Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 361
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 >
Cooper R M - - 1994
This case report describes the use of an endotracheal ventilation catheter (ETVC) to provide prolonged intraoperative jet ventilation, reintubation and the maintenance of tracheal access following extubation. It emphasizes that excellent oxygenation and ventilation can be achieved but such management can be complicated by a pneumothorax even when the risks ...
Fujita M - - 1994
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the sensitivity to nitroglycerin of collateral vessels and recipient arteries is greater than that of donor arteries of the collateral circulation. BACKGROUND: The collateral circulation responds vigorously to nitroglycerin. However, the mechanisms of the efficacy of nitroglycerin for ...
Kogo N - - 1994
In order to elucidate the neural basis for lung ventilation in the frog, we have investigated the efferent neural activity to oropharyngeal muscles in the decerebrate, paralyzed, unanesthetized bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana. Efferent motor output was recorded from the mandibular branch of the trigeminal (Vmd), the laryngeal branch of the vagus ...
Keating M - - 1994
Supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) is a vascular disease that primarily affects large arteries, like the aorta and pulmonary arteries. SVAS can be inherited as an isolated, autosomal dominant trait or as part of a complex developmental disorder, Williams syndrome. Molecular genetic studies indicate that mutations affecting part of an elastin ...
Hsia C C - - 1994
The primary physiologic disturbance at high altitude is hypoxemia, which leads to a cascade of secondary changes in each step of the oxygen-transport chain. The author, in this review, focuses on the alterations in ventilatory control and alveolar-capillary gas exchange at high altitude and discusses the clinical pulmonary complications associated ...
Vil-Viliams I F - - 1994
An important goal of space medicine is preserving high tolerance and performance of cosmonauts an ring exposure to acceleration at the final flight stage given varying mission duration. Among physiological mechanisms limiting +Gx acceleration tolerance, an important role is played by disturbances of external respiration resulting from alterations of respiratory ...
Shih W J - - 1994
Airway occlusion results in regional alveolar hypoxia followed by reflex hypoxic pulmonary arterial constriction. Ventilation-perfusion imaging demonstrates matched defects. In the two patients reported, occlusion of the main bronchus by bronchogenic carcinoma was resolved--in one case by radiation therapy, and in the other by removal of the tumor mass in ...
Rodriguez-Roisin R - - 1994
In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), weaning from mechanical ventilation further aggravates ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) inequalities. This is related to the development of an abnormal ventilatory pattern, characterized by rapid and shallow breathing, but also to the increase of cardiac output secondary to an abrupt increase in venous return ...
Hirschl R B - - 1994
We investigated whether pulmonary function and gas exchange would improve with liquid perfluorocarbon ventilation (LV) during ECMO for severe respiratory failure. Lung injury was induced in 11 young sheep 15.1 +/- 3.7 kg in weight utilizing right atrial injection of 0.07 cc/kg oleic acid followed by saline pulmonary lavage. When ...
Rodriguez-Roisin R - - 1994
The principal function of the lung is to facilitate the exchange of the respiratory gases, oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2). When the lung fails as a gas exchanger respiratory failure ensues. Clinically, it is generally accepted that an arterial oxygen tension (PaO2) of less than 60 mmHg or a ...
Vik A - - 1993
We present a new pig model for studying relationships between venous gas bubbles and physiologic effects during and after decompression. Sixteen pigs were anesthetized to allow spontaneous breathing. Eight of them underwent a 30-min exposure to 5 bar (500 kPa) followed by a rapid decompression to 1 bar (2 bar/min); ...
Toews G B - - 1993
The airways and gas-exchanging surfaces of the lung are an important interface between the host and the external environment. Potentially injurious particulates and gases continuously impact on this extensive epithelial surface. The pulmonary defense apparatus, which uses anatomic barriers, aerodynamics, soluble factors and a multitude of cellular processes, protects the ...
Tsan M F - - 1993
Three forms of superoxide dismutase (SOD) exist in the lung: CuZnSOD, MnSOD and extracellular SOD. Evidence suggests that both CuZnSOD and MnSOD are important in pulmonary defense against oxygen toxicity. Enhancement of pulmonary levels of CuZnSOD by transgenic overexpression of CuZnSOD, or tracheal insufflation of liposome-encapsulated or polyethylene glycol-conjugated CuZnSOD, ...
