Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 2195
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Gruenig Ekkehard - - 2009
This study investigated the acute pharmacodynamic effects of sildenafil in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and concomitant bosentan treatment, in view of a mutual pharmacokinetic interaction between the 2 drugs. This prospective, open-label, noncomparative, multicenter, phase II study enrolled 45 patients (>or=18 years) with stable PAH (idiopathic, familial, or ...
Kugathasan Lakshmi - - 2009
The role of the angiopoietin-1 (Ang1)-Tie2 pathway in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is controversial. Although Ang1 is well known to prevent endothelial activation and injury in systemic vascular beds, this pathway has been suggested to mediate pulmonary vascular remodeling in PAH. Therefore, we used transgenic models to ...
Møller Søren - - 2009
Pulmonary dysfunction including the hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an important complication to cirrhosis and portal hypertension. However, the precise relation to liver dysfunction and the prevalence of HPS are unclear. We therefore aimed to assess (i) the prevalence of HPS in consecutive alcoholic cirrhotic patients, (ii) the degree of pulmonary ...
Gatzoulis M A - - 2009
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) commonly arises in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Greater numbers of patients with PAH associated with CHD (PAH-CHD) are now surviving into adulthood, many with increasingly complex cardiac defects. Patients with cardiac defects which result in left-to-right shunting are at risk of developing PAH, owing ...
Montani David - - 2009
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disease characterized by vascular proliferation and remodeling, resulting in a progressive increase in pulmonary arterial resistance, right heart failure, and death. The pathogenesis of PAH is multifactorial, with endothelial cell dysfunction playing an integral role. This endothelial dysfunction is characterized by an overproduction ...
Poelaert Jan - - 2009
Echography has developed as an indispensable tool in diagnosis and subsequent therapy in the critically ill. Although pulmonary and abdominal ultrasounds play a major role in their management, this article will discuss the advantages and indications of echocardiography in the intensive care unit (ICU). The assessment of morphological abnormalities, left ...
Palazzini M - - 2009
A 27-yr-old female with a 6-month diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) confirmed elsewhere was referred to our centre with worsening dyspnoea. On examination, the patient had low systemic oxygen saturation despite high oxygen flow and reduced exercise capacity. Haemodynamics were indicative of severe pre-capillary PAH. High-resolution computed tomography ...
Kähler C M - - 2009
A full diagnostic work-up for patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) is vital. Classification and diagnosis of the underlying cause is important to ensure optimal management, but may be complicated by overlapping signs and symptoms. This case study describes how a full work-up identified chronic thromboembolic PH (CTEPH) as the cause ...
Melenovsky Vojtech - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: We sought to identify factors that discriminate heart failure (HF) patients with normal and elevated pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and to elucidate the role of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent vasodilation. BACKGROUND: Mechanisms of PVR increase in patients with chronic HF are incompletely understood. METHODS: Twenty-two HF patients with high ...
Haberberger Rainer V - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Immunologic processes might contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a fatal condition characterized by progressive pulmonary arterial remodeling, increased pulmonary vascular resistance, and right ventricular failure. Experimental allergen-driven lung inflammation evoked morphologic and functional vascular changes that resembled those observed in patients with PAH. Sphingosine kinase ...
Harris Matthew A - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Patients frequently undergo cardiac catheterization before the Fontan operation because of the limited echocardiographic windows in the region of the superior cavopulmonary connection and branch pulmonary arteries. Patients with obstruction to pulmonary blood flow are at increased risk for prolonged length of hospital stay after the Fontan operation. Cardiac ...
Yoshida Homare - - 2009
BACKGROUND: We investigated the effects and possible mechanism of syngeneic bone marrow mononuclear cell (BM-MNC) transplantation on pulmonary arterial hypertension induced by monocrotaline. METHODS: Monocrotaline (80 mg/kg body weight) was administrated to C57BL/6 mice, and pulmonary arterial hypertension was induced 4 weeks later. Bone marrow mononuclear cells harvested from syngeneic ...
