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Results 251 - 300 of 2890
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Haas Elvira - - 2007
Venous complications have been implicated in the adverse effects of hormone replacement therapy. This study investigated acute effects of the natural estrogen, 17beta-estradiol, on function, estrogen receptors/GPR30 expression, and kinase activation in vascular rings and cultured smooth muscle cells from arteries and veins of patients with coronary artery disease. Changes ...
Wright C I - - 2007
Local wall stiffness affects endothelial responsiveness but how global measures affect responsiveness is unanswered. We assessed this by comparing reactive hyperaemic responses of brachial diameter (RHRBD) with central (heart-to-brachial artery pulse wave velocity (PWV); large (C1)) and peripheral (C2) arterial stiffness. Twelve healthy subjects were investigated. RHRBD was induced via ...
Hudson Nicola K - - 2007
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a potent bioactive lipid that has been implicated in cardiovascular disease. The objective of the present study was to determine the vasoactive effects and underlying mechanisms of S1P on adult human maternal arteries. The isometric tensions of the omental and myometrial arteries isolated from normal pregnant women ...
Proietta Maria - - 2007
In 85 patients undergoing aorto-coronary bypass for atherosclerotic coronary disease, we measured the antithrombin III activity levels and the thrombin-antithrombin III complex concentrations in blood from the pulmonary and the radial arteries, taken before the aorto-coronary bypass procedure, with the aim of investigating the role of the pulmonary endothelium in ...
Xu Hai-Bin - - 2007
Owing to its cardiovascular therapeutical effects, icariin, a flavonoid isolated from Epimedii herba, is considered to be the major active constituent of Epimedii herba. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of icariin on precontracted coronary artery isolated from canine. Coronary artery segments were isolated from normal ...
Bailey S R - - 2007
Experiments were performed to determine the effects of endothelial denudation in vivo on vasoconstrictor responses of mouse tail artery segments in vitro. A sterile wire (70 microm diameter) was inserted into tail arteries of anesthetized mice to mechanically denude the endothelium, and the animals were allowed to recover for 48 ...
Xu Y C - - 2007
Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that are widespread in the plant kingdom, and structure-activity relationships (SAR) for vascular relaxation effects were examined for 17 of them using porcine coronary arteries. Density functional theory was employed to calculate the chemical parameters of these compounds. The order of potency for vascular relaxation was ...
Xu Pei-Han - - 2007
Curcumin is a naturally occurring phenolic compound isolated as a yellow pigment from turmeric (curcuma longa). This compound has received much attention due to its diversity of biological and pharmacological activities. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of curcumin on porcine coronary arteries and to investigate ...
Sandoval Renan J - - 2007
Regulation of cytosolic calcium and myofilament calcium sensitivity varies considerably with postnatal age in cerebral arteries. Because these mechanisms also govern myogenic tone, the present study used graded stretch to examine the hypothesis that myogenic tone is less dependent on calcium influx and more dependent on myofilament calcium sensitization in ...
Armstead William M - - 2007
Cerebrovascular dysregulation during hypotension occurs after fluid percussion brain injury (FPI) in the newborn pig owing to impaired K channel function. This study was designed to (1) determine the role of gender and K channel activation in adrenomedullin (ADM) cerebrovasodilation, (2) characterize the role of gender in the loss of ...
Baker Kathryn E - - 2007
3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine ('Ecstasy', MDMA) and cathinone, the active constituent of khat leaves, were examined on pig isolated left anterior descending coronary arteries to determine whether they cause vasoconstriction and whether this was an indirect sympathomimetic action. Coronary artery rings were set up in Krebs solution (37 degrees C) gassed with 5% ...
d'Uscio Livius V - - 2007
Erythropoietin (EPO) fosters tissue oxygenation by stimulating erythropoiesis. More recently, EPO has been recognized as a tissue-protective cytokine. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) plays a key role in the vascular protective effect of EPO. A murine model of wire-induced injury of carotid artery ...
Kennedy Simon - - 2007
Vasospasm is a complication of cardiological procedures such as balloon angioplasty and may be related to vascular oxidant stress. Although nitric oxide donor drugs are often administered to prevent vasospasm, the response to these drugs in balloon-injured arteries has not been studied. Pig coronary arteries were balloon-injured in vitro and ...