Lapinsky S E - - 1993
Amiodarone causes accumulation of phospholipids in lung alveolar cells, and this phospholipidosis invariably is present when amiodarone pulmonary toxicity is recognized. This effect has usually been demonstrated in patients following several months of therapy. The authors report the occurrence of pulmonary phospholipidosis, diagnosed by bronchoalveolar lavage, six days after commencing ...
Hanger C C - - 1993
One-half of the neutrophils that enter the pulmonary circulation become temporarily trapped in capillaries. The neutrophils that are impeded make complete stops between free-flowing movements. These observations, based on in vivo microscopy, suggest that pulmonary margination is caused by neutrophils being impeded at focal sites in the capillary bed. To ...
Sardella G L - - 1993
We developed a chronic rat preparation in which a flow probe is placed around the ascending aorta and arterial catheters are implanted in the systemic and pulmonary circulations. This preparation was used to continuously monitor cardiac output (CO), systemic arterial pressure (Psa), and pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa). More than 80% ...
Grassi V - - 1993
In this short review focusing essentially on thoracic kyphoscoliosis, respiratory and cardiovascular abnormalities observed in different forms of this rib cage disorder are briefly described. Chest wall and pulmonary mechanics, respiratory muscles, gas exchange, pulmonary vasculature and regulation of ventilation can be markedly affected by kyphoscoliosis and a substantial growth ...
Fraire A E - - 1993
Amiodarone, a benzofuran derivative, has proven useful in the control of serious cardiac arrhythmias. We reviewed the English language medical literature to characterize clinical, radiographic, scintigraphic, pathologic, diagnostic, and prognostic data concerning amiodarone pulmonary toxicity. Our review showed that features consistent with amiodarone pulmonary toxicity include exertional dyspnea, fever, and ...
Ray S G - - 1992
To determine whether endothelin is extracted from plasma during passage through the pulmonary circulation, we measured its concentration at several points, including the pulmonary artery and the left superior pulmonary vein in seven patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Endothelin concentrations were very similar at all sites sampled. In patients undergoing coronary ...
Loewenherz J W - - 1992
Decompression sickness and cerebral gas embolism can present as dramatic and profound sudden onset injuries in patients engaged in tunnel work and compressed gas diving, including scuba. The history and management of these illnesses span centuries. The pathophysiology relates to occurrence of gas bubbles in extrapulmonic sites. Decompression sickness is ...
Mitzner W - - 1992
Among modern physiologists and anatomists, there has been a nearly universal acceptance that Leonardo da Vinci was the first to identify the anatomy of the bronchial circulation. However, because of certain ambiguities in both his anatomic drawing that was supposed to have shown this circulation and the accompanying descriptive text, ...
Kryszewski A - - 1992
Haemorrhage from oesophageal varices is one of the most common reason of death of patients with liver cirrhosis. The possibility of treatment and prevention of the haemorrhage by endoscopic sclerotherapy (ES) has become one of the achievements of contemporary medicine. Nevertheless there are some complications described after this procedure, the ...
Soares F A - - 1992
Pulmonary leukostasis is a serious, almost always fatal, complication usually reported to occur in patients with acute granulocytic leukemias when the peripheral white blood cells exceed 50,000/mm3. We report a clinicopathologic study of 16 leukemic patients with pulmonary leukostasis and with less than 50,000/mm3 circulating leukocytes. The results demonstrated that ...
Kornblith P L - - 1992
The blood supply to the intestines is a complex one, including branches of the three main splanchnic arteries as well as a vast collateral circulation. The variant anatomy and collateral pathways are described, based on anatomic dissections and angiographic studies, to focus attention on anatomically based explanations for clinical entities.
McNeil K D - - 1992
Amiodarone is very useful treatment for refractory arrhythmias. However, it has a wide profile of adverse effects involving a number of organ systems. Pulmonary toxicity is the most serious of these side effects and often limits its clinical use. Three patients with unusual forms of amiodarone pulmonary toxicity are described. ...
