet, or the combination of both ...
Kozłowska Hanna - - 2005
We examined whether the beta2-adrenoceptor agonists fenoterol and salbutamol, the beta3-adrenoceptor agonists CL 316243 and ZD 2079, and the agonists of the low-affinity state of beta-adrenoceptors, cyanopindolol and CGP 12177 block alpha1-adrenoceptors in that concentration range in which they relax the human pulmonary and rat mesenteric arteries preconstricted with phenylephrine ...
Lefebvre Blandine - - 2006
We recently developed a model of chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) (FiO2 5%, 8 h/day, 35 days) in the rat that was associated with an increased infarction in isolated heart. The aim of the present study was to characterize its functional consequences on vasoreactivity. Aorta and carotid artery were studied using ...
Woodman Christopher R - - 2005
We tested the hypothesis that exercise (Ex) training attenuates hypercholesterolemia-induced impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) in brachial (Br) arteries of adult male pigs by enhancing nitric oxide (NO)-mediated EDR. Adult male pigs were fed a normal-fat (NF) or high-fat/cholesterol (HF) diet for 20 wk. Four weeks after the diet was ...
Simandle Steve A - - 2005
Controversy exists concerning whether activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors exerts direct dilator effects on cerebral arteries. The purpose of this study was to examine the responses of isolated piglet arteries to NMDA to determine whether isolated arteries, apart from surrounding neuronal tissue, are capable of responding to NMDA. Piglet arteries ...
Roghair Robert D RD Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA. - - 2005
Exposure of the early gestation ovine fetus to exogenous glucocorticoids induces organ-specific alterations in postnatal cardiovascular physiology. To determine whether early gestation corticosteroid exposure alters coronary reactivity before the development of systemic hypertension, dexamethasone (0.28 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)) was administered to pregnant ewes by intravenous infusion over 48 ...
Tasatargil Arda - - 2005
The aim of this study was to investigate whether the low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) (eg, nadroparin, enoxaparin, and dalteparin) cause a vasodilatory effect in human internal mammary artery (IMA) and to further compare its effect with unfractioned heparin (UFH). Samples of redundant IMA obtained from 20 patients undergoing a coronary artery ...
Pérez-Rivera Alex A - - 2005
We characterized vascular reactivity to endothelin-1 (ET-1) in mesenteric vessels from DOCA-salt hypertensive and SHAM control mice and assessed the effect that endothelial-derived vasodilators have on ET-1-induced vasoconstriction. Changes in the diameter of unpressurized small mesenteric arteries and veins (100- to 300-microm outside diameter) were measured in vitro using computer-assisted ...
Koramaz Ismail - - 2005
Perioperative spasm of internal mammary artery is a common experience in coronary artery bypass grafting. Many techniques were described of harvesting the internal mammary artery to prevent vasospasm. We investigated the comparison of the contracting and relaxing responses of human internal mammary artery grafts harvested by two different methods. Patients ...
Sathishkumar K - - 2005
Segmental heterogeneity in relaxation response to nitric oxide (NO) was examined using NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in second- (medium) and fourth-generation (small) ovine isolated intralobar pulmonary arteries. In vessels precontracted with serotonin, NO donors SNP and S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) were more potent in relaxing medium, in comparison to the small, ...
Leblais Véronique - - 2005
We have recently shown that the beta-adrenoceptor ligands CGP 12177, bupranolol, and SR 59230A (aryloxypropanolamines), but not BRL 37344 and CL 316243 (phenylethanolamines), exhibit significant affinity for alpha1-adrenoceptors and that CGP 12177 displays partial agonist properties at alpha-adrenoceptors in rat pulmonary artery. In this study, bupranolol and SR 59230A were ...
Elmedal Britt - - 2005
Nitric oxide (NO) donors could constitute an alternative to inhaled NO as treatment in some patients with pulmonary hypertension. Therefore, the present study investigated the relaxation mechanisms of a novel NO donor, 3-(3-chloro-2-methylphenyl)-5-[[4-methylphenyl)sulphonyl]amino]-)hydroxide (GEA 3175) in segments of human pulmonary arteries and bronchioles, which were mounted in microvascular myographs. GEA ...
Xu Pei-Han - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to assess the direct effects of dobutamine on porcine coronary arteries and to investigate the mechanism of its action. Rings of coronary arteries from pigs were suspended in baths containing Krebs solution, and isometric tension was measured. The response to dobutamine (10(-8)-10(-3) M) was ...
Kim Moon Young - - 2005
We compared the branches and trunk of rat superior mesenteric artery (SMA) with respect to extracellular pH (pHo)-dependent changes in vascular contractility. Decreases in pHo from 7.8 to 6.4 significantly reduced apparent affinity (pD2) to norepinephrine (NE) and maximal contraction by NE, which were more prominent in larger-diameter arteries. On ...
