Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 2893
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Hartl Roger - - 2005
We have previously observed that intraarterial verapamil increases cerebral blood flow, whereas nitric oxide donors, such as nitroglycerin, do not. Clinically, both verapamil and nitroglycerin dilate large cerebral arteries. Therefore, we hypothesized that topical verapamil would dilate both the large proximal and the small distal cerebral arteries, whereas nitroglycerin would ...
Moore Rustin M - - 2005
The objective of this study was to determine and compare the in vitro responses of equine large colon arterial and venous rings to vasodilatory neuropeptides; calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP); substance P (SP); vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP); and acetylcholine (ACh), a standard nonpeptide endothelium-dependent vasodilator. Responses of vessel rings to graded ...
Gonzales Rayna J - - 2005
We previously showed that testosterone, administered in vivo, increases the tone of cerebral arteries. A possible underlying mechanism is increased vasoconstriction through the thromboxane A2 (TxA2) pathway. Therefore, we investigated the effect of chronic testosterone treatment (4 wk) on TxA2 synthase levels and the contribution of TxA2 to vascular tone ...
Gao Yuansheng - - 2005
PTHrP has important roles in lung development and function. Here we determined the vasomotor responses of isolated pulmonary arteries and veins of newborn and adult sheep to PTHrP. In vessels constricted with endothelin-1, PTHrP (PTHrP 1-34) caused greater relaxation of veins than of arteries. In both vessel types, relaxation to ...
Zerpa H - - 2005
Endotoxaemia is a syndrome linked to the development of equine laminitis; however, the relationship between them is uncertain. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of an experimental acute sublethal endotoxaemia model on in vitro equine palmar digital vascular reactivity. Rings of arteries and veins of each ...
Klockgether-Radke A P - - 2005
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: It has been shown that racemic ketamine increases coronary blood flow and that this effect is at least in part due to a direct vasorelaxing effect of this substance. This study was designed to determine whether ketamine might stereoselectively relax isolated porcine coronary arteries. METHODS: Using the ...
Bhardwaj S - - 2005
This study was performed to evaluate angiogenic responses of angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) in vivo after adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in the periadventitial space of the rabbit carotid arteries using a collar technique. Adenoviruses encoding LacZ and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-1-Ig fusion protein (VEGF-R1-Ig) adenoviruses were used as controls. Increased neovessel ...
Fujimoto Naoki - - 2005
Nitroglycerin abbreviates left ventricular (LV) relaxation through improved hemodynamics as well as by direct actions on the myocardium. The aim of this study was to examine whether the changing systolic loading sequence during nitroglycerin administration affects LV relaxation in patients with excessive arterial load. By use of a conductance catheter ...
El-Hamamsy Ismaïl - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Coronary endothelial dysfunction occurs early after heart transplantation and predicts the development of intimal thickening characteristic of cardiac allograft vasculopathy. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of removal of the endothelium by balloon injury of coronary arteries of allografts without rupture of the internal elastic lamina at the time of ...
Koop Elianne A - - 2005
The transmembrane receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatase-mu (RPTPmu) is thought to play an important role in cell-cell adhesion-mediated processes. We recently showed that RPTPmu is predominantly expressed in the endothelium of arteries and not in veins. Its involvement in the regulation of endothelial adherens junctions and its specific arterial expression suggest ...
Kimoto Yoshiki - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Effects of antiarrhythmic drugs on coronary vasodilation mediated by K channels have not been studied. Modulator roles of protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase in the activity of K channels have also been unclear in the coronary artery. The current study examined whether lidocaine and mexiletine in the porcine ...
Wang Sicen - - 2005
The present study was designed to study the difference effects between nicardipine and its two enantiomers on thoracic artery of rabbit. A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was used to prepare the two enantiomers of nicardipine. The thoracic artery of rabbit was removed. The vessels were cut into 3 mm in ...
Kairuz Evette M - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Elevated vascular plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels are associated with atherosclerosis. In vitro, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) has anti-proliferative effects and inhibits the production of PAI-1 in cultured vascular cells. Whether CNP can affect PAI-1 in vivo, particularly in the setting of atherosclerosis, has not been reported. METHODS: Using ...
