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Results 251 - 300 of 2918
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Kozłowska Hanna - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The endocannabinoid anandamide is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypotension in haemorrhagic, endotoxic, and cardiogenic shock. It has been demonstrated in animal, but not in human, vessels that the vasodilatory effects of anandamide and abnormal cannabidiol are partially mediated by an as yet unidentified endothelial cannabinoid receptor. Our study ...
Salcedo Adely - - 2007
Peripheral and splanchnic vasodilatation in cirrhotic patients has been related to hyporesponsiveness to vasoconstrictors, but studies to examine the vascular adrenergic response provide contradictory results. Hepatic arteries from cirrhotic patients undergoing liver transplantation and mesenteric arteries from liver donors were obtained. Segments 3 mm long from these arteries were mounted ...
Turner Neil A - - 2007
Statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) exhibit beneficial effects on the vasculature independently of their cholesterol-lowering properties. These pleiotropic effects underlie the ability of statins to reduce intimal hyperplasia in saphenous vein (SV) bypass grafts by attenuating smooth muscle cell (SMC) invasion and proliferation. Although all statins can effectively lower cholesterol, the ...
Leuranguer V - - 2008
C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) has been proposed to make a fundamental contribution in arterial endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization to acetylcholine. The present study was designed to address this hypothesis in the guinea-pig carotid artery. The membrane potential of vascular smooth muscle cells was recorded in isolated arteries with intracellular microelectrodes. Acetylcholine induced ...
Jiang Bo - - 2007
Sulphonylureas, such as glybenclamide and gliclazide, are classical blockers of ATP-dependent potassium channels (K(ATP)). Closure of K(ATP) channels in vascular smooth muscles by sulphonylureas would lead to membrane depolarization and vasoconstriction but this hypothesis has not been consistently proved in different types of vascular tissues. Our present study examined mouse ...
Hillard C J - - 2007
Cerebrovascular smooth muscle cells express the CB1 cannabinoid receptor and CB1 agonists produce vasodilatation of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). The thromboxane A2 mimetic, U-46619, increased the content of the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the MCA and 2-AG moderated the vasoconstriction produced by U46619 in this tissue. The purposes of ...
Kilian Jens G - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: As endothelial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of late failure of saphenous vein grafts (SVG), we assessed endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vascular responses of SVG in humans. METHODS: Subjects undergoing angiography after bypass grafting had selective infusions of acetylcholine (ACh, an endothelium-dependent dilator) and sodium-nitroprusside (SNP, an endothelium-independent ...
Stenborg Anna - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a hereditary arteriopathy, which mainly involves the brain causing stroke and dementia. Mice expressing the mutated protein display early dysfunction in vasoreactivity in resistance arteries, but studies of patients have been inconclusive so far. METHODS: We ...
Leblais Véronique - - 2008
AIMS: beta-adrenoceptor (beta-AR)-mediated relaxation was characterized in pulmonary arteries from normoxic and hypoxic (as model of pulmonary hypertension) mice. The endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) pathway was especially investigated because of its potential vasculoprotective effects. METHODS: Pulmonary arteries from control or hypoxic (0.5 atm for 21 days) wild-type or eNOS-/- mice ...
Koenig Andreas - - 2007
The vasoactive properties of 14 organic mononitrates were investigated in vitro using PGF(2alpha)-precontracted porcine pulmonary arteries. A surprisingly wide range of vasorelaxant potencies was observed (pD(2): 3.36-7.50). Activities showed to be highly sensitive to the molecular structure and the substituents at the molecular carrier of the nitrate group. A correlation ...
Mohammed M M J - - 2007
1. Although leptin increases sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure, its direct action on large arterial rings is to cause relaxation. However, it is the small resistance arteries and veins that are important in blood pressure control. The effects of leptin on these small vessels has not been reported previously ...
Sun Dong - - 2007
We studied the roles of estrogen receptors (ER) and aromatase in the mediation of flow-induced dilation (FID) in isolated arteries of male ERalpha-knockout (ERalpha-KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. FID was comparable between gracilis arteries of WT and ERalpha-KO mice. In WT arteries, inhibition of NO and prostaglandins eliminated FID. In ...
