Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 2890
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Pedersen Susan H - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Progestins may be associated with the adverse cardiovascular outcomes observed with estrogen plus progestogen therapy, but the mechanism is not resolved. In this study we examined the effect of 17beta-estradiol (E2) alone and in combination with two progestins on the endothelin-1 (ET-1) system in coronary arteries. DESIGN: Watanabe heritable ...
Looft-Wilson Robin C - - 2008
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) impairs endothelium-dependent vasodilation by increasing reactive oxygen species, thereby reducing nitric oxide (NO.) bioavailability. It is unclear whether reduced expression or function of the enzyme that produces NO., endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), also contributes. It is also unclear whether resistance vessels that utilize both NO.and non-NO.vasodilatory mechanisms, ...
Souza F M - - 2008
The investigation of resistance vessels is generally costly and difficult to execute. The present study investigated the diameters and the vascular reactivity of different segments of the rat tail artery (base, middle, and tail end) of 30 male Wister rats (EPM strain) to characterize a conductance or resistance vessel, using ...
Foster Julie M - - 2008
We used myography on five different arteries and three veins of the hagfish, Eptatretus cirrhatus, to test the response of vessels to vasoactive drugs. Concentration-response curves were generated for carbachol, endothelin-1, arginine vasotocin and the adrenergic agonists, phenylephrine and isoprenaline. pEC50 values indicated that veins were more sensitive to endothelin-1 ...
Wright J L - - 2008
The pathogenesis of cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary hypertension is not understood. We have previously shown that smoke rapidly and persistently, but discoordinately, upregulates gene expression of mediators that control vasoconstriction, vasoproliferation, and vasorelaxation in small intrapulmonary arteries. To investigate the possibility that smoke also induces endothelial dysfunction, a finding common to ...
Sweeney M - - 2008
Agonist-induced tone oscillations (rhythmic contractions and relaxations) occur in vascular beds to allow acute regulation of volume flow and thus the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the tissue. Mechanisms responsible for the control of human placental vasomotor tone and blood flow are poorly characterized. This study aimed to characterise ...
Wang Yan-fei - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The balance between vasodilation and vasoconstriction plays a major role in maintaining vascular homeostasis. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. More and more evidence suggested that there was an interaction in the regulation of vasorelaxation between nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S). We explored the interaction between and ...
Birch D - - 2008
We investigated the distribution and density of perivascular nerves in human mesenteric arteries and veins and their responses to noradrenaline (NA), ATP and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in control (non-inflamed) and inflamed bowel, using confocal microscopy and in vitro pharmacology. The density of innervation at the adventitial-medial border of arteries and ...
Mink Steven N - - 2008
In septic shock, systemic vasodilation and myocardial depression contribute to the systemic hypotension observed. Both components can be attributed to the effects of mediators that are released as part of the inflammatory response. We previously found that lysozyme (Lzm-S), released from leukocytes, contributed to the myocardial depression that develops in ...
Leblais Véronique - - 2008
Some red wine polyphenols exert nitric oxide (NO)-dependent relaxation in systemic arteries, following activation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). In this study, the effect of red wine polyphenols was determined in rat intrapulmonary arteries, and the effect of some of these compounds was compared with the responses obtained in rat ...
Zhang Ran - - 2008
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether an expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was upregulated in 3-week simulated microgravity rat cerebral and carotid arteries and whether impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation was concomitant with VCAM-1 expression. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control (CON) and hindlimb ...
Mingone Christopher J - - 2008
This study examines in endothelium-denuded bovine pulmonary arteries the effects of increasing heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) activity on relaxation and soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) activation by nitric oxide (NO). A 24-h organ culture with 0.1 mM cobalt chloride (CoCl2) or 30 microM Co-protoporphyrin IX was developed as a method of increasing ...
Juan Carlos Prieto
Segments of radial artery and internal mammary artery were obtained from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafts, cut into two segments (≈5 mm in length) and placed in two organ chambers for isometric tension recording. Atorvastatin or pravastatin was added to one chamber and after a 2 h stabilization period, ...
Ardanaz Noelia - - 2008
It is a matter of controversy whether the reactive oxygen species hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) contributes to tone in the vasculature as a vasodilator or vasoconstricting factor. To address this, we hypothesized that H(2)O(2) can constrict quiescent, non-preconstricted blood vessels, but that the contractile response may be different across various vessel ...
