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Results 251 - 300 of 2222
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Barst R - - 2010
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary artery pressure, is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adults. Prior to 1995, there were no approved therapies for PAH. Review of the clinical drug development of epoprostenol (synthetic prostacyclin) for the treatment of ...
Gordon Brent M - - 2010
Staged palliative surgery is often required to regulate pulmonary and systemic blood flow in children with complex congenital heart disease. Accessory sources of pulmonary blood flow have been utilized to provide satisfactory pulmonary blood flow after Glenn anastomosis in select patients. Prolonged exposure to increased flow can lead to elevated ...
Dai Zen-Kong - - 2010
Endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) and endothelin (ET)-1 interact to regulate the vascular tone in pulmonary hypertension (PH). We investigated the protective effects of an orally active, dual endothelin converting enzyme (ECE)/neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibitor/CGS 26393 on pulmonary vascular remodeling and pulmonary expressions of ET-1 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) ...
Rich Stuart - - 2010
The current treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) uses vasodilator drugs. Although they improve symptoms associated with PAH, their chronic effects on the pulmonary vasculature and the right ventricle (RV) in humans remain unknown. We report the autopsy findings from a patient with idiopathic PAH treated with epoprostenol successfully for ...
Russell Hyde M - - 2011
A common arterial trunk is a solitary trunk that exits the heart through a common ventriculo-arterial junction and supplies directly the systemic, pulmonary, and coronary arterial pathways. It remains to be determined, however, how best to subclassify those hearts fulfilling this definition. The time-honored classification is based on the morphology ...
Palecek Tomas - - 2011
The differentiation between chronic pulmonary thromboembolic hypertension (CTEPH) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) remains a clinical challenge. The aim of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of both echocardiographically and invasively derived pulmonary artery pulsatility indexes in the etiologic differentiation of patients with CTEPH and PAH. We retrospectively analyzed ...
Xu M H - - 2011
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by sustained elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance resulting from endothelial and smooth muscle cell dysfunction and collagen deposition in pulmonary vascular walls. In this study, we investigated the role of the adenosine A(2A) receptor (A(2A)R) in the development of PAH by determining the effect ...
Liu Min - - 2011
The aim was to investigate the role of computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in the assessment of severity and right ventricular function in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Clinical and radiological data of 56 patients with CTEPH January 2006-October 2009 were retrospectively reviewed in the present study. All patients received ...
Huo Yan Miao - - 2010
To investigate the influence of chronic liver disease (CLD) on pulmonary diffusion function. Arterial blood gas analysis, pulmonary function test, contrast-enhanced transthoracic echocardiography and technetium macro-aggregated albumin scanning were performed in 50 cirrhotic patients who underwent surgery on portal hypertension and liver transplantation. The severity of chronic liver disease (CLD) ...
Gao Yuansheng - - 2010
During the development of the pulmonary vasculature in the fetus, many structural and functional changes occur to prepare the lung for the transition to air breathing. The development of the pulmonary circulation is genetically controlled by an array of mitogenic factors in a temporo-spatial order. With advancing gestation, pulmonary vessels ...
Matsumoto Isao - - 2010
We investigated whether fluorescent agents, especially vitamin B2, can act as tracers for intraoperative pulmonary sentinel node mapping. Vitamin B2, fluorescent beads, and green fluorescent protein (GFP) were each injected into pulmonary parenchyma in 4 pigs (experiment 1). The safety of each tracer was also verified in 12 rats (experiment ...
Oizumi Hiroyuki - - 2011
The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of anatomic thoracoscopic pulmonary segmentectomy performed under the guidance of 3-dimensional multidetector computed tomography simulation. Between September 2004 and June 2009, 52 patients (median age, 68 years; range, 16-85 years) underwent thoracoscopic segmentectomy without mini-thoracotomy. Images were obtained by ...
Bailey Damian M - - 2010
High altitude (HA)-induced pulmonary hypertension may be due to a free radical-mediated reduction in pulmonary nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. We hypothesised that the increase in pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) at HA would be associated with a net transpulmonary output of free radicals and corresponding loss of bioactive NO metabolites. ...