Gonzáles-Luis G - - 2007
Nonadrenergic noncholinergic (NANC) vasodilator mechanisms may contribute to the maintenance of adult pulmonary and systemic vascular tone. However, their actions in the neonatal circulation have not been studied. We aimed to investigate NANC vasorelaxation in neonatal and 2-week-old piglet pulmonary and mesenteric arteries and to examine the potential role of ...
Parlaman Joshua P - - 2007
Prenatal cocaine exposure in a rabbit intravenous model has revealed selective disruption of brain development and pharmacological responsiveness. We therefore examined the pharmacokinetic properties of cocaine in this model. Dutch-belted rabbits were surgically implanted with a catheter in the carotid artery, allowed to recover, and then injected intravenously with a ...
Maupoil V - - 2007
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common electrical cardiac disorder in clinical practice. The major trigger for AF is focal ectopic activity of unknown origin in sleeves of cardiac muscle that extend into the pulmonary veins. We examined the role of noradrenaline in the genesis of ectopic activity in the ...
de Berrazueta José R - - 2007
INTRODUCTION: Intravenous administration of loop diuretics induces venodilation before the diuretic response. We investigated whether furosemide and torasemide exert a dilatory effect on arteries and veins mediated by endothelial release of nitric oxide. METHODS: We performed intermittent venous occlusion plethysmography to study forearm blood flow and dorsal hand-vein distension in ...
Pérez-Rivera Alex A - - 2007
Mesenteric veins are more sensitive than arteries to the constrictor effects of sympathetic nerve stimulation and alpha-adrenergic receptor agonists. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that alpha(2)-adrenergic receptors (alpha(2)-ARs) contribute to in vitro agonist-induced constriction in veins but not arteries and that alpha(2)-AR function is down-regulated in mesenteric ...
Kim Song-Jung - - 2007
Nitric oxide (NO) derived from endothelial NO synthase (NOS) (eNOS) has been identified as a trigger for the second window of protection (SWOP), but its role as a mediator during the SWOP is a matter of debate. Eighteen mongrel dogs were chronically instrumented to measure left ventricular function, coronary blood ...
Kajiya Masahito - - 2007
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) causes right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy and, according to the extent of pressure overload, eventual heart failure. We tested the hypothesis that the mechanical stress in PH-RV impairs the vasoreactivity of the RV coronary microvessels of different sizes with increased superoxide levels. Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected ...
Jackman Katherine A - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Equol is the main active intestinal metabolite of the isoflavone daidzein and is postulated to be responsible for the cardiovascular benefits of soy. Cerebral vascular effects of equol are unknown. We compared the vasorelaxant and antioxidant effects of equol and daidzein in carotid and basilar artery of ...
Mueller Daniel - - 2007
We present a novel system for 3-D visualisation of the heart and coronary arteries. Binary tags (generated offline) are combined with value-gradient transfer functions (specified online) allowing for interactive visualisation, while relaxing the offline segmentation criteria. The arteries are roughly segmented using a Hessian-based line filter and the pericardial cavity ...
Yetkin Ertan - - 2007
BACKGROUND: It has been known that in a migraine attack intracranial and extracranial arteries on the headache side dilate and when the migraine attack has subsided, the intracranial arteries show segmental narrowing. We hypothesized that patients with migraine had an underlying systemic vasomotion abnormality and there might be an increased ...
Yugar-Toledo Juan Carlos - - 2007
The nitric oxide/cyclic-guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate signaling cascade plays an essential role in cardiovascular homeostasis but its involvement in the pathophysiology of refractory hypertension is unclear. The acute vasodilatory effect of a single oral dose of a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (sildenafil citrate) on the brachial artery dilatation was evaluated in 25 normal healthy ...
Neidhold S - - 2007
Adrenoceptors can associate with cardiac caveolae. To investigate the function of vascular caveolae, adrenoceptor-mediated effects were compared in the saphenous artery of caveolin-1 knockout (cav-1KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. Electronmicroscopy was used to detect caveolae. Real-Time quantitative PCR was used for adrenoceptor subtypes. Catecholamine-evoked contractions and relaxations were studied in ...