Koenig Andreas - - 2007
Neither therapeutic dosage of nitrovasodilators nor the development of tolerance correlates with nitrate groups in these molecules. Clinically, low dosages of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) develop tolerance, but 100-fold higher dosages of pentaerythrityl tetranitrate (PETN) do not. Vasorelaxation was studied on prostaglandian F2alpha (PGF2alpha)-precontracted porcine pulmonary arteries in organ bath procedure. ...
Galli Gina L J - - 2007
The present study investigates adrenergic regulation of the systemic and pulmonary circulations of the anaesthetised South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus. Haemodynamic measurements were made following bolus injections of adrenaline and adrenergic antagonists administered through a systemic arterial catheter. Adrenaline caused a marked systemic vasoconstriction that was abolished by phentolamine, indicating ...
Salcedo Adely - - 2007
Apelin effects were examined in human splanchnic arteries from liver donors (normal arteries) and from liver recipients. Segments 3 mm long were obtained from mesenteric arteries taken from liver donors (normal arteries), and from hepatic arteries taken from cirrhotic patients undergoing liver transplantation (liver recipients), and the segments were mounted ...
Salcedo Adely A Department of Physiology, University Hospital 'Puerta de Hierro', Faculty of Medicine, Autonomous University, Madrid, - - 2007
To examine the endothelium-dependent relaxation of splanchnic arteries during cirrhosis as well as the role of reactive oxygen species in this relaxation using hepatic arteries from cirrhotic patients undergoing liver transplantation and mesenteric arteries from liver donors. Arterial segments 3 mm long were mounted in organ baths for isometric tension ...
Fischer Dieter - - 2007
Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of human conduit arteries is, in part, related to shear stress-induced release of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO). However, NO synthase inhibitors do not completely abolish this FMD-response. Recently, a cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenase of the 2C family was linked to NO- and prostacyclin-independent relaxation of conduit arteries. ...
Ito Kaoru M - - 2007
We evaluated the endothelial function of thoracic aortas and pulmonary arteries in a population of European wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus), which exhibit hypercholesterolemia. According to the plasma cholesterol level, mice were divided into two groups: hypercholesterolemic (AHL, total plasma cholesterol 200-300 mg/dl) and normocholesterolemic (ANL, total plasma cholesterol <200 mg/dl). ...
Skipor Janina - - 2007
The present study examines the direct effect of luteinising hormone (LH) on the reactivity of the porcine uterine artery to norepinephrine (NE). Three-mm-long arterial segments collected during the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle were mounted in an organ bath for isometric tension recording. After 30 min of equilibration in ...
Robertson Tom P - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, Ro-31-8220, on agonist-induced constriction of laminar arteries and veins obtained from horses. SAMPLE POPULATION: Laminar arteries and veins obtained from 8 adult mixed-breed horses. PROCEDURES: Laminar arteries and veins were isolated and mounted on small vessel myographs for ...
Bellien Jeremy J Department of Pharmacology, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM) U644, Institut Federatif de Recherche Multidisciplinaire sur les Peptides 23, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen Cedex, - - 2007
Whether AT(1) (angiotenin II type 1) receptor blockade can prevent the decrease in conduit artery FMD (flow-mediated dilatation) during NOS (nitric oxide synthase) inhibition by alternative endothelial pathways has not been explored previously in humans. In 12 healthy subjects, we measured radial artery diameter (echotracking) and flow (Doppler) during FMD ...
Bouvet Céline - - 2007
Chronic increases in blood flow increase arterial diameter and NO-dependent dilation in resistance arteries. Because endothelial dysfunction accompanies metabolic syndrome, we hypothesized that flow-mediated remodeling might be impaired in obese rat resistance arteries. Obese and lean Zucker rat mesenteric resistance arteries were exposed to chronic flow increases through arterial ligation ...
Lakshminrusimha Satyan S Department of Pediatrics, Women's and Children's Hospital of Buffalo, State University of New York at Buffalo, NY 14222, USA. - - 2007
Congenital cardiac defects associated with increased pulmonary blood flow (Q(p)) produce pulmonary hypertension. We have previously reported attenuated endothelium-dependent relaxations in pulmonary arteries (PA) isolated from lambs with increased Q(p) and pulmonary hypertension. To better characterize the vascular alterations in the nitric oxide-superoxide system, 12 fetal lambs underwent in utero ...
