Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 2195
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Anderson Joe R - - 2010
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a disabling chronic disorder of the pulmonary vasculature, which is characterized by increased pulmonary artery pressure as a result of increased pulmonary vascular resistance. The pathology of PAH is characterized by pulmonary vascular vasoconstriction, smooth muscle cell proliferation, and thrombosis. These changes are a result ...
Mandal Banashree - - 2010
The presence of pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) affects the prognosis of patients; therefore, it is important to treat it. The aim of this study is to compare the acute hemodynamic effects of inhaled nitroglycerine (iNTG), intravenous nitroglycerine (IV NTG) alone and their combination with intravenous dobutamine (IV DOB) during the ...
Montani David - - 2010
Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is an uncommon form of pulmonary arterial hypertension characterised by a progressive obstruction of small pulmonary veins that leads to elevation in pulmonary vascular resistance and right ventricular failure. Despite improved understanding and more efficacious treatment options for PAH overall, the prognosis of PVOD remains dismal. ...
Rychik J - - 2010
Lower urinary tract obstruction (LUTO) with massive bladder distension impacts on a variety of developing organ systems with consequent morbidity and mortality. The impact of LUTO on the fetal cardiovascular system has not previously been investigated. We hypothesize that a giant, distended bladder within the pelvis may cause vascular compression ...
Pandey Anoop Kumar - - 2010
To evaluate the imaging features on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest and the clinical parameters that are associated with pulmonary hypertension in systemic sclerosis. We specifically investigated whether main pulmonary artery (MPA) diameter and burden of lung fibrosis are predictors of pulmonary hypertension in these patients. We retrospectively ...
Zeinaloo Ali Akbar - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Primary antibody deficiencies are characterized by defective antibody production and recurrent infections. Patients usually present with recurrent respiratory tract infections with consequent chronic pulmonary damage and bronchiectasis, which could potentially influence cardiac function. Our aim was to assess noninvasively the cardiac complications due to pulmonary disease in patients with ...
Liu Hao - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Temporarily pulmonary hilum clamping is available for the trauma surgeon to deal with serious pulmonary injuries, but the physiologic influence needs further evaluation. This study was to establish a temporary pulmonary hilum clamping model for thoracic damage-control surgery and determine the safety time latitude of this manipulation. METHODS: After ...
Gupta Vivek - - 2010
This study was designed to test the feasibility of polymeric microspheres as an inhalable carrier for prostaglandin E(1) (PGE(1)) for treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres were prepared by a double emulsion-solvent evaporation method. Six different microspheric formulations were prepared using two different blends of PLGA (50:50 ...
Linguraru Marius George - - 2010
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive vascular disease that results in high mortality and morbidity in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients. PAH diagnosis is invasive via right heart catheterization, but manual measurements of the main pulmonary artery (PA) diameters from computed tomography (CT) have shown promise as noninvasive surrogate ...
Lee W-T N - - 2010
Absolute 6-min walk distance (6MWD) predicts mortality in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but varies greatly between normal individuals due to physiological factors such as age, sex, height and weight. The % predicted 6MWD adjusts for these factors and may predict mortality more reliably. The aim of the study was to ...
Mouchaers K T B - - 2010
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) still cannot be cured, warranting the search for novel treatments. Fasudil (a Rho kinase inhibitor) was compared with bosentan (an endothelin receptor blocker) and sildenafil (a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor), with emphasis on right ventricular (RV) function, in a reversal rat model of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH. In ...
Campo Aránzazu - - 2010
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) related to systemic sclerosis (SSc) has a poorer prognosis compared with other forms of PAH for reasons that remain unexplained. Objectives: To identify risk factors of mortality in a well-characterized cohort of patients with PAH related to systemic sclerosis (SSc-PAH). Seventy-six consecutive patients with SSc (64 ...
Sundaram Nambirajan N Divison of Experimental Hematology & Cancer Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3333 Burnet Ave., Cincinnati, OH 45229-3039, - - 2010
Pulmonary hypertension is associated with reduced nitric oxide bioavailability and early mortality in sickle cell disease (SCD). We previously demonstrated that placenta growth factor (PlGF), an angiogenic factor produced by erythroid cells, induces hypoxia-independent expression of the pulmonary vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 in pulmonary endothelial cells. Using a lentivirus vector, we simulated ...