Anaid Shahbazian - - 2007
The endothelium and its interaction with smooth muscle play a central role in the local control of the pulmonary vasculature, and endothelial dysfunction is thought to contribute to pulmonary hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a 28-amino acid neuropeptide, relaxes the rat pulmonary artery, but there ...
Tummala Saigiridhar - - 2007
We have previously reported that organ cultured coronary arteries from market-age pigs (6-9 months of age) exhibit an enhanced contraction to the atherosclerotic-associated peptide, endothelin-1 (ET-1). The objective of this study was to investigate the interaction of 17beta-estradiol with ET-1 in organ cultured coronary arteries from older female pigs (3-4 ...
Karadas Baris - - 2007
Alterations in vascular responses to beta-adrenoceptor agonists in normotensive pregnancy and pre-eclampsia are not fully understood. Thus, we studied changes in vasodilator responses to beta(2)-adrenoceptor agonist formoterol and beta(3)-adrenoceptor agonist BRL 37344 on umbilical arteries isolated from normotensive (n=12) and pre-eclamptic (n=12) pregnant women. Changes in the relaxant effect of ...
Konduri Girija G - - 2007
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn (PPHN) is associated with decreased NO release and impaired pulmonary vasodilation. We investigated the hypothesis that increased superoxide (O(2)(*-)) release by an uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) contributes to impaired pulmonary vasodilation in PPHN. We investigated the response of isolated pulmonary arteries to the ...
Tenorio-Lopez Fermin Alejandro - - 2006
Viscum album L. aqueous extract, on the Langendorff isolated and perfused heart model, decreases coronary vascular resistance, when compared to control group (36.00 +/- 2.00 vs. 15.80 +/- 1.96 dyn s cm-5). Our data support the fact that this mechanism involves NOS-2 and NOS-3 overexpression (4.65 and 7.89 times over ...
Wei Wei - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Due to potential therapeutic value of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in coronary artery disease, the effect and mechanism of VEGF in human arteries used as coronary bypass grafts become important but not fully understood. VEGF-mediated endothelial regulation in vasorelaxation was studied in internal mammary artery (IMA) and radial ...
Mead Emma J - - 2007
The G protein-coupled receptor GPR54 (also designated KISS1) is activated by cleavage products of the KiSS1 protein, the kisspeptins (KP), to act as a molecular switch for puberty. Additionally, KP are potent inhibitors of tumor metastasis and play a role in placentation, both processes involving angiogenesis. Our aim was to ...
O'Sullivan S E - - 2006
The important role of nitric oxide (NO) in the regulation of vascular tone has been well studied. By contrast, the vascular significance of another gaseous mediator, hydrogen sulphide (H2S), is still poorly understood. A study published in this issue of the British Journal of Pharmacology now provides evidence that in ...
Erbs Sandra - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: Polymorphisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene in the promoter (T-786C) and exon 7 (G894T) have been suggested to attenuate endothelial function. As it is unknown whether these polymorphisms, on top of classical risk factors, further deteriorate endothelium-dependent vasomotion, we aimed to elucidate the impact of both polymorphisms ...
Zhou Wei - - 2006
Homocysteine is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to investigate whether ginkgolide A (GA), a major constituent of Ginkgo biloba, could block homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction in porcine coronary arteries. Porcine coronary artery rings were assigned to six treatment groups: control; homocysteine (50 micromol/L); low-dose ...
Conklin D J - - 2006
Increased risk of vasospasm, a spontaneous hyperconstriction, is associated with atherosclerosis, cigarette smoking, and hypertension-all conditions involving oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation. To test the role of the lipid peroxidation- and inflammation-derived aldehyde, acrolein, in human vasospasm, we developed an ex vivo model using human coronary artery bypass graft ...
Aubin Marie-Claude - - 2007
The present study was designed to compare alterations of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in coronary epicardial arteries and subendocardial arterioles occurring in left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) secondary to 60 days of aortic banding in a porcine model. Development of LVH was documented by echocardiogram and the endothelial function of subendocardial and epicardial ...