Hsiao Shih-Hsuan - - 2005
Fumonisin mycotoxicosis in pigs causes a decrease in mean aortic pressure, an increase in mean pulmonary arterial pressure, and increases in serum concentrations of sphinganine (3.2 microM) and sphingosine (1.4 microM). To determine a causal relationship between the hemodynamic changes and sphingolipid alterations, we examined the in vitro effects of ...
Gozalov A - - 2005
The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of K(ATP) channel openers pinacidil and levcromakalim on rat dural and pial arteries as well as their inhibition by glibenclamide. We used an in-vivo genuine closed cranial window model and an in-vitro organ bath. Glibenclamide alone reduced the dural ...
Ortega Joaquín - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: We studied the intervention of nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) in mediating responses to acetylcholine in thyroid arteries from euthyroid and methimazole-treated (MT) patients. DESIGN AND METHODS: Branches of the superior thyroid artery were obtained from 19 euthyroid patients and 17 MT patients (euthyroid at ...
Moore Rustin M - - 2005
The objective of this study was to determine and compare the in vitro responses of equine large colon arterial and venous rings to vasodilatory neuropeptides; calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP); substance P (SP); vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP); and acetylcholine (ACh), a standard nonpeptide endothelium-dependent vasodilator. Responses of vessel rings to graded ...
Hartl Roger R Department of Neurosurgery, Weill Medical College, Cornell University, New York, New York, - - 2005
We have previously observed that intraarterial verapamil increases cerebral blood flow, whereas nitric oxide donors, such as nitroglycerin, do not. Clinically, both verapamil and nitroglycerin dilate large cerebral arteries. Therefore, we hypothesized that topical verapamil would dilate both the large proximal and the small distal cerebral arteries, whereas nitroglycerin would ...
Gonzales Rayna J - - 2005
We previously showed that testosterone, administered in vivo, increases the tone of cerebral arteries. A possible underlying mechanism is increased vasoconstriction through the thromboxane A2 (TxA2) pathway. Therefore, we investigated the effect of chronic testosterone treatment (4 wk) on TxA2 synthase levels and the contribution of TxA2 to vascular tone ...
Gao Yuansheng - - 2005
PTHrP has important roles in lung development and function. Here we determined the vasomotor responses of isolated pulmonary arteries and veins of newborn and adult sheep to PTHrP. In vessels constricted with endothelin-1, PTHrP (PTHrP 1-34) caused greater relaxation of veins than of arteries. In both vessel types, relaxation to ...
Zerpa H - - 2005
Endotoxaemia is a syndrome linked to the development of equine laminitis; however, the relationship between them is uncertain. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of an experimental acute sublethal endotoxaemia model on in vitro equine palmar digital vascular reactivity. Rings of arteries and veins of each ...
Klockgether-Radke A P - - 2005
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: It has been shown that racemic ketamine increases coronary blood flow and that this effect is at least in part due to a direct vasorelaxing effect of this substance. This study was designed to determine whether ketamine might stereoselectively relax isolated porcine coronary arteries. METHODS: Using the ...
Bhardwaj S - - 2005
This study was performed to evaluate angiogenic responses of angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) in vivo after adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in the periadventitial space of the rabbit carotid arteries using a collar technique. Adenoviruses encoding LacZ and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-1-Ig fusion protein (VEGF-R1-Ig) adenoviruses were used as controls. Increased neovessel ...
Fujimoto Naoki - - 2005
Nitroglycerin abbreviates left ventricular (LV) relaxation through improved hemodynamics as well as by direct actions on the myocardium. The aim of this study was to examine whether the changing systolic loading sequence during nitroglycerin administration affects LV relaxation in patients with excessive arterial load. By use of a conductance catheter ...
El-Hamamsy Ismaïl - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Coronary endothelial dysfunction occurs early after heart transplantation and predicts the development of intimal thickening characteristic of cardiac allograft vasculopathy. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of removal of the endothelium by balloon injury of coronary arteries of allografts without rupture of the internal elastic lamina at the time of ...
Koop Elianne A - - 2005
The transmembrane receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase-mu (RPTPmu) is thought to play an important role in cell-cell adhesion-mediated processes. We recently showed that RPTPmu is predominantly expressed in the endothelium of arteries and not in veins. Its involvement in the regulation of endothelial adherens junctions and its specific arterial expression suggest ...