Zemancíková A - - 2008
Treatment with pertussis toxin (PTX) which eliminates the activity of G(i) proteins effectively reduces blood pressure (BP) and vascular resistance in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In this study we have compared the functional characteristics of isolated arteries from SHR with and without PTX-treatment (10 microg/kg i.v., 48 h before the ...
Chandrasekar Indira - - 2008
We investigated the effects of betamethasone on oxidative stress and impaired vasodilation in a lamb model of persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN). We treated pregnant ewes following fetal ductal ligation with betamethasone or saline for 48 h before delivery. Response of fetal pulmonary arteries to nitric oxide synthase (NOS) agonist adenosine ...
Schwartz Maria A K - - 2008
Self-calcifying, self-replicating nanoparticles have been isolated from calcified human tissues. However, it is unclear if these nanoparticles participate in disease processes. Therefore, this study was designed to preliminarily test the hypothesis that human-derived nanoparticles are causal to arterial disease processes. One carotid artery of 3 kg male rabbits was denuded ...
Pawson P - - 2007
Haemoglobin-based oxygen carriers have been developed as 'blood substitutes'. Early cross-linked haemoglobins caused marked vasoconstriction, however, polymerized haemoglobin solutions, such as the bovine product haemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine) (Hb-200), are said to have lesser vascular effects. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of Hb-200 on isolated rat ...
McGoldrick Rory B - - 2007
LVH (left ventricular hypertrophy) is associated with impaired coronary vascular reserve. In the present study, we examined the effect of pressure-overload hypertrophy on vasorelaxant responses of guinea-pig isolated coronary small arteries and compared them with mesenteric small arteries. Pressure-overload was induced by banding the ascending aorta of guinea-pigs. Haemodynamics, and ...
Webb George D - - 2008
This study aimed to test these hypotheses: cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE) is expressed in a human artery, it generates hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), and H(2)S relaxes a human artery. H(2)S is produced endogenously in rat arteries from cysteine by CSE. Endogenously produced H(2)S dilates rat resistance arteries. Although CSE is expressed in ...
Wusteman Monica C - - 2008
A previous study had suggested the use of a mixture of propanediol and trehalose for the preservation of tissues by vitrification. In this paper, we describe experiments in which stepwise procedures were developed for adding these cryoprotectants to high final concentrations in two rabbit tissues-carotid artery and cornea. The tissue ...
Xu Minlin - - 2008
In recent years, transgenic mouse models have been developed to examine the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of lung disease and pulmonary vascular disease, such as asthma, pulmonary thromboembolic disease, and pulmonary hypertension. However, there has not been systematic characterization of the basic physiological pulmonary vascular reactivity in normal and ...
Kozłowska Hanna - - 2007
BACKGROUND: The endocannabinoid anandamide is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypotension in haemorrhagic, endotoxic, and cardiogenic shock. It has been demonstrated in animal, but not in human, vessels that the vasodilatory effects of anandamide and abnormal cannabidiol are partially mediated by an as yet unidentified endothelial cannabinoid receptor. Our study ...
Salcedo Adely - - 2007
Peripheral and splanchnic vasodilatation in cirrhotic patients has been related to hyporesponsiveness to vasoconstrictors, but studies to examine the vascular adrenergic response provide contradictory results. Hepatic arteries from cirrhotic patients undergoing liver transplantation and mesenteric arteries from liver donors were obtained. Segments 3 mm long from these arteries were mounted ...
Turner Neil A - - 2007
Statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) exhibit beneficial effects on the vasculature independently of their cholesterol-lowering properties. These pleiotropic effects underlie the ability of statins to reduce intimal hyperplasia in saphenous vein (SV) bypass grafts by attenuating smooth muscle cell (SMC) invasion and proliferation. Although all statins can effectively lower cholesterol, the ...
Leuranguer V - - 2008
C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) has been proposed to make a fundamental contribution in arterial endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization to acetylcholine. The present study was designed to address this hypothesis in the guinea-pig carotid artery. The membrane potential of vascular smooth muscle cells was recorded in isolated arteries with intracellular microelectrodes. Acetylcholine induced ...