Jahr J - - 1992
Side-effects of a veno-venous extracorporeal system and possible beneficial effects of prostacyclin (epoprostenol) are analyzed on the cat. Three groups were studied; one control group without extracorporeal circulation and two groups with an extracorporeal flow of 10-12 ml/kg/min, one of which was given prostacyclin (70-110 ng/kg/min). The extracorporeal circulation triggered ...
Hörnchen U - - 1992
The influence of the pulmonary circulation on the pharmacokinetics and -dynamics of endogenously released, and intravenously injected (10 micrograms kg-1), and endobronchially (e.b.) administered (100 micrograms kg-1) adrenaline was investigated in an animal cardiopulmonary-resuscitation (CPR) model. During resuscitation 80% of endogenously released and i.v. adrenaline was eliminated before reaching the ...
Shapiro C L - - 1991
Pulmonary toxicity may complicate the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The possible drug-related cause of pulmonary toxicity was investigated retrospectively in 207 NHL patients treated between 1981 and 1988 with three regimens containing cyclophosphamide with and without methotrexate or bleomycin: methotrexate, calcium, leucovorin, bleomycin, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and dexamethasone (m-BACOD) ...
Yano Y - - 1991
An arterial and venous blood (or plasma) concentration difference of drugs across the lung of rats was evaluated based on the recirculatory concept. The recirculatory system is given by the combination of the transfer functions for the pulmonary and the systemic circulations and is described by a Laplace-transformed equation, i.e., ...
Nicolet-Chatelain G - - 1991
Amiodarone (A) is a widely-used antiarrhythmic drug. Pulmonary toxicity is the most serious adverse effect with an estimated mortality of 1 to 33 percent. In order to determine an element helpful for diagnosis, we examined four patients with amiodarone-induced pulmonary toxicity, three patients treated with A, without evidence of pulmonary ...
Magno M - - 1990
This review considers the similarities and difference between several animal species to determine which are most appropriate for studies of the human bronchial circulation in health and disease. The subgross anatomy of the sheep, cow, pig and horse appear to be similar to that of humans. These species have a ...
Botte M J - - 1990
Benign, soft-tissue masses of the hand are common. A vascular leiomyoma is an unusual tumor of smooth-muscle origin. In a 62-year-old man, the tumor arose from within a digital artery. Persistent symptoms prompted an excisional biopsy, requiring resection of a portion of the artery. Adequate collateral circulation preempted the need ...
Brandstetter Y - - 1990
We report an infant with a bronchiolitis-like illness and rapid deterioration who developed a cor pulmonale-like picture with a dilated right ventricle. Urinary organic acid assays established a probable diagnosis of Cbl-C-type methylmalonic aciduria, later confirmed by complementation studies. Despite medical intervention and cyanocobalamin treatment the patient died on his ...
McIlroy M B - - 1990
A microcomputer model based on an equivalent model of the systemic arterial circulation was used to simulate the pulmonary arterial circulation. The elements chosen to represent the physical properties of the pulmonary arterial bed were determined from the characteristic impedances and tme delays in the system. A terminal resistance that ...
Rodriguez-Roisin R - - 1990
The first part of this review deals with the basic mechanisms and factors determining hypoxaemia and hypercapnia and the different approaches used in clinical practice and in clinical research to assess the presence of ventilation-perfusion mismatching, shunt and diffusion limitation for oxygen, and more specifically the multiple inert gas elimination ...
Burgess C A - - 1990
We examined the role of circulating granulocytes in the pulmonary microvascular response to leukotriene B4 (LTB4) by prior depletion of circulating granulocytes using hydroxyurea. LTB4 (2 micrograms/kg injection followed by infusion of 2 micrograms/kg over 15 min) produced transient increases in pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance, indicating that ...
Bernstein E F - - 1990
Transcranial Doppler is a method for visualizing the intracranial circulation that has applications to the preoperative investigation of cerebrovascular disease. Estimations of the adequacy of collateral circulation around the circle of Willis may be made. In addition, the method may be used for intraoperative monitoring during carotid, cardiac, or neurosurgical ...