Otsuki Takeshi - - 2007
Arterial stiffness is higher in strength-trained humans and lower in endurance-trained humans. However, the mechanisms underlying these different adaptations are unclear. Vascular endothelium-derived factors, such as endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO), play an important role in the regulation of vascular tonus. We hypothesized that endogenous ET-1 and NO participate ...
Sánchez Ana - - 2006
To analyze the cerebrovascular effects of ischemia-reperfusion, cerebrovascular reactivity to ADP was studied after inducing 60-min occlusion followed by 60-min reperfusion of the left middle cerebral artery (MCA) in anesthetized goats. In 12 goats, at the end of reperfusion, left MCA resistance was decreased by 19%, and reactive hyperemia to ...
Bohr, David F.
The current study was undertaken to assess species and regional variations in the relaxation of vascular smooth muscle in response to potassium and in the ouabain sensitivity of this relaxation. The effect of species variation was investigated through the use of tail arteries from rats, dogs, cats, monkeys, and pigs; ...
Moroe Hiroko - - 2006
The present study was undertaken to investigate and compare the vascular function in carotid arteries isolated from normal short-term hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Rabbits were fed normal or 0.5% cholesterol chow for 5 weeks. The tension of isolated carotid artery rings was measured isometrically. Serum lipid levels were measured and morphometric analysis ...
Hammerer-Lercher Angelika - - 2006
In the present study, we investigated the vasodilator properties of A-type, B-type and C-type natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP and CNP respectively) and the NO (nitric oxide) donor sin-1 (3-morpholino-sydnonimine) in human by-pass grafts. In contrast with previous studies, the same vessel was used to demonstrate a direct link between cGMP ...
Matsumoto Kazuhisa - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: There are few data available on the effect of ultrasonic skeletonization with the harmonic scalpel on internal thoracic artery (ITA) and gastroepiploic artery (GEA) vessel function. METHODS: Rings of segments of the skeletonized ITA, pedicled ITA, skeletonized GEA, and pedicled GEA were studied. Arterial segments were treated with high ...
Pataricza János - - 2006
Levosimendan is a novel inodilator drug developed for the treatment of heart failure. The possible vasodilating property of the drug in human coronary artery bypass grafts was investigated. Isometric tensions of the left internal thoracic artery (LITA, n = 8) as well as the proximal and distal segments of the ...
Kretz Martin - - 2006
We previously reported that angiotensin II (AngII)-induced vasoconstriction involves activation of cyclooxygenase (COX) in murine aorta and carotid artery. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of early aging and COX in AngII-induced vasoconstriction in different vascular beds. Aortic, carotid, renal, and femoral artery rings of 19- ...
Iida Kiyoshi - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the potential vasodilator effects of transcutaneous low-frequency ultrasound (US) in human brachial arteries. BACKGROUND: Recent data show that transthoracic low-frequency US energy results in canine coronary artery vasodilation. METHODS: Brachial artery diameters were measured before and after low-frequency US (29 kHz, 1.4 W/cm2) exposure using US imaging ...
Kanki-Horimoto Sachiko - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Endothelial dysfunction is known to exaggerate coronary artery disease, sometimes leading to irreversible myocardial damage. In such cases, repetitive coronary revascularization including coronary artery bypass grafting is needed, which may cause a shortage of graft conduits. On the other hand, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is an attractive target ...
Wareing Mark - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: In pre-eclampsia (PE), endothelium-dependent function of myometrial small arteries is markedly attenuated. The residual PE response is wholly NO mediated. We have previously demonstrated that PDE5 inhibition can improve endothelial function in myometrial small arteries from women with PE. We aimed to assess whether the effect of PDE5 inhibition ...
Busija David W - - 2006
Insulin resistance (IR) has adverse effects on the reactivity of arteries and arterioles and promotes arterial hypertension and vascular occlusive diseases. Altered reactivity of resistance vessels occurs at both the endothelium and smooth-muscle levels. One major mechanism of vascular dysfunction with IR involves the augmented generation, availability, and/or actions of ...
Mullick Adam E - - 2006
We have reported that hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) evoked by folate depletion increases arterial permeability and stiffness in rats and that low folate without HHcy increases arterial permeability in mice. In this study, we hypothesized that HHcy independently increases arterial permeability and stiffness in mice. C57BL/6J mice that received rodent chow and ...
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