Yada Toyotaka - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: We examined whether hydroxyfasudil, a specific Rho-kinase inhibitor, exerts cardioprotective effect on coronary ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury and, if so, whether nitric oxide (NO) is involved. BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that Rho-kinase is substantially involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases; however, it remains to be examined whether it ...
Gauthier Kathryn M - - 2005
Bradykinin causes arterial relaxation and hyperpolarization, which is mediated by a transferable endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). In coronary arteries, epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are involved in the EDHF response. However, the role of EETs as transferable mediators of EDHF-dependent relaxation remains poorly defined. Two small bovine coronary arteries were cannulated and ...
Naylor Louise H - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to establish valid indexes of conduit and resistance vessel structure in humans by using edge detection and wall tracking of high-resolution B-mode arterial ultrasound images, combined with synchronized Doppler waveform envelope analysis, to calculate conduit artery blood flow and diameter continuously across the cardiac ...
Borland Julie A A - - 2005
The expression, localisation and function of enzymes responsible for the local formation of angiotensin II in atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic human coronary arteries were studied. Human epicardial coronary arteries expressed mRNA for both ACE and chymase. Immunohistochemical studies revealed that ACE was localised to the vascular endothelium, and to a lesser ...
Chai Hong - - 2005
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor ritonavir (RTV) may induce vascular dysfunction through oxidative stress. Ginsenosides have been shown to have potential benefits on the cardiovascular system through diverse mechanisms, including antioxidative property. The objective of this study was to determine whether ginsenosides could prevent coronary arteries from RTV-induced dysfunction. ...
Kotelevets Larissa - - 2005
Isolated intact human pulmonary arteries and veins were used to determine the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) or butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities in the absence or presence of two selective cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors, iso-OMPA or BW284c51, respectively. These results were compared with the mRNA levels for each enzyme in human pulmonary vessels. Total ChE ...
Watanabe Yoshimasa - - 2005
Delayed cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may be due, in part, to altered regulation of arterial smooth muscle contraction. Contraction of cerebral arteries to serotonin is augmented after experimental SAH. We hypothesized that activation of Rho-associated kinase (Rho kinase) contributes to augmented contraction of cerebral arteries to serotonin after ...
Oeckler Richard A - - 2005
An ERK MAP kinase-mediated contractile mechanism previously reported to be activated by peroxide and stretch in bovine coronary arteries is shown in this study to be present in endothelium-denuded bovine pulmonary arteries and subject to regulation by modulation of cytosolic NAD(H) redox through the lactate dehydrogenase reaction. Although our previous ...
Barber Melissa N - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Atrial and C-type natriuretic peptides (ANP and CNP), acting through different receptors, have antiproliferative effects in vitro. Beneficial effects of CNP in vivo on early atherosclerosis have been described, but it is not known if ANP is antiproliferative in vivo. In the present study, the effects of chronic in ...
Mandalà Maurizio - - 2005
Chromogranin A (CgA), an acidic granule protein of the regulated secretory pathway in the diffuse neuroendocrine system, is postulated to serve as a prohormone for regulatory peptides. Betagranin (rCgA(1-128)), the first N-terminal cleavage product of rat CgA, is 87% homologous to the bovine vasostatin I (bCgA(1-76)), previously shown to be ...
Kukaswadia Sadiya - - 2005
Various inhibitory pathways exist in the human brain which are crucial in modulating motor cortex output and they can be investigated non-invasively using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) is one form of cortical inhibition. It can be elicited by stimulation of the opposite motor cortex at interstimulus intervals (ISIs) ...
Heppner, TJ
Novel non-thiazolidinedione, tyrosine-derived peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists, GI 262570, GW 7845, GW 1929, developed by Glaxo-Smith-Kline (GSK) along with pioglitazone and nisoldipine, were studied on currents through L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCC) in freshly isolated smooth muscle cells from mesenteric arteries, and on the diameter of pressurized mesenteric arteries ...