Xu Xi-Qi - - 2009
Sildenafil has been suggested to be a cost-effective treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). On account of the lack of data confirming its benefit in PAH patients, sildenafil has not been adopted in China for the treatment of PAH. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy, safety ...
Cottin V - - 2010
This study aims to describe the haemodynamic and survival characteristics of patients with pulmonary hypertension in the recently individualised syndrome of combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. A retrospective multicentre study was conducted in 40 patients (38 males; age 68+/-9 yrs; 39 smokers) with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema, and pulmonary ...
Leuchte Hanno H - - 2009
INTRODUCTION: Inhalation of vasoactive substances is an effective treatment of pulmonary hypertension. The B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) leads to relaxation of smooth muscle cells, caused by an increased formation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). The biologic activity of BNP using an inhalative approach has not been addressed. METHODS: In order ...
Xia Liang - - 2009
Previous studies have underlined the importance of endothelial dysfunction and microvascular occlusion in the pathogenesis of pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). Since the endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are involved in maintaining endothelial homeostasis, we observed the change of peripheral EPCs in canines before and after PAH onset. PAH was induced by ...
Weitzenblum Emmanuel - - 2009
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a common complication of chronic respiratory diseases and particularly of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and interstitial lung diseases (ILD). Owing to its frequency COPD is by far the most common cause of PH. It is generally a mild to moderate PH, pulmonary artery mean pressure ...
Adamali Huzaifa - - 2009
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a sinister condition that is often diagnosed late and is associated with a progressive clinical deterioration and premature death. However, over the past 10 years the field has seen a dramatic increase in the number of effective therapies underpinned by advances in our understanding of ...
Ogawa Aiko - - 2009
Pulmonary vascular remodeling occurs in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). One factor contributing to this vascular wall thickening is the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC). Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) and cytosolic free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](cyt)) in PASMC are known to be important in cell proliferation ...
Ishida Keiichi - - 2009
Pulmonary thromboendarterectomy is an effective surgical treatment for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). In this study, we review our short- and mid-term results in the recent series of patients undergoing pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. Twenty-three patients (54+/-12 years) were re-evaluated 7-59 months (mean, 34 months) after surgery. Nine patients were in New ...
Barron David J - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: We proposed that a right-sided right ventricle-pulmonary artery conduit during the stage I Norwood procedure would facilitate pulmonary artery reconstruction during the stage II procedure. METHODS: Between 2002 and 2006, 153 patients underwent Norwood stage I reconstruction with a right ventricle-pulmonary artery conduit (125 in the right-sided group and ...
Chirinos Julio A - - 2009
Accurate quantification of arterial function is crucial to distinguishing disease states from normal variants. However, there are little data regarding methods to scale arterial load to body size in humans. We studied 2365 adults aged 35 to 55 years free of overt cardiovascular disease. We assessed arterial hemodynamics and ventricular-vascular ...
Gadhinglajkar Shrinivas - - 2009
Postoperative studies in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTPH) have shown that pulmonary thromboembolectomy (PTE) results in a rapid decrease of right ventricular (RV) size, improvement in the RV systolic function and left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. However, the extent to which the biventricular function recovers immediately after embolectomy ...
Rossi Rosario - - 2009
Antiretroviral therapy has positively modified the natural history of HIV infection; but this treatment can induce metabolic abnormalities, including dyslipidemia, fat redistribution, high blood pressure, and insulin resistance. The metabolic syndrome, a clustering of the metabolic disorders, is frequently detected among HIV patients, especially those on antiretroviral treatment. All the ...
Chemello Keli - - 2009
To test the hypothesis that fetal pulmonary venous flow pulsatility index is lower during fetal respiratory movements than in apnea. Case control. SETTINGS/PATIENTS: Twenty-two normal fetuses of mothers without systemic disease were examined in apnea (controls) and in the presence of fetal respiratory movements (cases). Fetuses were examined by prenatal ...