Zeng Da-xiong - - 2010
Accumulating evidence indicated that smoking might directly induce pulmonary vascular remodeling at the initial stage of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the molecular mechanism underlying this process remains poorly understood. To investigate the role of cyclin D1 in pulmonary vascular remodeling, we constructed a plasmid-based short hairpin RNA (shRNA) ...
Marini Carlo - - 2010
In acute pulmonary embolism, patients free from circulatory failure usually present a blood gas pattern consistent with respiratory alkalosis. We investigated whether the appearance of arterial base deficit in these patients indicates disease severity and diagnostic delay. Twenty-four consecutive patients with pulmonary embolism were retrospectively evaluated. Twelve patients had arterial ...
Toshner Mark R - - 2010
Relative area change (RAC) of the proximal pulmonary artery is a measurement of pulmonary artery distensibility and has been shown to correlate with vasoreactivity studies in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. We have previously noted a relationship between invasive hemodynamic vasoreactivity testing and long-term response to sildenafil in patients ...
Ou Zhi-Jun - - 2010
L-arginine can attenuate pulmonary hypertension (PH) by a mechanism that are not fully understood. This study investigated the molecule mechanism of L-arginine attenuating PH. Sprague Dawley rats were treated with monocrotaline (MCT) with or without L-arginine for 3 or 5 wk. Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), right heart hypertrophy, survival ...
Arques Stephane - - 2010
Recent advances have highlighted the clinical relevance of pulmonary artery hypertension in terms of diagnosis and prognosis in heart failure with normal ejection fraction. We addressed the usefulness of Doppler-derived pulmonary artery systolic pressure to predict heart failure with normal ejection fraction in stable patients with exertional dyspnea. 25 patients ...
Dumas de la Roque Eric - - 2010
This review describes the cellular and molecular mechanism heterogeneity of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its putative therapeutic role in vascular remodeling diseases such as pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). PAH is characterized by enhanced pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation, constriction and resistance to apoptosis, all of which contribute to increase ...
Nemoto Shintaro - - 2010
Sildenafil is a strong pulmonary vasodilator that increases the intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate concentration through inhibition of phosphodiesterase-5. We assessed the benefit of oral sildenafil for persistent pulmonary hypertension early after congenital cardiac surgery in paediatric patients. Sildenafil was administered at a starting dose of 0.5 mg kg(-1) following admission ...
Festa Pierluigi - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess a novel transthoracic echocardiographic method to estimate the severity of pulmonary regurgitation (PR) in patients with surgically repaired tetralogy of Fallot. METHOD: In 63 patients with operated tetralogy of Fallot, PR was evaluated by vena contracta width, jet deceleration, PR index, ...
Diaz-Guzman Enrique - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The frequency of combined obstruction and restriction identified in pulmonary function tests has not been well described. Moreover, although the causes of combined-obstruction-and-restriction patterns are known, the frequency of the various etiologies has received little attention. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records and surveyed pulmonologists. RESULTS: 43,212 PFT sessions ...
Giglia Therese M - - 2010
Preoperative pulmonary vascular disease remains an important risk factor for death or right-heart failure in selected children undergoing two-ventricle repair, single-ventricle palliation, or heart transplantation. Preoperative criteria for poor outcome after operation remain unclear. The purpose of this review is to critically assess both the historic and current data and ...
Milan Alberto - - 2010
Ultrasound imaging has continuously developed over recent years, leading to the development of several novel echocardiographic indexes. Among these, of particular interest are those that focus on pulmonary hemodynamics, because they not only improve both sensitivity and specificity in the echocardiographic evaluation of pulmonary pressures (systolic, mean, and diastolic), but ...
Pepke-Zaba J - - 2010
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a life-threatening and debilitating disease affecting up to 5% of survivors of pulmonary embolism. Diagnostic testing is important to distinguish it from other forms of pulmonary hypertension and to assess the feasibility of pulmonary endarterectomy. This review provides an up-to-date perspective on the diagnosis ...