Piamsomboon C - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Peri-operative pulmonary hypertension can lead to right ventricular dysfunction and to an increase in morbidity and mortality. Altered function of the pulmonary vascular endothelium and vasoconstriction play a crucial role in the development of elevated pulmonary vascular resistance. Because pulmonary artery vasoreactivity is dependent on many factors including the ...
Newcomer Sean C - - 2007
Limb differences in endothelial function exist between arm and leg vasculatures of humans. The current investigation tested the hypothesis that forelimb and hindlimb vasorelaxation are similar in the absence of limb differences in blood pressure. Conduit arteries (brachials/femorals) and second order arterioles were harvested from 22 miniature Yucatan swine. In ...
Winter Polly - - 2007
Levels of ATP achieved within the lumen of vessels suggest a key autacoid role. P2Y receptors on the endothelium may represent the target for ATP, leading to hyperpolarization and associated relaxation of vascular smooth muscle through the endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) pathway. EDHF signals radially from the endothelium to cause ...
Berkan Ocal - - 2007
The radial artery (RA) is used as a spastic coronary bypass graft. This study was designed to investigate the mechanism of vasorelaxant effects of YC-1 (3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzyl indazole), a nitric oxide (NO)-independent soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) activator, and DEA/NO (diethylamine/nitric oxide), a NO-nucleophile adduct, on the human RA. RA segments (n ...
Sugawara Jun - - 2007
Stiffening of large elastic arteries impairs the buffering function of the arterial system and contributes to cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) modulates the stiffness of large elastic arteries in humans. Seven apparently healthy adults (60+/-3 years, 2 males and 5 ...
Haas Elvira - - 2007
Venous complications have been implicated in the adverse effects of hormone replacement therapy. This study investigated acute effects of the natural estrogen, 17beta-estradiol, on function, estrogen receptors/GPR30 expression, and kinase activation in vascular rings and cultured smooth muscle cells from arteries and veins of patients with coronary artery disease. Changes ...
Wright C I - - 2007
Local wall stiffness affects endothelial responsiveness but how global measures affect responsiveness is unanswered. We assessed this by comparing reactive hyperaemic responses of brachial diameter (RHRBD) with central (heart-to-brachial artery pulse wave velocity (PWV); large (C1)) and peripheral (C2) arterial stiffness. Twelve healthy subjects were investigated. RHRBD was induced via ...
Hudson Nicola K - - 2007
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a potent bioactive lipid that has been implicated in cardiovascular disease. The objective of the present study was to determine the vasoactive effects and underlying mechanisms of S1P on adult human maternal arteries. The isometric tensions of the omental and myometrial arteries isolated from normal pregnant women ...
Proietta Maria - - 2007
In 85 patients undergoing aorto-coronary bypass for atherosclerotic coronary disease, we measured the antithrombin III activity levels and the thrombin-antithrombin III complex concentrations in blood from the pulmonary and the radial arteries, taken before the aorto-coronary bypass procedure, with the aim of investigating the role of the pulmonary endothelium in ...
Xu Hai-Bin - - 2007
Owing to its cardiovascular therapeutical effects, icariin, a flavonoid isolated from Epimedii herba, is considered to be the major active constituent of Epimedii herba. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of icariin on precontracted coronary artery isolated from canine. Coronary artery segments were isolated from normal ...
Bailey S R - - 2007
Experiments were performed to determine the effects of endothelial denudation in vivo on vasoconstrictor responses of mouse tail artery segments in vitro. A sterile wire (70 microm diameter) was inserted into tail arteries of anesthetized mice to mechanically denude the endothelium, and the animals were allowed to recover for 48 ...
Xu Y C - - 2007
Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that are widespread in the plant kingdom, and structure-activity relationships (SAR) for vascular relaxation effects were examined for 17 of them using porcine coronary arteries. Density functional theory was employed to calculate the chemical parameters of these compounds. The order of potency for vascular relaxation was ...
Xu Pei-Han - - 2007
Curcumin is a naturally occurring phenolic compound isolated as a yellow pigment from turmeric (curcuma longa). This compound has received much attention due to its diversity of biological and pharmacological activities. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of curcumin on porcine coronary arteries and to investigate ...
Sandoval Renan J - - 2007
Regulation of cytosolic calcium and myofilament calcium sensitivity varies considerably with postnatal age in cerebral arteries. Because these mechanisms also govern myogenic tone, the present study used graded stretch to examine the hypothesis that myogenic tone is less dependent on calcium influx and more dependent on myofilament calcium sensitization in ...
