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Results 351 - 400 of 846
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Hardman J G - - 1998
We aimed to validate the mathematical validity and accuracy of the respiratory components of the Nottingham Physiology Simulator (NPS), a computer simulation of physiological models. Subsequently, we aimed to assess the accuracy of the NPS in predicting the effects of a change in mechanical ventilation on patient arterial blood-gas tensions. ...
Igarashi T - - 1998
We examined the extradural space using a flexible extraduroscope in 113 patients undergoing extradural anaesthesia. Patients were classified into two groups to receive either thoracic or lumbar extradural anaesthesia as needed for perioperative analgesia. The extraduroscopy showed that the thoracic extradural space becomes widely patent after injecting a given amount ...
Sanders J - - 1998
As clinicians continue to gain experience with the use of emergency cricothyrotomy, a need exists to continue to explore methods to perfect both the technique and the equipment used. The clinician in the austere military environment may be forced to be innovative in the design of such a device. A ...
Settergren G - - 1998
Nitric oxide is present in high concentration in the human nasal airways. During inspiration through the nose a bolus is transported to the lungs. In a randomized cross-over study the effect of two different patterns of breathing, nasal breathing and mouth breathing, was evaluated in 10 patients (mean age 65 ...
Neuman T S - - 1998
Cardiac arrest in cases of barotraumatic arterial gas embolism (AGE) is usually ascribed to reflex dysrhythmias secondary to brainstem embolization or secondary to coronary artery embolization. Several case reports suggest that obstruction of the central circulation (i.e., the heart, pulmonary arteries, aorta, and arteries to the head and neck) may ...
Rozycki H J - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Continuous noninvasive monitoring of arterial carbon dioxide (CO2) in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients would help clinicians avoid complications of hypocarbia and hypercarbia. End-tidal CO2 monitoring has not been used in this population to date, but recent technical advances and the introduction of surfactant therapy, which improves ventilation-perfusion ...
Tellides G - - 1998
BACKGROUND: The occurrence of systemic air embolism during bronchoscopic neodymium:yttrium-aluminum garnet laser operations has been suspected. Here we describe its mechanism. METHODS: Two patients with embolic cardiac and neurologic complications after bronchoscopic neodymium: yttrium-aluminum garnet laser tumor ablation are described. A subsequent third patient was monitored for intracardiac and aortic ...
Kühnert M - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To discuss and substantiate the 30% critical threshold of fetal arterial oxygen saturation and to complete the puzzle with low fetal arterial oxygen saturation and low scalp pH data, scalp samples have been performed while fetal arterial oxygen saturation registration during labor was in place and while the saturation ...
Rolla G - - 1998
Impaired arterial oxygenation, ranging from an increased alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient to severe hypoxaemia, is commonly reported in patients with advanced liver disease. Hepatopulmonary syndrome is defined by the clinical triad of liver disease, alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient of >15 mmHg, evidence of intrapulmonary vascular dilatations. Three methods are available for detecting ...
Bajanowski T - - 1998
Venous air embolism is a rare cause of death. Entry of gas into the circulation is caused by trauma, mostly surgical or therapeutic, and sometimes resulting from criminal intervention. The detection of air embolisms requires special precautions during autopsy. An aspirometer has to be used for the detection, measurement and ...
Plötz FB - - 1998
BACKGROUND: The present study was undertaken to examine the feasibility of venous oxygen measurements in the inferior vena cava (IVC) via a catheter through the umbilical vein. This may serve as a proxy for mixed venous oxygenation and the complications of right atrial cannulation can be avoided at the same ...
Droste D W - - 1997
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clinically silent circulating microemboli can be detected by transcranial Doppler sonography. The composition of these emboli in different clinical conditions is unclear. METHODS: We performed 1-hour transcranial Doppler sonographic recordings from the middle cerebral or posterior cerebral artery in 20 patients with mechanical prosthetic heart valves, in ...
Harrison A M - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether capillary blood gas measurements provide a clinically acceptable estimate of arterial pH, PCO2, and PO2. DESIGN: Prospective convenience sample. SETTING: Pediatric intensive care unit at a referral children's hospital. PATIENTS: Fifty children > 1 month of age with indwelling arterial catheters. INTERVENTIONS: A local anesthetic was ...