Yuan Ming - - 2005
The present study tested the hypothesis that the role of ERK in phasic and tonic contractile responses is declined by hindlimb unloading (HU) in rat femoral arteries. Male Wistar rats were randomised into HU and Control group (n=7). After 14d, the femoral arteries were isolated and cut into 3-mm ring ...
Spiers Angela - - 2005
Wire myography is an in vitro technique that allows us to examine functional responses and vascular reactivity of isolated small resistance arteries. Vessels from various species, including transgenic models, and vascular beds can be examined in a variety of pathological disease states. Vessels are dissected, cleaned, and then mounted onto ...
Villamor Eduardo - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Experimental observations in mammalian models suggest that endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) content and activity are decreased in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that disruption of NO signaling in the developing chick embryo lung may contribute to pulmonary hypertension. METHODS: We analyzed ...
Joviliano Edwaldo E - - 2005
This experimental investigation was carried out to study the endothelium-dependent ischemia-reperfusion injury upon the release of nitric oxide (NO) in the canine femoral artery. The tested experimental model was the inferior canine hindlimb ischemia induced by infrarenal abdominal aortic clamping followed by reperfusion. The research protocol was standardized in four ...
Chaytor Andrew T - - 2005
Synthetic peptides corresponding to the Gap 26 and Gap 27 domains of the first and second extracellular loops of the major vascular connexins (Cx37, Cx40 and Cx43), designated as (43)Gap 26, (40)Gap 27, (37,40)Gap 26 and (37,43)Gap 27 according to Cx homology, were used to investigate the role of gap ...
Liu Jianmin - - 2005
Esophageal distension causes simultaneous relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and crural diaphragm. The mechanism of crural diaphragm relaxation during esophageal distension is not well understood. We studied the motion of crural and costal diaphragm along with the motion of the distal esophagus during esophageal distension-induced relaxation of the ...
Suda Osamu - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is one of the most important pro-angiogenic cytokines. Ability of VEGF to stimulate formation of superoxide anion in vivo has not been studied. We hypothesized that in vivo expression of recombinant VEGF in the rabbit carotid artery increases production of superoxide anion. METHODS AND ...
Oriowo Mabayoje A - - 2004
Noradrenaline induced concentration-dependent contractions of pulmonary artery segments from control and monocrotaline-treated rats. There was a significant decrease in the maximum response but not sensitivity in artery segments from monocrotaline-treated rats. At a concentration (10(-6) M) that abolished KCl-induced contraction, nifedipine attenuated but did not abolish, noradrenaline-induced contraction in both ...
Kobayashi Yuta - - 2004
1. Adrenomedullin-2 (AM2) is a novel peptide originally found in a fish and it is structurally related to mammalian AM or fish AM1. Cloning of AM2 cDNA in the mouse, rat and human has been successful. In the present study, the vasodilatory effect of synthetic human AM2 was analysed in ...
Sendão Oliveira Ana Paula - - 2004
Acetylcholine induced relaxation in a concentration-dependent way in isolated phenylephrine-contracted carotid artery rings from normotensive two-kidney (2K) and hypertensive two-kidney one-clip (2K-1C) rats. In the presence of the nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NOARG, 100 micromol/l), the relaxation stimulated with acetylcholine was blocked in 2K arteries. However, in 2K-1C ...
Ravikumar Nandini - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Polyamines act as endogenous modulators of cell function and excitability. There are no data in relation to their effects on the human fetoplacental circulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the polyamines, spermine, and spermidine on human umbilical artery resistance in vitro. METHODS: Isometric ...
Mathewson Alastair M - - 2004
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of iNOS expression on eNOS and nNOS functional activity in porcine cerebral arteries. iNOS was induced in pig basilar arteries using lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Arteries expressing iNOS generated NO and relaxed when challenged with L-arginine (30 microM), an effect that was ...
Sorenson Joseph - - 2005
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mutation of serine 1179 to aspartate on the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) increases NO production in the absence of stimulation by agonists. The present study was designed to determine the effect of recombinant S1179DeNOS gene expression on the vasomotor function of human pial arteries. METHODS: Pial arteries ...