Jiang Bo - - 2007
Sulphonylureas, such as glybenclamide and gliclazide, are classical blockers of ATP-dependent potassium channels (K(ATP)). Closure of K(ATP) channels in vascular smooth muscles by sulphonylureas would lead to membrane depolarization and vasoconstriction but this hypothesis has not been consistently proved in different types of vascular tissues. Our present study examined mouse ...
Hillard C J - - 2007
Cerebrovascular smooth muscle cells express the CB1 cannabinoid receptor and CB1 agonists produce vasodilatation of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). The thromboxane A2 mimetic, U-46619, increased the content of the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the MCA and 2-AG moderated the vasoconstriction produced by U46619 in this tissue. The purposes of ...
Kilian Jens G - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: As endothelial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of late failure of saphenous vein grafts (SVG), we assessed endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vascular responses of SVG in humans. METHODS: Subjects undergoing angiography after bypass grafting had selective infusions of acetylcholine (ACh, an endothelium-dependent dilator) and sodium-nitroprusside (SNP, an endothelium-independent ...
Stenborg Anna - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a hereditary arteriopathy, which mainly involves the brain causing stroke and dementia. Mice expressing the mutated protein display early dysfunction in vasoreactivity in resistance arteries, but studies of patients have been inconclusive so far. METHODS: We ...
Leblais Véronique - - 2008
AIMS: beta-adrenoceptor (beta-AR)-mediated relaxation was characterized in pulmonary arteries from normoxic and hypoxic (as model of pulmonary hypertension) mice. The endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) pathway was especially investigated because of its potential vasculoprotective effects. METHODS: Pulmonary arteries from control or hypoxic (0.5 atm for 21 days) wild-type or eNOS-/- mice ...
Koenig Andreas - - 2007
The vasoactive properties of 14 organic mononitrates were investigated in vitro using PGF(2alpha)-precontracted porcine pulmonary arteries. A surprisingly wide range of vasorelaxant potencies was observed (pD(2): 3.36-7.50). Activities showed to be highly sensitive to the molecular structure and the substituents at the molecular carrier of the nitrate group. A correlation ...
Mohammed M M J - - 2007
1. Although leptin increases sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure, its direct action on large arterial rings is to cause relaxation. However, it is the small resistance arteries and veins that are important in blood pressure control. The effects of leptin on these small vessels has not been reported previously ...
Sun Dong - - 2007
We studied the roles of estrogen receptors (ER) and aromatase in the mediation of flow-induced dilation (FID) in isolated arteries of male ERalpha-knockout (ERalpha-KO) and wild-type (WT) mice. FID was comparable between gracilis arteries of WT and ERalpha-KO mice. In WT arteries, inhibition of NO and prostaglandins eliminated FID. In ...
Koenig Andreas - - 2007
Neither therapeutic dosage of nitrovasodilators nor the development of tolerance correlates with nitrate groups in these molecules. Clinically, low dosages of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) develop tolerance, but 100-fold higher dosages of pentaerythrityl tetranitrate (PETN) do not. Vasorelaxation was studied on prostaglandian F2alpha (PGF2alpha)-precontracted porcine pulmonary arteries in organ bath procedure. ...
Galli Gina L J - - 2007
The present study investigates adrenergic regulation of the systemic and pulmonary circulations of the anaesthetised South American rattlesnake, Crotalus durissus. Haemodynamic measurements were made following bolus injections of adrenaline and adrenergic antagonists administered through a systemic arterial catheter. Adrenaline caused a marked systemic vasoconstriction that was abolished by phentolamine, indicating ...
Salcedo Adely - - 2007
Apelin effects were examined in human splanchnic arteries from liver donors (normal arteries) and from liver recipients. Segments 3 mm long were obtained from mesenteric arteries taken from liver donors (normal arteries), and from hepatic arteries taken from cirrhotic patients undergoing liver transplantation (liver recipients), and the segments were mounted ...
Salcedo Adely - - 2007
Aim: To examine the endothelium-dependent relaxation of splanchnic arteries during cirrhosis as well as the role of reactive oxygen species in this relaxation using hepatic arteries from cirrhotic patients undergoing liver transplantation and mesenteric arteries from liver donors. Methods: Arterial segments 3 mm long were mounted in organ baths for ...