Hwang J H - - 1997
The most common high resolution CT (HRCT) findings of bronchiolitis are centrilobular nodules and branching linear structures in the secondary pulmonary lobules or areas of air trapping. These findings can be helpful in suggesting the presence of bronchiolitis. However, they are nonspecific because there are overlapping features among various kinds ...
Rios-Tejada F - - 1997
In the course of a decompression at flight level 280 (28,000 ft) in an altitude chamber flight, a 45-yr-old cabin air traffic controller developed sudden numbness in his left upper and lower extremities and, soon after, complete paralysis in the left side, dysarthria and left facial palsy. A presumptive diagnosis ...
Groell R - - 1997
Venous air embolism has been reported as a complication of invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures or accidental trauma. Little is known about the incidence of air embolism after minimal intravenous manipulations, such as the insertion of a peripheral intravenous cannula. Small air emboli in the central veins, central arteries, and ...
Lorz C - - 1997
BACKGROUND: The integrity of both pulmonary surfactant and surfactant producing cells, type II pneumocytes, is essential for normal pulmonary function. Almost all studies about air pollution effects on the pulmonary surfactant system have been performed by biochemical techniques, using atmospheric pollutants in a much higher concentration than that found in ...
Mitchell S J - - 1997
We have previously shown significant bubble formation in Medtronic Maxima hard-shell venous reservoirs (HSVRs). In the present study, we not only investigated the mechanism of this bubble formation, but also the extent of bubble clearance by membrane oxygenators and arterial line filters. In addition, we also compared the performance of ...
Breen D - - 1997
Adequate delivery of oxygen to the tissues is an important factor both in the initial resuscitation of the shocked patient and subsequently in the development of multiple organ failure. The advent of the pulmonary artery catheter has facilitated the calculation of global measurements of oxygen transport at the bedside. Calculated ...
Reasoner D K - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicate leukocytes play a role in the pathogenesis of cerebral arterial air embolism. Because doxycycline inhibits numerous leukocyte activities, the authors hypothesized doxycycline would decrease neurologic impairment after cerebral arterial air embolism. METHODS: New Zealand White rabbits anesthetized with methohexital received either intravenous saline (n = 7) ...
Vocelka C R - - 1997
The risk of air emboli is a concern for all perfusionists. A new clamping device for use with centrifugal pumps is designed to clamp both the arterial and venous lines at the first indication of air or retrograde flow, thereby allowing the perfusionist to evaluate the situation and correct the ...
Carpenter C R - - 1997
A 27-yr-old male scuba diving student suffered two episodes of pulmonary barotrauma 6 mo. apart after 12-ft training scuba dives. In the interval between these episodes, four uneventful hyperbaric chamber dives occurred. No definite cause or risk factors were identified. A MEDLINE review of diving literature revealed few studies of ...
Faurschou P - - 1997
In 16 patients with pulmonary fibrosis, an artificial pneumothorax was introduced using the Veress cannula and the Saugman water manometer. Atmospheric air was introduced by fractionated insufflation to a total volume of 800 ml (median). The interpleural space was found on the first attempt, and in all cases, fractionated insufflation ...
Thrush D N - - 1997
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the cardiovascular and respiratory effects of arterial hypoxemia in adult volunteers. DESIGN: Prospective, subject-controlled. SETTING: University-affiliated hospital. SUBJECTS: 16 awake, unsedated, unanesthetized adult volunteers. INTERVENTIONS: Inspired oxygen concentration (FIO2) was decreased in decrements to reduce pulse oximeter values to a range of 95% to 90%, 89% ...
Dexter F - - 1997
Transcranial doppler studies show that microscopic cerebral artery air emboli (CAAE) are present in virtually all patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Massive cerebral arterial air embolism is rare. If it occurs, hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) is recommended as soon as surgery is completed. We used a mathematical model to predict the ...
