Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 2209
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Sergiacomi Gianluigi - - 2010
PURPOSE: To correlate conventional invasive pressure indexes of pulmonary circulation with pulmonary first-order arterial mean transit time (MTT) and time to peak enhancement (TTP) measured by means of three-dimensional time-resolved magnetic resonance (MR) angiography in patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was institutional ...
van der Plas Mart N - - 2010
BACKGROUND: In chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), dyspnea is considered to be related to increased dead space ventilation caused by vascular obstruction. Pulmonary endarterectomy releases the thromboembolic obstruction, thereby improving regional pulmonary blood flow. We hypothesized that pulmonary endarterectomy reduces dead space ventilation and that this reduction contributes to attenuation ...
Abdelhady Khaled - - 2010
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a devastating condition that without proper management can deteriorate progressively. Elevated pulmonary artery pressure without an identifiable etiology is called IPAH. PH resulting from a specific disease is referred to as secondary PH; left-sided cardiac disease can lead to an increase in pulmonary artery pressure resulting ...
Bigot Julien - - 2010
PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of pulmonary arterial wall distensibility on the assessment of a computed tomography (CT) score in patients with nonmassive pulmonary embolism (PE) (ie, Mastora score). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The arterial wall distensibility of five central pulmonary arteries (pulmonary artery trunk, right and left main pulmonary arteries, ...
Duman Ates - - 2010
We describe a case of 41-yr.-old multigravida at 35 weeks gestation, with a diagnosis of Eisenmenger syndrome, requiring urgent Cesarean section. The parturient had signs and symptoms of respiratory distress due to high pulmonary artery pressure, and the pregnancy was complicated by preeclampsia. A general anesthetic consisting of ketamine and ...
Devaraj Anand - - 2010
PURPOSE: To test the reliability of potentially new computed tomographic (CT) indicators of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and to establish whether a combination of CT and echocardiographic measurements was more predictive of PH than either test alone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The institutional review board approved this retrospective study; patient consent was ...
Crosswhite Patrick P Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 73126-0901, - - 2010
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease characterized by a persistent elevation of pulmonary artery pressure accompanied by right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH). The current treatment for pulmonary hypertension is limited and only provides symptomatic relief due to unknown cause and pathogenesis of the disease. Both vasoconstriction and ...
Sweiss Nadera J NJ Section of Rheumatology, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue (MC6080), Chicago, IL 60637, - - 2010
Patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) can develop pulmonary hypertension (PH; mean pulmonary artery pressure >/= 25 mm Hg) caused by pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), left ventricular disease, or pulmonary fibrosis. PAH is a pulmonary vascular disease, the diagnosis of which requires pulmonary capillary wedge pressure less than 15 mm Hg, ...
Eyskens Benedicte - - 2010
AIMS: Pulmonary regurgitation after repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) results in right ventricular (RV) dysfunction with significant late morbidity and mortality. The aim was to assess the influence of pulmonary regurgitation on regional RV function. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 48 asymptomatic children (age 11.1 +/- 3.3 years) with repair ...
Watts John A - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The right ventricle normally operates as a low pressure, high-flow pump connected to a high-capacitance pulmonary vascular circuit. Morbidity and mortality in humans with pulmonary hypertension (PH) from any cause is increased in the presence of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction, but the differences in pathology of RV dysfunction in ...
Thomas Matthew - - 2010
Two gross mechanisms of pathology are central to pulmonary arterial hypertension - increased pulmonary vascular tone and remodelling of the pulmonary arteries. These pathologies can be caused by a variety of aberrant processes, and combine to cause an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance and consequent right ventricular hypertrophy, eventually leading ...
Dolci Daniel T - - 2010
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The time course of cardiopulmonary alterations after pulmonary embolism has not been clearly demonstrated and nor has the role of systemic inflammation on the pathogenesis of the disease. This study aimed to evaluate over 12 h the effects of pulmonary embolism caused by polystyrene microspheres on the ...