Randall Alyssa - - 2010
Discontinuous pulmonary arteries are believed to portend poor outcomes for a single ventricle palliation leading to Fontan's operation. This is a single institutional review of patients with single ventricle and discontinuous pulmonary arteries who underwent pulmonary artery centralization as part of staged surgical palliation. The study is a retrospective case ...
Ghofrani Hossein-Ardeschir - - 2010
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) encompasses a group of diseases associated with progressively increasing pulmonary vascular resistance, right heart failure and premature death. Riociguat is a novel, first-in-class oral drug that directly stimulates soluble guanylate cyclase, both independently of the endogenous vasodilator nitric oxide (NO) and in synergy with NO. Single oral ...
Fujita Hiroshi - - 2010
We have previously demonstrated that long-term inhibition of Rho-kinase ameliorates pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in animal models. In the present study, we examined acute vasodilator effects of inhaled fasudil, a specific Rho-kinase inhibitor, as a more feasible option to locally deliver the drug for PAH. We examined 15 patients with ...
Honjo Osami - - 2010
In the last decade the hybrid procedure has emerged as an alternative stage I palliation in neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS). This review discusses the historical aspect, surgical and interventional techniques, current outcomes and future direction of this procedure. Hybrid palliation yields equivalent but not superior stage I ...
Murthy Subramanyam N - - 2010
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a severe, life-threatening disease for which there are no effective curative therapies. A diverse group of agents such as prostacyclins, endothelin antagonists, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, inotropic agents, and anticoagulants are used to treat PH; however, none of these agents have a marked effect ...
Barr Frederick E - - 2010
Children with congenital heart defects are at risk for perioperative pulmonary hypertension if they require corrective or palliative surgery in the first week of life or if they have defects associated with significant pulmonary overcirculation. In addition, children undergoing cavopulmonary connections for single ventricle lesions require low pulmonary vascular resistance ...
Brierre Gilles - - 2010
The present role of echocardiography is generally restricted to screening for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The aim of our study was to identify new echocardiographic prognostic factors for mortality in PAH which would give this imaging modality a genuine role in patient management. At inclusion, all patients underwent right cardiac ...
Marchiori Edson - - 2010
Talc is a mineral widely used in the ceramic, paper, plastics, rubber, paint, and cosmetic industries. Four distinct forms of pulmonary disease caused by talc have been defined. Three of them (talcosilicosis, talcoasbestosis, and pure talcosis) are associated with aspiration and differ in the composition of the inhaled substance. The ...
Ahmad Zaheer - - 2010
We evaluated the presence of pulmonary artery diverticulum in patients with Williams syndrome in comparison with other conditions causing peripheral pulmonary artery stenosis (PPS). Angiographic characteristics of patients with a definitive diagnosis of Williams syndrome, by fluorescence in situ hybridization, between 1990 and 2008 were reviewed. These data were compared ...
Koskenvuo Juha W - - 2010
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening condition characterized by progressive elevation in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) and total pulmonary vascular resistance (TPVR). Recent advances in imaging techniques have allowed the development of new echocardiographic parameters to evaluate disease progression. However, there are no reports comparing the diagnostic performance of ...
Cornet Alexander D - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary hypertension is a characteristic feature of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and contributes to mortality. Administration of sildenafil in ambulatory patients with pulmonary hypertension improves oxygenation and ameliorates pulmonary hypertension. Our aim was to determine whether sildenafil is beneficial for patients with ARDS. DESIGN: Prospective, open-label, multicenter, interventional ...
Sergiacomi Gianluigi - - 2010
PURPOSE: To correlate conventional invasive pressure indexes of pulmonary circulation with pulmonary first-order arterial mean transit time (MTT) and time to peak enhancement (TTP) measured by means of three-dimensional time-resolved magnetic resonance (MR) angiography in patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was institutional ...
van der Plas Mart N - - 2010
BACKGROUND: In chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), dyspnea is considered to be related to increased dead space ventilation caused by vascular obstruction. Pulmonary endarterectomy releases the thromboembolic obstruction, thereby improving regional pulmonary blood flow. We hypothesized that pulmonary endarterectomy reduces dead space ventilation and that this reduction contributes to attenuation ...