Unal Aydin - - 2010
The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate long-term effects of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) on the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and the relationship between blood flow rate of AVF and pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) in the patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This prospective study was performed ...
Li Xiao-Hui - - 2010
Recent studies have shown that the plasma level of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) was increased accompanied by the decreased dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) activity in pulmonary hypertension (PH) and ADMA was able to regulate pulmonary endothelial cells mobility through increasing the activity of Rho kinase (ROCK). This work was conducted to explore ...
Sugawara Jun - - 2010
In contrast to the well-established scientific evidence linking negative emotional states (e.g., depression, anxiety, or anger) to increased risk for cardiovascular disease, much less is known about the association between positive emotional states (e.g., laughter, happiness) and cardiovascular health. We determined the effects of mirthful laughter, elicited by watching comic ...
Huang Chung-Chi - - 2011
Transpulmonary thermodilution cardiac output is used in calculating aortic impedance for calibrating the pulse-contour analysis and is applied to calculate extravascular lung water (EVLW). Whether pulmonary edema affects the accuracy of transpulmonary thermodilution is controversial. This study aimed to investigate the effects of extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) on the ...
Yue Wen-Sheng - - 2010
Smoking is associated with depletion of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and may subsequently contribute to the development of vascular dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between circulating EPCs and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) as determined by flow cytometry and echocardiography in 174 patients (mean ...
Dias-Junior Carlos A - - 2010
While endogenous nitric oxide (NO) may be relevant to the beneficial hemodynamic effects produced by sildenafil during acute pulmonary embolism (APE), huge amounts of inducible NO synthase (iNOS)-derived NO may contribute to lung injury. We hypothesized that iNOS inhibition with S-methylisothiourea could attenuate APE-induced increases in oxidative stress and pulmonary ...
Mercier Olaf - - 2010
OBJECTIVES: In patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, high flow in unobstructed lung regions may induce small-vessel damage responsible for persistent pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary thromboendarterectomy. In piglets, closure of an experimental aortopulmonary shunt reverses the flow-induced vascular lesions and diminishes the elevated levels of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression for ...
Carev Mladen - - 2010
Secondary pulmonary hypertension is a frequent condition after heart valve surgery. It may significantly complicate the perioperative management and increase patients' morbidity and mortality. The treatment has not been yet completely defined principally because of lack of the selectivity of drugs for the pulmonary vasculature. The usage of inhaled milrinone ...
Whelan Daniel B - - 2010
BACKGROUND: The objective was to investigate changes in pulmonary blood flow after lung contusion and fat embolism. METHODS: Eighteen mongrel dogs were randomly assigned to three groups: fat embolism alone (n = 7); moderate unilateral pulmonary contusion followed by fat embolism (n = 6); and severe unilateral pulmonary contusion followed ...
Kunihara Takashi - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Postoperative outcome after pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) for CTEPH (chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension) is difficult to predict. We analyzed specific angiographic findings to predict the success of PEA. METHODS: Pulmonary angiograms were reviewed retrospectively in 90 patients with CTEPH who underwent PEA. The proximal 2 cm of a segmental artery ...
Van der Meeren A - - 2010
The biodistribution of plutonium and americium has been studied in a rat model after inhalation of two PuO(2) powders in lungs and extra-pulmonary organs from 3 d to 3 mo. The main difference between the two powders was the content of americium (approximately 46% and 4.5% of total alpha activity). ...
Saouti N - - 2010
The anatomical differences between the pulmonary and systemic arterial system are the main cause of the difference in distribution of compliance. In the pulmonary arterial system compliance is distributed over the entire arterial system, and stands at the basis of the constancy of the RC-time. This distribution depends on the ...
Lopes Patricia Cristina Ferro - - 2010
To compare cardiac output (CO) measured by Doppler echocardiography and thermodilution techniques in spontaneously breathing dogs during continuous infusion of propofol. To do so, CO was obtained using the thermodilution method (CO(TD)) and Doppler evaluation of pulmonary flow (CO(DP)) and aortic flow (CO(DA)). Prospective cohort study. Eight adult dogs weighing ...