Kimoto Yoshiki - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Effects of antiarrhythmic drugs on coronary vasodilation mediated by K channels have not been studied. Modulator roles of protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase in the activity of K channels have also been unclear in the coronary artery. The current study examined whether lidocaine and mexiletine in the porcine ...
Wang Sicen - - 2005
The present study was designed to study the difference effects between nicardipine and its two enantiomers on thoracic artery of rabbit. A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was used to prepare the two enantiomers of nicardipine. The thoracic artery of rabbit was removed. The vessels were cut into 3 mm in ...
Kairuz Evette M - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Elevated vascular plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels are associated with atherosclerosis. In vitro, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) has anti-proliferative effects and inhibits the production of PAI-1 in cultured vascular cells. Whether CNP can affect PAI-1 in vivo, particularly in the setting of atherosclerosis, has not been reported. METHODS: Using ...
Yada Toyotaka - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: We examined whether hydroxyfasudil, a specific Rho-kinase inhibitor, exerts cardioprotective effect on coronary ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and, if so, whether nitric oxide (NO) is involved. BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that Rho-kinase is substantially involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases; however, it remains to be examined whether it ...
Gauthier Kathryn M - - 2005
Bradykinin causes arterial relaxation and hyperpolarization, which is mediated by a transferable endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). In coronary arteries, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are involved in the EDHF response. However, the role of EETs as transferable mediators of EDHF-dependent relaxation remains poorly defined. Two small bovine coronary arteries were cannulated and ...
Naylor Louise H - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to establish valid indexes of conduit and resistance vessel structure in humans by using edge detection and wall tracking of high-resolution B-mode arterial ultrasound images, combined with synchronized Doppler waveform envelope analysis, to calculate conduit artery blood flow and diameter continuously across the cardiac ...
Borland Julie A A - - 2005
The expression, localisation and function of enzymes responsible for the local formation of angiotensin II in atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic human coronary arteries were studied. Human epicardial coronary arteries expressed mRNA for both ACE and chymase. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that ACE was localised to the vascular endothelium, and to a lesser ...
Chai Hong - - 2005
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor ritonavir (RTV) may induce vascular dysfunction through oxidative stress. Ginsenosides have been shown to have potential benefits on the cardiovascular system through diverse mechanisms, including antioxidative property. The objective of this study was to determine whether ginsenosides could prevent coronary arteries from RTV-induced dysfunction. ...
Kotelevets Larissa - - 2005
Isolated intact human pulmonary arteries and veins were used to determine the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) or butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities in the absence or presence of two selective cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors, iso-OMPA or BW284c51, respectively. These results were compared with the mRNA levels for each enzyme in human pulmonary vessels. Total ChE ...
Watanabe Yoshimasa - - 2005
Delayed cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may be due, in part, to altered regulation of arterial smooth muscle contraction. Contraction of cerebral arteries to serotonin is augmented after experimental SAH. We hypothesized that activation of Rho-associated kinase (Rho kinase) contributes to augmented contraction of cerebral arteries to serotonin after ...
Oeckler Richard A - - 2005
An ERK MAP kinase-mediated contractile mechanism previously reported to be activated by peroxide and stretch in bovine coronary arteries is shown in this study to be present in endothelium-denuded bovine pulmonary arteries and subject to regulation by modulation of cytosolic NAD(H) redox through the lactate dehydrogenase reaction. Although our previous ...
Barber Melissa N - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Atrial and C-type natriuretic peptides (ANP and CNP), acting through different receptors, have antiproliferative effects in vitro. Beneficial effects of CNP in vivo on early atherosclerosis have been described, but it is not known if ANP is antiproliferative in vivo. In the present study, the effects of chronic in ...
Mandalà Maurizio - - 2005
Chromogranin A (CgA), an acidic granule protein of the regulated secretory pathway in the diffuse neuroendocrine system, is postulated to serve as a prohormone for regulatory peptides. Betagranin (rCgA(1-128)), the first N-terminal cleavage product of rat CgA, is 87% homologous to the bovine vasostatin I (bCgA(1-76)), previously shown to be ...
Kukaswadia Sadiya - - 2005
Various inhibitory pathways exist in the human brain which are crucial in modulating motor cortex output and they can be investigated non-invasively using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) is one form of cortical inhibition. It can be elicited by stimulation of the opposite motor cortex at interstimulus intervals (ISIs) ...
Heppner, TJ
Novel non-thiazolidinedione, tyrosine-derived peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists, GI 262570, GW 7845, GW 1929, developed by Glaxo-Smith-Kline (GSK) along with pioglitazone and nisoldipine, were studied on currents through L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC) in freshly isolated smooth muscle cells from mesenteric arteries, and on the diameter of pressurized mesenteric arteries ...
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