Hill Nicholas S - - 2009
Postoperative pulmonary hypertension is a challenging and feared complication of many types of surgery, including lung and heart transplantation, pulmonary thromboendarterectomy, congenital-heart-disease repair, and others. The most severe manifestation is acute right heart syndrome, characterized by right heart failure and cardiovascular collapse-a daunting therapeutic challenge associated with a high mortality. ...
Meyer Sascha - - 2009
The ultrasonic cardiac output monitoring (USCOM, USCOM Pty Ltd, Coffs Harbour, NSW, Australia) device provides a new method of non-invasively assessing cardiac output (CO). It has been successfully used in adults, but there have been few studies in neonates. To study the inter-operator reliability, and to compare the aortic (systemic) ...
Tuder Rubin M - - 2009
The Development and Pathology working group was charged with reviewing the present knowledge, gaps in understanding, and areas for further studies in a broad range of themes. These themes in pulmonary vascular biology and pathobiology involved: 1) pulmonary vascular development; 2) pulmonary vascular disease accompanying fetal development and perinatal life; ...
Al-Hadi Hafidh - - 2009
Central venous catheters (CVP) are frequently used in clinical practice. Occasionally, catheters may become dislodged. If percutaneous retrieval fails, then cardiothoracic surgery is necessary to retrieve the fractured catheter and avoid potential complications. This report describes early experiences of three different modes of broken catheter retrieval: the first by use ...
van der Heijden Melanie - - 2009
To investigate whether angiopoietin-2, von Willebrand factor (VWF) and angiopoietin-1 relate to surrogate indicators of vascular permeability, pulmonary dysfunction and intensive care unit (ICU) mortality throughout the course of septic shock. In 50 consecutive mechanically ventilated septic shock patients, plasma angiopoietin-2, VWF and angiopoietin-1 levels and fluid balance, partial pressure ...
Corte T J - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with a poor prognosis in diffuse lung disease (DLD). A study was undertaken to compare the prognostic significance of invasive and non-invasive parameters in patients with DLD and suspected PH. METHODS: Hospital records of consecutive patients with DLD undergoing right heart catheterisation (RHC) were ...
Maclay John D JD Centre for Inflammation Research, Edinburgh University, Edinburgh, United - - 2009
Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which may in part be attributable to abnormalities of systemic vascular function. It is unclear whether such associations relate to the presence of COPD or prior smoking habit. To undertake a comprehensive ...
Barberà Joan Albert - - 2009
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is an important complication in the natural history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Its presence is associated with reduced survival and greater use of healthcare resources. The prevalence of PH is high in patients with advanced COPD, whereas in milder forms it might not be present ...
Liu Hao - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: To establish a temporary pulmonary hilum clamping model for thoracic damage control surgery, as well as to determine the safety time latitude of this manipulation. METHODS: Pigs were anaesthetised and instrumented with a thermodilution cardiac output catheter. The left pulmonary hilum was clamped with a urethral catheter after thoracotomy, ...
Terada Tadashi - - 2009
Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder in which microliths are formed in the alveolar space. PAM is infrequently complicated by pulmonary hypertension, the cause of which is unclear. The author in this paper found that the pulmonary hypertension was caused by a marked decrease in ...
Huang Chung-Chi - - 2009
OBJECTIVE: Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) has greater volume expansion effect and longer intravascular persistence than crystalloids. HES also decreases microvascular permeability and capillary leakage by biophysically plugging endothelial leaks, exerting an anti-inflammatory effect, and decreasing activation of endothelial cells. The aim of our study was to determine whether medium molecular weight ...
Reesink Herre J - - 2010
In proximal chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary endarterectomy is the treatment of first choice. In general, medical treatment before pulmonary endarterectomy is not indicated. However, selected "high-risk" patients might benefit by optimization of pulmonary hemodynamics. Moreover, in patients whose surgery is delayed owing to limited medical resources, pretreatment may prevent ...