Schumann Christian - - 2010
Besides persisting high pulmonary arterial pressure and increased pulmonary vascular resistance, remodelling of pulmonary tissues and subsequently the right heart are the key pathomechanisms of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Extracellular matrix maintenance in this context plays a central role. We tested the hypothesis that plasma concentration of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, tissue ...
Stayer Stephen A - - 2010
Pulmonary hypertension presenting in the neonatal period can be due to congenital heart malformations (most commonly associated with obstruction to pulmonary venous drainage), high output cardiac failure from large arteriovenous malformations and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Of these, the most common cause is PPHN. PPHN develops when ...
Kocatürk Meriç - - 2010
This study aimed to assess the influence of lobectomy and pneumonectomy on cardiac rhythm and on the dimensions and function of the right-side of the heart. Twelve dogs undergoing lobectomy and eight dogs undergoing pneumonectomy were evaluated preoperatively and one month postoperatively with electrocardiography and Doppler echocardiography at rest. Pulmonary ...
Memtsoudis Stavros G - - 2010
The transient and rarely clinically relevant effect of bone and cement embolization during unilateral joint arthroplasty is a known phenomenon. However, available studies do not address events surrounding bilateral total hip arthroplasties, during which embolic load is presumably doubled. To elucidate events surrounding this increasingly used procedure and assess the ...
Dromparis Peter - - 2010
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by a hyperproliferative and anti-apoptotic diathesis within the vascular wall of the resistance pulmonary arteries, leading to vascular lumen occlusion, right ventricular failure, and death. Most current therapies show poor efficacy due to emphasis on vasodilation (rather than proliferation/apoptosis) and a lack of specificity ...
Ilsar Rahn - - 2010
Despite increasing evidence implicating the pulmonary microcirculation in the pathogenesis of lung conditions such as pulmonary vascular disease, there remain few methods for its evaluation in vivo. We recently demonstrated that the novel index of Doppler-derived pulmonary flow reserve (PFR(dopp)=maximal hyperaemic/basal pulmonary flow) could be reliably measured in high primates. ...
Burton Victoria J - - 2011
Mutations in bone morphogenetic protein receptor II (BMPR-II) underlie most heritable cases of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, less than half the individuals who harbor mutations develop the disease. Interestingly, heterozygous null BMPR-II mice fail to develop PAH unless an additional inflammatory insult is applied, suggesting that BMPR-II plays a ...
Rossi Pascal - - 2010
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is characterized by the development of fibrosis of skin and internal organs that is associated with vascular damage. However, its related parameters have not been fully explored. The aim of this study was to investigate endothelial function in SSc and its relationship with systolic pulmonary artery pressure ...
Wright Joanne L - - 2011
the potential role of statins in treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is controversial, and it is unclear what anatomic COPD lesions statins affect. to determine whether an intervention of simvastatin could alter cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary hypertension. we exposed guinea pigs to cigarette smoke for 6 months. In half the ...
Cartin-Ceba Rodrigo - - 2011
Ambrisentan is a selective endothelin-receptor antagonist that is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. We describe hemodynamic responses and clinical outcomes of patients with portopulmonary hypertension (POPH) treated with ambrisentan. In this observational study, we prospectively identified and followed consecutive adult ...
Stathopoulos Eleuthère - - 2011
To study the effects of tezosentan, a dual ETA and ETB receptor antagonist on the cardiopulmonary profile in a fetal lamb model of CDH in utero. A diaphragmatic hernia was surgically created at day 75 of gestation. During a 45 min of tezosentan perfusion (1 mg/kg), hemodynamic parameters (pulmonary and aortic pressures, ...
Price L C LC Faculté de Médecine, Université Paris-Sud, Paris, Service de Pneumologie et Réanimation Respiratoire, Hôpital Antoine Béclère, Clamart, - - 2011
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is associated with dysregulated bone morphogenetic protein receptor (BMPR)-II signaling and pulmonary vascular inflammation. We evaluated the effects of dexamethasone on monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH in rats for potential reversal of PAH at late time-points. Saline-treated control, MCT-exposed, MCT-exposed and dexamethasone-treated rats (5 mg·kg⁻¹·day⁻¹, 1.25 mg·kg⁻¹ and ...