Peters W S - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To develop a clinically applicable method of minimally invasive mitral valve replacement (MVR) with cardioplegia, and examine the ability of carbon dioxide (CO2) to improve de-airing. METHODS: MVR was performed via a 5 x 3-cm right lateral minithoracotomy in eight greyhounds. Peripheral cardiopulmonary bypass and an ascending aortic balloon ...
Risdall J E - - 1997
The oxygenation of 30 patients undergoing elective ophthalmic surgery without sedation whilst breathing air was studied and was compared with two methods of oxygen supplementation. Arterial oxygen saturation, inspired and expired oxygen and carbon dioxide were analysed. The delivery of oxygen at 21.min-1 via nasal cannulae was shown to be ...
Behnia R - - 1997
Hysteroscopy is used as a diagnostic tool for intrauterine pathology. Gas embolism with air or carbon dioxide is a rare but sometimes fatal complication of laparoscopy or hysteroscopy. We present a patient who developed pulmonary air embolism during hysteroscopy that caused a noncardiogenic pulmonary edema in the recovery room. This ...
Despond O - - 1997
PURPOSE: The knee-prone position is commonly used for patients undergoing spinal surgery. Venous air embolism in such a position may be produced by the negative venous pressure gradient between the ambient air and the venous plexuses of the spinous process. When hydrogen peroxide is used to cleanse the wound, oxygen ...
Huang K L - - 1997
Pulmonary air embolism occurs in diving and aviation during acute pressure reductions and in clinical complications. Undoubtedly physical obstructions play a role, but bubbles in blood can produce a number of indirect effects leading to tissue injury. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of the complement system and ...
Jiang Z Q - - 1997
AIM: To test an artificial reconstituted pulmonary surfactant (APS) for prevention and treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). METHODS: A membrane-formed method combined with supersonic dispersing was used to prepare APS. A pulsating bubble surface tension measurement was established to compare surface properties of APS with natural pulmonary surfactant (NPS). ...
Yu A S - - 1997
Air embolism is a rare complication of the use of central venous catheters as vascular access for hemodialysis. We report a patient with an intracardiac shunt who had a paradoxical air embolism following manipulation of her hemodialysis catheter that resulted in transient hemiplegia. This case illustrates the potentially devastating consequences ...
Vaughn C C - - 1997
Prolonged air leak after a lung volume reduction operation for pulmonary emphysema is a major cause of morbidity and prolonged hospital stay. Staple line reinforcement is recognized as an effective adjunctive technique for decreasing the occurrence of air leaks after pulmonary wedge resection. Numerous materials have been used for staple-line ...
Secker C - - 1997
In order to assess the accuracy of pulse oximeters in patients with septic shock, we compared 80 paired readings of oxygen saturations taken from pulse oximeters and oxygen saturations obtained from co-oximetry in patients receiving intensive therapy with indwelling pulmonary artery flotation catheters. Comparison between groups with low or normal ...
García-Rio F - - 1997
We report the case of a nonobese and nonsmoking 51-year-old man with nocturnal arterial oxygen desaturation that returned to normal after sphenoidal meningioma resection. He presented an important daytime hypersomnia and episodes of nocturnal apnea, without snoring. His arterial blood gases, mechanical properties of the respiratory system pulmonary diffusing capacity ...
Barton R G - - 1997
Resuscitation from shock based on oxygen transport criteria has been widely used in trauma and surgical patients, but has not been examined in thermally injured patients. To study the possible efficacy of this type of resuscitation, the oxygen transport characteristics of burn resuscitation were studied in nine adults, of whom ...
Regge D - - 1997
Systemic arterial air embolism and tension pneumothorax are two rare and severe complications of transthoracic fine-needle biopsy. We report on a patient who developed both complications during the same procedure and recovered successfully after resuscitation and hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Favourable outcome of systemic air arterial embolism has been reported infrequently ...
Huang K L - - 1997
Pulmonary air embolism induces the generation of vasoactive and cytotoxic substances leading to lung injury. In the present study we investigated, in isolated and perfused rat lungs, the involvement of arachidonic acid metabolites in the alterations of vascular pressure, lung water content, and the filtration coefficient (Kf). We also tested ...