Chan Yau-Chi - - 2005
Effects of raloxifene have been documented in the systemic circulation. However, its impact on the pulmonary circulation is unclear. The present study investigated the role of gender, endothelial modulation, and Ca(2+) channel in relaxations evoked by raloxifene in rat pulmonary arteries and veins. Vascular responses were studied on isolated pulmonary ...
Xu Pei-Han - - 2004
Nociceptin (NC), alias orphanin FQ, has been identified as the endogenous ligand of the opioid receptor-like 1 receptor (ORL1). The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of nociceptin on porcine coronary arteries and to investigate the mechanism of its action, if any. Rings of coronary arteries from ...
Morikawa Keiko - - 2004
The endothelium synthesizes and releases several vasodilator substances, including prostacyclin, nitric oxide (NO), and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). We have identified hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an EDHF in mouse and human mesenteric arteries and porcine coronary microvessels. We also have recently demonstrated that Cu,Zn-SOD plays an important role in EDHF ...
Traupe Tobias - - 2004
Endothelin has been implicated in arrhythmogenesis. Amiodarone, initially developed for the treatment of angina pectoris, is a potent inhibitor of ventricular arrhythmias. We investigated whether amiodarone (34 microg/mL) affects the vascular endothelin system of healthy Wistar-Kyoto rats. Contractility to big endothelin-1 and endothelin-1 was determined in aortic and carotid artery ...
Gori Tommaso - - 2004
We investigated in healthy humans whether continuous therapy with organic nitrates impairs conduit artery responses to nitroglycerin (GTN) as well as its effects on endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Sixteen young male volunteers were randomized to continuous treatment with either transdermal GTN (0.6 mg/h/24 hrs for 6 days) or no therapy. Endothelium-dependent (flow-mediated) ...
Graziani Annarita - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Cholesterol-rich membrane domains, which contain the scaffold protein caveolin-1 (Cav-1) (caveolae), represent an important structural element involved in endothelial signal transduction. The present study was designed to investigate the role of these signaling platforms in the generation of endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). METHODS: Caveolae were disrupted by cholesterol depletion ...
Belik Jaques - - 2004
Nitric oxide (NO) reacts with superoxide anion to form the peroxynitrite anion (ONOO-), a molecule with pulmonary vasodilator properties in the adult rat. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of ONOO- on intrapulmonary arteries from the newborn (days 4-7), juvenile (day 14), and adult rat. Following ...
Buzun Leszek - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) offer practical and potential pharmacological advantages over unfractionated heparin in multiple applications but have not been studied as vasoactive agents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two commercial preparations of LMWHs, enoxaparin sodium and nadroparin calcium, on vasoconstriction in ...
van der Harst Pim - - 2004
Persistent activation of the renin-angiotensin system leads to downregulation of the angiotensin type-1 receptor, and consequently, to a decreased response to exogenous angiotensin II. In the present study, we investigated the association of angiotensin II responsiveness to clinical outcome after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). We studied the responsiveness to ...
MacEachern Karen E - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Hypoxaemia accompanies dorsal recumbency in the horse and frequently complicates general anaesthesia. The physiology associated with this phenomenon is poorly understood. One possible cause of poor tolerance to dorsal recumbency is an absent or reduced response to hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). This study compared the HPV response in isolated ...
Ishida Hideyuki - - 2004
BACKGROUND:: Nipradilol (3,4-dihydro-8-[2-hydroxy-3-isopropyl-amino]propoxy-3-nitroxy-2-H-1-benzopyran), a potent non-selective beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, has been shown to increase NO production. The mechanisms are up-regulation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and direct release of NO from nipradilol. The process of direct NO release from nipradilol requires a reductase, such as glutathione S-transferase (GST) in some cells ...
Pretorius Mias - - 2004
BACKGROUND: This study tested the hypothesis that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors potentiate activation of the kallikrein-kinin system during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). METHODS: The effects of CPB on concentrations of bradykinin and its metabolite bradykinin 1-5 (BK1-5) were determined in 31 patients taking an ACE inhibitor who were randomized to continue ...
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