Patel J M - - 1990
Pulmonary toxicity caused by an antineoplastic drug, cyclophosphamide is becoming a more frequently recognized entity. Metabolism of cyclophosphamide in lung to alkylating metabolites and acrolein, a reactive aldehyde are in part responsible for pulmonary toxicity. Alterations in pulmonary mixed-function oxidase activity, glutathione content, and microsomal lipid peroxidation may be caused ...
Laaban J P - - 1990
A patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and acute respiratory failure developed grand mal seizures in the hours following onset of mechanical ventilation. These seizures were associated with an acute increase in arterial pH and were related to the occurrence of acute severe hypophosphataemia associated with recovery from respiratory acidosis.
Faber J - - 1990
A 74-year-old patient presented with congestive heart failure and continuous periodic breathing. Left ventricular ejection fraction was 20% and the lung-to-brain circulation time was prolonged to 35 s. We report on the phasic changes of the patient's arterial blood gas tensions and on the periodic fluctuations of pulmonary artery pressures ...
Rijkenhuizen A B - - 1989
Clinical, radiographical, scintigraphical and histological effects on the navicular bone after resection of the medial and lateral palmar digital arteries in the pastern of one forelimb in ponies are evaluated. The acute disruption of the main blood supply of the distal extremity causes lameness due to the suddenness of the ...
Constantinopol M - - 1989
Because the maximal rate of O2 consumption (VO2max) of the horse is 2.6 times larger than that of steers of equal size, we wondered whether their pulmonary gas exchanger is proportionately larger. Three Standardbred racehorses [body mass (Mb) = 447 kg] and three domestic steers (Mb = 474 kg) whose ...
Marini C E - - 1989
Critically ill cardiac patients often undergo mechanical ventilation. The interplay between pulmonary and cardiac mechanics is complicated and in many cases may result in impaired transfer of O2 from the atmosphere to the tissues. This article addresses the principles of pulmonary and peripheral gas exchange, as well as the mechanical ...
Boyce J R - - 1989
Needle cricothyrotomy is a safe, relatively easy procedure and has been described to enable pulmonary ventilation for patients in both elective and emergency situations. Conventional IV cannulae are short, thin-walled, and easily kinked and, therefore, do not provide a secure system to jet oxygen into the trachea. The vessel dilators ...
McNamara R M - - 1989
IV magnesium sulfate was administered to a 72-year-old man with acute respiratory failure secondary to a severe asthma attack. The patient had clinically deteriorated despite aggressive standard treatment and evidenced acidosis and hypercarbia by arterial blood gas determination. An IV dose of 1 g MgSO4 produced rapid clinical and arterial ...
Wagner P D - - 1989
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a known antioxidant. We therefore investigated NAC as an agent protective against O2 toxicity in the lung. Twelve dogs were anaesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and ventilated with 100% O2 for 54 h. Five were given diluent and 7 intravenous NAC (loading dose prior to 100% O2 ventilation ...
Meyer P A - - 1989
The superficial circulations of the anterior segment of the human eye have been studied by the following techniques: photographic and video low-dose fluorescein angiography, video-microscopy using red-free light and stereoscopic colour photography. The results are combined to give a dynamic description of the limbal circulation, including its arterial supply and ...
Guliamov D S - - 1989
A new method of plastic surgery of the right ventricular outflow tract and the pulmonary artery without use of extracorporeal circulation (occlusion of main arteries) was tested in experiments carried out in 28 dogs. The method involves previous suture of a patch to the site selected for plastic surgery and, ...
Manier G - - 1988
Pulmonary gas exchange in Andean natives (n = 8) with excessive high-altitude (3,600-4,200 m) polycythemia (hematocrit 65.1 +/- 6.6%) and hypoxemia (arterial PO2 45.6 +/- 5.6 Torr) in the absence of pulmonary or cardiovascular disease was investigated both before and after isovolemic hemodilution by use of the inert gas elimination ...
Kruger F J - - 1988
Schistosoma hippopotami were collected from the right heart chambers and pulmonary arteries of Hippopotamus amphibius culled in the Kruger National Park. The schistosomes were subjected to scanning electron microscopy as well as optical microscopy. The results indicate that S. hippopotami is not conspecific to S. mansoni as suggested in the ...
< 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 >