Armstead William M - - 2007
Cerebrovascular dysregulation during hypotension occurs after fluid percussion brain injury (FPI) in the newborn pig owing to impaired K channel function. This study was designed to (1) determine the role of gender and K channel activation in adrenomedullin (ADM) cerebrovasodilation, (2) characterize the role of gender in the loss of ...
Baker Kathryn E - - 2007
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('Ecstasy', MDMA) and cathinone, the active constituent of khat leaves, were examined on pig isolated left anterior descending coronary arteries to determine whether they cause vasoconstriction and whether this was an indirect sympathomimetic action. Coronary artery rings were set up in Krebs solution (37 degrees C) gassed with 5% ...
d'Uscio Livius V - - 2007
Erythropoietin (EPO) fosters tissue oxygenation by stimulating erythropoiesis. More recently, EPO has been recognized as a tissue-protective cytokine. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) plays a key role in the vascular protective effect of EPO. A murine model of wire-induced injury of carotid artery ...
Kennedy Simon - - 2007
Vasospasm is a complication of cardiological procedures such as balloon angioplasty and may be related to vascular oxidant stress. Although nitric oxide donor drugs are often administered to prevent vasospasm, the response to these drugs in balloon-injured arteries has not been studied. Pig coronary arteries were balloon-injured in vitro and ...
Gonzáles-Luis G - - 2007
Nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC) vasodilator mechanisms may contribute to the maintenance of adult pulmonary and systemic vascular tone. However, their actions in the neonatal circulation have not been studied. We aimed to investigate NANC vasorelaxation in neonatal and 2-week-old piglet pulmonary and mesenteric arteries and to examine the potential role of ...
Parlaman Joshua P JP Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville TN 37232, United - - 2007
Prenatal cocaine exposure in a rabbit intravenous model has revealed selective disruption of brain development and pharmacological responsiveness. We therefore examined the pharmacokinetic properties of cocaine in this model. Dutch-belted rabbits were surgically implanted with a catheter in the carotid artery, allowed to recover, and then injected intravenously with a ...
Maupoil V - - 2007
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common electrical cardiac disorder in clinical practice. The major trigger for AF is focal ectopic activity of unknown origin in sleeves of cardiac muscle that extend into the pulmonary veins. We examined the role of noradrenaline in the genesis of ectopic activity in the ...
de Berrazueta José R - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Intravenous administration of loop diuretics induces venodilation before the diuretic response. We investigated whether furosemide and torasemide exert a dilatory effect on arteries and veins mediated by endothelial release of nitric oxide. METHODS: We performed intermittent venous occlusion plethysmography to study forearm blood flow and dorsal hand-vein distension in ...
Pérez-Rivera Alex A - - 2007
Mesenteric veins are more sensitive than arteries to the constrictor effects of sympathetic nerve stimulation and alpha-adrenergic receptor agonists. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors (alpha(2)-ARs) contribute to in vitro agonist-induced constriction in veins but not arteries and that alpha(2)-AR function is down-regulated in mesenteric ...
Kim Song-Jung - - 2007
Nitric oxide (NO) derived from endothelial NO synthase (NOS) (eNOS) has been identified as a trigger for the second window of protection (SWOP), but its role as a mediator during the SWOP is a matter of debate. Eighteen mongrel dogs were chronically instrumented to measure left ventricular function, coronary blood ...
Kajiya Masahito - - 2007
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) causes right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy and, according to the extent of pressure overload, eventual heart failure. We tested the hypothesis that the mechanical stress in PH-RV impairs the vasoreactivity of the RV coronary microvessels of different sizes with increased superoxide levels. Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected ...
Jackman Katherine A - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Equol is the main active intestinal metabolite of the isoflavone daidzein and is postulated to be responsible for the cardiovascular benefits of soy. Cerebral vascular effects of equol are unknown. We compared the vasorelaxant and antioxidant effects of equol and daidzein in carotid and basilar artery of ...
Mueller Daniel - - 2007
We present a novel system for 3-D visualisation of the heart and coronary arteries. Binary tags (generated offline) are combined with value-gradient transfer functions (specified online) allowing for interactive visualisation, while relaxing the offline segmentation criteria. The arteries are roughly segmented using a Hessian-based line filter and the pericardial cavity ...
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