Hoey Edward T D - - 2009
The causes of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are diverse and include multiple congenital and acquired cardiac diseases as well as diseases primarily affecting the pulmonary vasculature, lung, pleura and chest wall. The traditional role of CT in evaluating PAH includes assessment of pulmonary vasculature and lung parenchyma with limited assessment ...
Chester Marc - - 2009
Impaired nitric oxide-cGMP signaling contributes to severe pulmonary hypertension after birth, which may in part be due to decreased soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) activity. Cinaciguat (BAY 58-2667) is a novel sGC activator that causes vasodilation, even in the presence of oxidized heme or heme-free sGC, but its hemodynamic effects have ...
Henno P - - 2009
Pulmonary hypertension is rare in chronic respiratory diseases but has a strong impact on the prognosis and is partly underlined by factors other than hypoxaemia. The aim of the present study was to assess the potential role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB vasoconstrictive pathways in pulmonary hypertension. The ...
Bassil Eter Rania - - 2009
The syndrome of twin-to-twin transfusion is known potentially to be associated with the development of right ventricular obstruction, albeit rarely at supravalvar levels, in the recipient twin. We report the case of a recipient twin with diffuse hypoplasia and calcification of the pulmonary arterial tree, confirmed by postnatal thoracic angioscan. ...
Teng Ru-Jeng - - 2009
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn (PPHN) is associated with impaired pulmonary vasodilation at birth. Previous studies demonstrated that a decrease in angiogenesis contributes to this failure of postnatal adaptation. We investigated the hypothesis that oxidative stress from NADPH oxidase (Nox) contributes to impaired angiogenesis in PPHN. PPHN was induced in ...
Huang Zheng - - 2009
Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH), a progressive, lethal condition that results in pathologic changes in the pulmonary arterial tree, eventually leads to right heart failure. Work identifying mutations in the Type II Bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) receptor, BmpRII, in families with PAH has implicated Bmp-signaling in the pathogenesis of PAH. However, ...
Haddad Fran?ois - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The assessment of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) plays an important role in the diagnosis and management of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The main objective of this study was to determine whether the noninvasive index of systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (SPAP) to heart rate (HR) times the right ventricular outflow ...
Shokoohi Hamid - - 2009
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between cardiac troponin I (cTnI) values and the pulmonary artery obstruction index assessed with spiral computed tomography (CT) scan in emergency department (ED) patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of all 179 ED ...
Feltracco P - - 2009
Portopulmonary hypertension (PPHTN) refers to the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension in the setting of portal hypertension with or without chronic hepatic failure. This syndrome is characterized by marked alternations of pulmonary vascular tone and obstruction of pulmonary arterial blood flow. An increased pulmonary blood flow, which is a hallmark ...
Gewillig Marc - - 2009
AIMS: The prevalence of intra-uterine ductal dysfunction is unknown and the clinical consequences are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the echocardiographic (ECHO) abnormalities and outcomes of this rare phenomenon. METHODS AND RESULTS: Retrospective analysis of foetal (n = 602) and neonatal ECHO databases (n = ...
Khush Kiran K - - 2009
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension has been shown to predict hospitalizations and mortality in patients with heart failure. We aimed to define the prevalence of mixed pulmonary hypertension (MPH; mean pulmonary artery pressure > or = 25 mm Hg, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure >15 mm Hg, and pulmonary vascular resistance > or ...
Farkas Laszlo - - 2009
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) can lead to the development of secondary pulmonary hypertension (PH) and ultimately death. Despite this known association, the precise mechanism of disease remains unknown. Using a rat model of IPF, we explored the role of the proangiogenic and antiapoptotic growth factor VEGF in the vascular remodeling ...
Sedacca Cassidy D - - 2009
CASE DESCRIPTION: A 20-year-old sexually intact female African Grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus) was evaluated to determine the cause of lethargy, hyporexia, weight loss, and persistent ascites of 21 days' duration. CLINICAL FINDINGS: Physical examination revealed a markedly distended abdomen and systolic heart murmur. Thoracic radiography revealed cardiomegaly and hepatomegaly. Doppler ...
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