Chhabra Sunil K - - 2010
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is likely to complicate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a large proportion of patients, especially those with severe disease. Majority of patients have a mild to moderate elevation in the pulmonary artery pressure that usually does not require specific treatment. A small subset of patients, however, ...
Xie Liangdi - - 2010
Structural remodeling of pulmonary artery plays an important role in maintaining sustained pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The anti-remodeling effects of statins have been reported in systemic hypertension. In this study, we studied the effects of atovastatin (Ato) or losartan (Los) in monocrotaline (MCL)-induced pulmonary artery remodeling using a rat model. ...
Boilson Barry A - - 2010
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a common but under-recognized cause of pulmonary hypertension (PH), particularly among the elderly. While elevated pulmonary artery pressures are clearly associated with increased mortality in HFpEF, it remains unknown whether or how pulmonary vascular disease in HFpEF should be treated. This case ...
Narayana Iyengar Ramakrishna M - - 2010
Pulmonary artery thromboendarterectomy (PTE) has been regarded as a promising, potentially curative surgical procedure. However, PTE is associated with specific postoperative complications, such as reperfusion pulmonary edema and right heart failure leading to a considerable mortality of 7-24%. Despite its limitations PTE is a better surgical alternative to lung transplantation ...
Park Eun-Ah - - 2010
PURPOSE: To determine the optimal scan timing and adequate intravenous route for patients having undergone the Fontan operation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 88 computed tomographic images in 49 consecutive patients who underwent the Fontan operation were retrospectively evaluated and divided into 7 groups: group 1, bolus-tracking method with ...
Goto Kosaku - - 2010
Recent advances in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension provide a rational basis for earlier, noninvasive diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, the reliability of transthoracic echocardiography, plasma BNP levels, and other parameters for the diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to ...
Naito Yuji - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The physiologic goal of management after a Norwood procedure is to optimize systemic oxygen delivery, as indicated by oxygen excess factor (OEF). Factors were examined that might affect systemic oxygen delivery after the Norwood procedure with right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery (RV-PA) conduit as the pulmonary blood supply. METHODS: Hemodynamic data ...
Gurney Alison M - - 2010
Smooth muscle cells regulate the diameter of pulmonary arteries and the resistance to blood flow in the pulmonary circulation. These cells are normally relaxed to maintain low intrinsic vessel tone, but are contracted in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Potassium channels in the smooth muscle cell help to maintain low tone ...
Rehman Jalees - - 2010
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a disease of the pulmonary vasculature that is characterized by vascular obstruction and progressive right ventricular failure. One hallmark of clinical PAH is its very poor survival, with PAH mortality rates approximating those of many malignancies. The discovery that the fawn-hooded rat strain (FHR) spontaneously ...
Roule Vincent - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Echocardiographic ratio of peak tricuspid regurgitant velocity to the right ventricular outflow tract time-velocity integral (TRV/TVI rvot) was presented as a reliable non-invasive method of estimating pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR). Studies using this technique in patients with moderate to high PVR are scarce. Left ventricular outflow tract time-velocity integral ...
Kiykim Ahmet Alper - - 2010
Pulmonary hypertension (PHT) increases mortality rate in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Numerous clinical, hemodynamic, and metabolic abnormalities have been suggested to be associated with the development of PHT in HD patients. We aimed to investigate the acute effects of two different dialyzer membranes on pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) throughout a HD ...
Ford Lincoln E - - 2010
Although acute hypertensive pulmonary edema is sometimes regarded as the most severe form of heart failure, at the peak of symptoms, hearts perform well above resting levels and cannot be said to be failing. Another characteristic of the condition, the rapidity of its onset and reversal when properly treated, suggests ...
Zeng Zhen - - 2010
Pulmonary hypertension is a group of diseases comprising vascular constriction and obstructive changes of the pulmonary vasculature. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, for example, sildenafil, can alleviate vascular remodeling in the monocrotaline pulmonary hypertension model in rats. We investigate the mechanisms of sildenafil on the pulmonary vascular remodeling of pulmonary hypertension ...