Pagnamenta Alberto - - 2010
Pulmonary hypertension on heart failure (HF) limits exercise capacity and survival probably because of associated right ventricular (RV) failure. This study investigated the mechanisms of RV function adaptation to early pulmonary hypertension in experimental HF. Seven weeks of rapid ventricular pacing in six dogs induced a HF characterized by cardiomegaly ...
Atkins Broadus Zane - - 2010
Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) stimulates systemic and pulmonary inflammation. Modified ultrafiltration (MUF) mitigates deleterious CPB effects by unclear mechanisms. We evaluated pulmonary inflammation in piglets undergoing CPB followed by MUF. Twenty-four piglets underwent 60 min of hypothermic CPB. MUF subjects (n=12) underwent hemoconcentration postCPB to the target hematocrit. Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), ...
Mercier Elise - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of age on pulmonary hemodynamics and hemorheological properties in healthy dogs. ANIMALS: 14 healthy Beagles. PROCEDURES: Dogs were placed in 2 age groups as follows: young dogs (<or= 5 years old; n = 8) and old dogs (>or= 8 years old; 6). Hematologic characteristics, plasma ...
Belohlavek Jan - - 2010
Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is an effective rescue method for severe respiratory and cardiac failure. Right ventricular (RV) failure with cardiogenic shock is a critical condition with generally poor prognosis unless aggressive therapeutical measures are undertaken. Authors report on their initial experience with ECMO support in severe RV failure with ...
Yang Ying - - 2010
This study was designed to determine whether calcium antagonists, diltiazem and nifedipine, can depress low temperature-induced pulmonary hypertension (PH) in broilers (also known as ascites) and to characterize their efficacy on hemodynamics and pulmonary artery function. Chicks were randomly allocated into six experimental groups and orally administered with vehicle, 5.0 ...
Meoli David F - - 2010
Endothelin 1 (ET-1) is an endogenous peptide that promotes vasoconstriction, endothelial and smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, and fibrosis. ET-1 receptor antagonists are an important treatment strategy for pulmonary arterial hypertension, but less effective in systemic vascular disease. This observation suggests a special role for ET-1 in the pulmonary circulation. ...
Hirono Keiichi - - 2010
To investigate the efficacy of bosentan in patients with single-ventricle physiology who were unable to undergo right-sided heart bypass surgery because of high pulmonary vascular resistance and pulmonary artery pressure. Eight patients with single-ventricle physiology (2 male and 6 female; aged 7 months to 5 years, median 1 year) were ...
Jayet Pierre-Yves - - 2010
Adverse events in utero may predispose to cardiovascular disease in adulthood. The underlying mechanisms are unknown. During preeclampsia, vasculotoxic factors are released into the maternal circulation by the diseased placenta. We speculated that these factors pass the placental barrier and leave a defect in the circulation of the offspring that ...
Badejo Adeleke M AM - - 2010
BAY 41-8543 is a nitric oxide (NO)-independent stimulator of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC). Responses to intravenous injections of BAY 41-8543 were investigated under baseline and elevated tone conditions and when NO synthase (NOS) was inhibited with N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Under baseline conditions, intravenous injections of BAY 41-8543 caused small ...
Cavagna Lorenzo - - 2010
To compare the performance of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in screening for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Between January 2008 and March 2009, outpatients referred to our unit and satisfying LeRoy criteria for SSc were assessed for PAH. Doppler echocardiography, BNP ...
Lin Li-na - - 2010
BACKGROUND: Acute lung injury is a recognized complication of lower limb ischemia-reperfusion that has been demonstrated experimentally and in the clinical setting of aortic surgery. The application of a tourniquet can cause lower limb ischemia-reperfusion in orthopedic surgery. We studied the effect of unilateral thigh tourniquet-induced lower limb ischemia-reperfusion on ...
Mikus Elisa - - 2011
Objectives: Fixed pulmonary hypertension is a contraindication for heart transplantation. Left ventricular assist device support may lower it and bridge patients to heart transplantation. The aim of the study was to investigate the optimal parameters for treatment decisions and the time course of their potential reversal to normal values during ...
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