Tetzlaff K - - 1996
A 22-yr-old healthy male diver performed a dive using a closed circuit oxygen rebreathing apparatus according to normal procedure. After the dive he developed clinical symptoms of mediastinal emphysema. A chest X-ray taken 1 d after the dive showed a discrete "tram track" sign in the left paracardial region. Spiral ...
Dexter F - - 1996
Some clinicians place patients in the Trendelenburg position during aortic unclamping to decrease the incidence of microscopic cerebral air embolism. Experimental studies have shown that use of the Trendelenburg position does not prevent air emboli from reaching the brain. Nevertheless, the position can decrease the velocity at which bubbles approach ...
Sawabata N - - 1996
BACKGROUND: The Argon Beam Coagulator (ABC) and neodymium:yttrium-aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser are used for lung tissue contraction. Assessing the damage of treated lung tissue is helpful in choosing devices for pulmonary volume reduction by pneumoplastic procedures. METHODS: We assessed the damage of in vitro lung lobes resected at operation for ...
Frim D M - - 1996
Acute pulmonary edema after a large air embolus occurring during neurosurgery is a recognized phenomenon. The authors describe the course of a 76-year-old man who presented with noncardiogenic pulmonary edema shortly after undergoing resection of a high convexity meningioma. Transthoracic Doppler sonography, however, showed no evidence of a large intraoperative ...
Reasoner D K - - 1996
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) have been used as an outcome measure in models of cerebral air embolism despite the lack of studies correlating SSEPs with other measures of neurological injury. We examined the relationship between SSEPs and neurological impairment in the setting of cerebral air embolism. METHODS: ...
Sibai A N AN Department of Anesthesiology, American University of Beirut Medical Center, - - 1996
Nitrous oxide administration in presence of venous air embolism results in its volume augmentation. The present case report of a 50-year old patient undergoing posterior fossa tumor excision in the sitting position demonstrates the hazards of nitrous oxide in presence of venous air embolism. Administration of 66% nitrous oxide 140 ...
Molloy J - - 1996
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The ability to detect asymptomatic circulating cerebral emboli may contribute to the management of patients with stroke, but its clinical usefulness will depend on effective systems for automatically detecting embolic signals (ES) and differentiating them from artifact. A new method involves the use of a multidepth probe ...
Nomori H - - 1996
A 63-year-old man, who had had operation for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis 40 years before the present disorder, was admitted to our hospital with massive hemoptysis. Radiologic examinations showed a mass shadow with a crescent air sign resembling aspergilloma. Operative exploration showed a well-encapsulated retained surgical sponge between the ...
Crausman R S - - 1996
A 55-year-old white woman with pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) presented to the emergency department with odynophagia and subplatysmal emphysema after a paroxysm of coughing. Lateral neck films showed subcutaneous emphysema and a retropharyngeal air stripe. Chest radiographs showed neither pneumothorax nor pneumomediastinum. Patients with LAM frequently develop pulmonary barotrauma and pneumothoracies. ...
Bejvan S M - - 1996
Pneumomediastinum, also known as mediastinal emphysema, represents extraluminal gas in the mediastinum. Pneumomediastinum can lead to pneumothorax, pneumopericardium, pneumoperitoneum, or pneumoretroperitoneum. There are many causes of pneumomediastinum (Table 1) and several radiographic signs: pneumopericardium, continuous diaphragm sign, continuous left hemidiaphragm sign, Naclerio's V sign, V sign at confluence of brachiocephalic ...
Fitzgerald D J - - 1996
The presence of eosinophils in the pleural effusion is generally considered nondiagnostic. It usually indicates that the patient has had a previous thoracentesis and that air or blood has come in contact with the effusion. Idiopathic acute eosinophilic pneumonia is characterized by acute onset of pulmonary symptoms with hypoxemia, pulmonary ...
Reeves S T - - 1996
The occurrence of venous air embolism (VAE) during neurosurgery in the sitting position is well documented. The optimal position of an air aspiration catheter appears to be with the catheter tip at the junction of the right atrium and superior vena cava (SVC). A number of localization techniques have been ...
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