Hasaniya Nahidh W - - 2010
The use of right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery conduit improved postoperative hemodynamics and survival in hypoplastic left heart syndrome patients. Proximal conduit anastomosis obstruction prompts hypercyanosis and early bidirectional Glenn connection. We describe modification of the proximal right ventricle-to-pulmonary artery conduit anastomosis to eliminate this complication. Outcomes after Norwood operation using standard ...
Loukanov Tsvetomir - - 2010
There are several animal models for studying human pulmonary hypertension (PH). An increased flow model in pigs was developed at the University Hospital in Heidelberg in order to simulate congenital heart disease. The high pulmonary blood flow is achieved by installation of a Blalock-Taussig anastomosis. In order to further improve ...
Price Laura C - - 2010
Pulmonary vascular dysfunction, pulmonary hypertension (PH), and resulting right ventricular (RV) failure occur in many critical illnesses and may be associated with a worse prognosis. PH and RV failure may be difficult to manage: principles include maintenance of appropriate RV preload, augmentation of RV function, and reduction of RV afterload ...
Ilsar Rahn - - 2010
The pulmonary microcirculation is the chief regulatory site for resistance in the pulmonary circuit. Despite pulmonary microvascular dysfunction being implicated in the pathogenesis of several pulmonary vascular conditions, there are currently no techniques for the specific assessment of pulmonary microvascular integrity in humans. Peak hyperemic flow assessment using thermodilution-derived mean ...
Ramani Gautam V - - 2010
Sildenafil is an orally administered phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor that is approved for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The hemodynamic effects of sildenafil are mitigated primarily via potentiating the effects of endogenous nitric oxide, leading to smooth muscle cell relaxation and reductions in pulmonary arterial pressures and pulmonary ...
Serra Walter - - 2010
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in patients with systemic sclerosis is associated with a poor prognosis, but this can be improved by early disease detection. Abnormal pulmonary and cardiac function can be detected early by means of echocardiography, whereas right heart catheterization is usually performed later. The purpose of this prospective ...
Megalou Aikaterini J - - 2010
The role of transforming growth factor-β in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension is unclear. We examined the effects of T9429, an antibody against transforming growth factor-β receptors, on hemodynamic, histological and functional parameters in the rat model of monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension. One week after monocrotaline injection (60 mg/kg) in ...
Hadian Mehrnaz - - 2010
Although less invasive than pulmonary artery catheters (PACs), arterial pulse pressure analysis techniques for estimating cardiac output (CO) have not been simultaneously compared to PAC bolus thermodilution CO (COtd) or continuous CO (CCO) devices. We compared the accuracy, bias and trending ability of LiDCO™, PiCCO™ and FloTrac™ with PACs (COtd, ...
Nadler Samuel T - - 2010
Multiple conditions result in development of pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is the subclassification of pulmonary hypertension, in which known or unknown underlying conditions lead to similar intrinsic alterations in the pulmonary vasculature. PAH is a progressive condition characterized by restricted blood flow through the pulmonary circulation leading to ...
van Albada Mirjam E - - 2010
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a pulmonary angioproliferative disease with high morbidity and mortality, characterized by a typical pattern of pulmonary vascular remodeling including neointimal lesions. In congenital heart disease, increased pulmonary blood flow has appeared to be a key mediator in the development of these characteristic lesions, but the ...
Sakao Seiichiro - - 2010
Vascular remodeling is an important pathological feature of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), which leads to increased pulmonary vascular resistance, with marked proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (SMC) and/or endothelial cells (EC). Successful treatment of experimental PAH with a platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor offers the ...
Tonelli Adriano R - - 2010
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) encompasses a number of diseases responsible for a specific set of hemodynamic findings during right heart catheterization. During initial workup, pulmonary vasodilator testing is performed. A positive acute pulmonary vasodilator test predicts better survival and response to calcium channel blocker (CCB) therapy. There is lack of ...
Podlutsky Andrej - - 2010
Aging in the systemic circulation is associated with generalized endothelial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress, which are thought to contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases in the elderly. Previous studies have shown that pulmonary artery pressure and vascular resistance increase with normal aging in humans, yet ...