Fischer Dieter - - 2007
Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of human conduit arteries is, in part, related to shear stress-induced release of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO). However, NO synthase inhibitors do not completely abolish this FMD-response. Recently, a cytochrome P450 (CYP) epoxygenase of the 2C family was linked to NO- and prostacyclin-independent relaxation of conduit arteries. ...
Ito Kaoru M - - 2007
We evaluated the endothelial function of thoracic aortas and pulmonary arteries in a population of European wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus), which exhibit hypercholesterolemia. According to the plasma cholesterol level, mice were divided into two groups: hypercholesterolemic (AHL, total plasma cholesterol 200-300 mg/dl) and normocholesterolemic (ANL, total plasma cholesterol <200 mg/dl). ...
Skipor Janina - - 2007
The present study examines the direct effect of luteinising hormone (LH) on the reactivity of the porcine uterine artery to norepinephrine (NE). Three-mm-long arterial segments collected during the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle were mounted in an organ bath for isometric tension recording. After 30 min of equilibration in ...
Robertson Tom P - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, Ro-31-8220, on agonist-induced constriction of laminar arteries and veins obtained from horses. SAMPLE POPULATION: Laminar arteries and veins obtained from 8 adult mixed-breed horses. PROCEDURES: Laminar arteries and veins were isolated and mounted on small vessel myographs for ...
Bellien Jeremy J Department of Pharmacology, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM) U644, Institut Federatif de Recherche Multidisciplinaire sur les Peptides 23, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen Cedex, - - 2007
Whether AT(1) (angiotenin II type 1) receptor blockade can prevent the decrease in conduit artery FMD (flow-mediated dilatation) during NOS (nitric oxide synthase) inhibition by alternative endothelial pathways has not been explored previously in humans. In 12 healthy subjects, we measured radial artery diameter (echotracking) and flow (Doppler) during FMD ...
Bouvet Céline - - 2007
Chronic increases in blood flow increase arterial diameter and NO-dependent dilation in resistance arteries. Because endothelial dysfunction accompanies metabolic syndrome, we hypothesized that flow-mediated remodeling might be impaired in obese rat resistance arteries. Obese and lean Zucker rat mesenteric resistance arteries were exposed to chronic flow increases through arterial ligation ...
Lakshminrusimha Satyan - - 2007
Congenital cardiac defects associated with increased pulmonary blood flow (Q(p)) produce pulmonary hypertension. We have previously reported attenuated endothelium-dependent relaxations in pulmonary arteries (PA) isolated from lambs with increased Q(p) and pulmonary hypertension. To better characterize the vascular alterations in the nitric oxide-superoxide system, 12 fetal lambs underwent in utero ...
Piamsomboon C - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Peri-operative pulmonary hypertension can lead to right ventricular dysfunction and to an increase in morbidity and mortality. Altered function of the pulmonary vascular endothelium and vasoconstriction play a crucial role in the development of elevated pulmonary vascular resistance. Because pulmonary artery vasoreactivity is dependent on many factors including the ...
Newcomer Sean C - - 2007
Limb differences in endothelial function exist between arm and leg vasculatures of humans. The current investigation tested the hypothesis that forelimb and hindlimb vasorelaxation are similar in the absence of limb differences in blood pressure. Conduit arteries (brachials/femorals) and second order arterioles were harvested from 22 miniature Yucatan swine. In ...
Winter Polly - - 2007
Levels of ATP achieved within the lumen of vessels suggest a key autacoid role. P2Y receptors on the endothelium may represent the target for ATP, leading to hyperpolarization and associated relaxation of vascular smooth muscle through the endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) pathway. EDHF signals radially from the endothelium to cause ...
Berkan Ocal - - 2007
The radial artery (RA) is used as a spastic coronary bypass graft. This study was designed to investigate the mechanism of vasorelaxant effects of YC-1 (3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzyl indazole), a nitric oxide (NO)-independent soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) activator, and DEA/NO (diethylamine/nitric oxide), a NO-nucleophile adduct, on the human RA. RA segments (n ...
Sugawara Jun - - 2007
Stiffening of large elastic arteries impairs the buffering function of the arterial system and contributes to cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) modulates the stiffness of large elastic arteries in humans. Seven apparently healthy adults (60+/-3 years, 2 males and 5 ...
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