Abdelhady Khaled - - 2010
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a devastating condition that without proper management can deteriorate progressively. Elevated pulmonary artery pressure without an identifiable etiology is called IPAH. PH resulting from a specific disease is referred to as secondary PH; left-sided cardiac disease can lead to an increase in pulmonary artery pressure resulting ...
Bigot Julien - - 2010
PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of pulmonary arterial wall distensibility on the assessment of a computed tomography (CT) score in patients with nonmassive pulmonary embolism (PE) (ie, Mastora score). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The arterial wall distensibility of five central pulmonary arteries (pulmonary artery trunk, right and left main pulmonary arteries, ...
Duman Ates - - 2010
We describe a case of 41-yr.-old multigravida at 35 weeks gestation, with a diagnosis of Eisenmenger syndrome, requiring urgent Cesarean section. The parturient had signs and symptoms of respiratory distress due to high pulmonary artery pressure, and the pregnancy was complicated by preeclampsia. A general anesthetic consisting of ketamine and ...
Devaraj Anand - - 2010
PURPOSE: To test the reliability of potentially new computed tomographic (CT) indicators of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and to establish whether a combination of CT and echocardiographic measurements was more predictive of PH than either test alone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The institutional review board approved this retrospective study; patient consent was ...
Crosswhite Patrick - - 2010
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease characterized by a persistent elevation of pulmonary artery pressure accompanied by right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH). The current treatment for pulmonary hypertension is limited and only provides symptomatic relief due to unknown cause and pathogenesis of the disease. Both vasoconstriction and ...
Sweiss Nadera J NJ Section of Rheumatology, University of Chicago, 5841 South Maryland Avenue (MC6080), Chicago, IL 60637, - - 2010
Patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) can develop pulmonary hypertension (PH; mean pulmonary artery pressure >/= 25 mm Hg) caused by pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), left ventricular disease, or pulmonary fibrosis. PAH is a pulmonary vascular disease, the diagnosis of which requires pulmonary capillary wedge pressure less than 15 mm Hg, ...
Eyskens Benedicte - - 2010
AIMS: Pulmonary regurgitation after repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) results in right ventricular (RV) dysfunction with significant late morbidity and mortality. The aim was to assess the influence of pulmonary regurgitation on regional RV function. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 48 asymptomatic children (age 11.1 +/- 3.3 years) with repair ...
Watts John A - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The right ventricle normally operates as a low pressure, high-flow pump connected to a high-capacitance pulmonary vascular circuit. Morbidity and mortality in humans with pulmonary hypertension (PH) from any cause is increased in the presence of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction, but the differences in pathology of RV dysfunction in ...
Thomas Matthew - - 2010
Two gross mechanisms of pathology are central to pulmonary arterial hypertension - increased pulmonary vascular tone and remodelling of the pulmonary arteries. These pathologies can be caused by a variety of aberrant processes, and combine to cause an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance and consequent right ventricular hypertrophy, eventually leading ...
Dolci Daniel T - - 2010
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The time course of cardiopulmonary alterations after pulmonary embolism has not been clearly demonstrated and nor has the role of systemic inflammation on the pathogenesis of the disease. This study aimed to evaluate over 12 h the effects of pulmonary embolism caused by polystyrene microspheres on the ...
Chhabra Sunil K - - 2010
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is likely to complicate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a large proportion of patients, especially those with severe disease. Majority of patients have a mild to moderate elevation in the pulmonary artery pressure that usually does not require specific treatment. A small subset of patients, however, ...
Xie Liangdi - - 2010
Structural remodeling of pulmonary artery plays an important role in maintaining sustained pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The anti-remodeling effects of statins have been reported in systemic hypertension. In this study, we studied the effects of atovastatin (Ato) or losartan (Los) in monocrotaline (MCL)-induced pulmonary artery remodeling using a rat model. ...
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