Bircan Ahmet - - 2011
Background: Objective diagnosis of severe pulmonary embolism (PE) is obligatory because of its considerable mortality. Aim: To assess the abilities of electrocardiography (ECG) score (sECG) and the newly generated scoring system composed of the scores obtained from arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis and shock index (SI) in addition to sECG ...
Geiger Ralph - - 2009
In congenital heart disease (CHD), mechanical wall stress by increased pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary blood flow is believed to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary plexogenic arteriopathy (PPA). The pathogenesis of this disease that involves significant pulmonary arterial remodelling, is, however, largely unknown. In the systemic ...
Shah Ami A - - 2010
Clinical markers are needed to identify scleroderma patients at risk for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) since early therapy may improve survival. We investigated whether increased numbers of telangiectases in scleroderma associate with measures of pulmonary vascular disease. One hundred forty-seven consecutive adult patients with scleroderma were enrolled in this cross-sectional ...
Yuki Koichi - - 2009
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of left heart bypass (LHB) on regional pulmonary blood flow and arterial oxygenation during one-lung ventilation (OLV). DESIGN: Prospective, observational study SETTING: Operating room PATIENTS: 14 ASA physical status II and III patients scheduled to undergo descending thoracic or thoracoabdominal aortic surgery using LHB. ...
Kowal-Bielecka Otylia - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To assess the validation status of echocardiography with continuous Doppler (echo-Doppler) as an outcome measure in pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with systemic sclerosis (PAH-SSc). METHODS: Structured literature review on full-text English articles was performed using the PubMed and Cochrane databases. Assessment of validation of echo-Doppler was based on the ...
Chen Bernadette B Department of Pediatrics, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois 60611, - - 2009
The role of cAMP in the pulmonary vasculature during the transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life is poorly understood. We hypothesized that cAMP levels are regulated by alterations in phosphodiesterase 3 (PDE3), which hydrolyzes cAMP. PDE3 protein expression and hydrolytic activity were increased in the resistance pulmonary arteries (PA) from ...
Blalock Shannon E - - 2010
This study evaluated long-term outcomes in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) undergoing treatment with ambrisentan monotherapy, a selective oral endothelin-1 receptor antagonist. Patients who participated in the Ambrisentan in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Phase 3, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Multicenter Efficacy Study (ARIES-1) clinical trial and extension phase at our ...
Hamal Krishna R - - 2010
Pulmonary hypertension syndrome (PHS; ascites) in fast growing meat-type chickens (broilers) is characterized by the onset of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) leading to right-sided congestive heart failure and terminal ascites. Intravenous microparticle (MP) injection is a tool used by poultry geneticists to screen for the broilers that are resistant ...
Weiler Zeev - - 2010
BACKGROUND: At the population level, asthma has been associated with chronic systemic inflammation as well as adverse cardiovascular outcomes. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate peripheral vascular hemodynamic variables of arterial stiffness (AS) and their relationship to pulmonary function tests in asthmatic patients. METHODS: Young asthmatic patients ...
Schreiber Christian - - 2009
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of surgeons prefer to place a conduit from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery at the time of the Norwood stage I procedure. Proximal conduit stenoses have led us to modify this technique by using ring-enforced polytetrafluoroethylene conduits. METHODS: Angiograms of 24 patients with conventional ...
Kashihara Koji - - 2009
Among the many cardiopulmonary reflexes, this review specifically examines the roles of the arterial baroreflex during the Bezold-Jarisch reflex (BJR). Activation of cardiopulmonary vagal afferent C-fibers induces hypotension, bradycardia, and apnea, which are known collectively as the BJR; myocardial ischemia and infarction might induce the BJR. Arterial baroreflex has been ...
Sawamura Fusae - - 2009
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of tadalafil (0.5, 2.5, and 10 mg/kg per day) on the progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in early treatment and on the survival rate in late treatment on the monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH rat model. Tadalafil was administered once daily ...
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