Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 823
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Benzing A - - 1999
BACKGROUND: Compressed air from a hospital's central gas supply may contain nitric oxide as a result of air pollution. Inhaled nitric oxide may increase arterial oxygen tension and decrease pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Therefore, the authors wanted to determine whether ...
Agustí A G - - 1999
Venturi masks (VMs) and nasal prongs (NPs) are widely used to treat acute respiratory failure (ARF) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study, these devices were compared in terms of their potentiality to worsen respiratory acidosis and their capacity to maintain adequate (> 90%) arterial oxygenation (Sa,O2) through ...
Ie S R - - 1999
Venous air embolism, though considered rare, occurs more frequently than it is recognized. We report the case of a 54-year-old man who was incidentally found to have air in the left brachiocephalic vein and right ventricle after contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT). Air embolism has been noted to occur after contrast-enhanced ...
Baker R C - - 1999
A 62-year-old woman undergoing redo mitral valve replacement was noted to have persistent intracardiac air following standard deairing procedures. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) identified air bubbles entering the left atrium from the right superior pulmonary vein. Exploration of the pleural cavity revealed a fistula between the pulmonary parenchyma and the right ...
Kizer K W - - 1999
The occurrence of pulmonary air leaks consequent to recreational sports is considered to be rare. We performed a retrospective records review for cases of pulmonary air leaks for the 5-year period 1993 to 1997 at a community hospital that serves a popular tourist destination area having intense year-round outdoor recreational ...
Demirel H - - 1999
Cyanosis is usually caused by decreased arterial oxygen saturation due to pulmonary or cardiac diseases. Methemoglobinemia is a rare cause, sometimes with lethal outcome. Two patients are described, both with an unremarkable cardiopulmonary history, presented with severe cyanosis due to aniline-induced methemoglobinemia that developed at work. The symptoms and the ...
Kiyoshige Y - - 1999
There have been few clinical reports of successful replantation assisted with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy. In order to improve replant survival, the author has used HBO in ten digital replantations of crush, avulsion, and degloving amputations. Seven of ten replants survived and the other three failed. The failed three digits ...
Franceschini M A - - 1999
We present a frequency-domain optical method for real-time noninvasive measurement of absolute tissue and arterial saturation. This method is based on quantitative measurement of the tissue absorption spectrum (for tissue saturation) and of the amplitude of the arterial-pulsation-induced absorption oscillations (for arterial saturation) at eight wavelengths in the range 633-841 ...
Martinez C B - - 1999
Morphological and histological studies on posterior gills of the mangrove crab Ucides cordatus showed that the 5th gill (of 7) has a larger surface area and a greater number of lamellae compared to the 6th gill. Regular separation of gill lamellae, important when the gill is in air, is maintained ...
Walls J G - - 1999
Intravascular lymphomatosis (IVL) is a rare lymphoid neoplasm that is typically of B-cell lineage and characterized by proliferation of malignant cells within small arterioles, capillaries, and venules. We report a patient with pulmonary IVL who presented clinically with progressive dyspnea, fever, and a dry cough. Pulmonary function tests revealed a ...
Morimoto Y - - 1999
In this review, we attempted to summarize the effectiveness and the limitation of end-tidal carbon dioxide monitoring during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. End-tidal carbon dioxide can be an indicator of the real return of spontaneous circulation and can also be an indicator of the effectiveness of cardiac massage. We cannot, however, estimate ...
Briassoulis G - - 1999
A case of acute spontaneous pneumomediastinum in a 13-year-old boy suffering from Hodgkin's disease and pulmonary fibrosis is reported. He was initially treated for Pneumocystis carinii but his respiratory function progressively deteriorated, and fibrosis secondary to bleomycin was suspected. The day before the admission to the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit ...
Thistlethwaite P A - - 1999
Prolonged air leak after thoracic procedures was successfully treated in 11 of 12 patients under local anesthesia using video thoracoscopic instillation of fibrin sealant over the site of the leak. No related complications occurred. This method should be considered an effective option for the treatment of persistent pulmonary air leaks.
Ortiz F O - - 1999
Pulmonary complications and hypoxemia are common in sickle cell disease (SCD) and may exacerbate microvascular occlusive phenomena. Thus, detecting hypoxemia is of particular importance in SCD. To assess the accuracy of pulse oximetry in the diagnosis of hypoxemia in SCD, we compared 22 pulse oximetric measurements of arterial oxygen saturation ...
Rohling R - - 1999
OBJECTIVE: To test the accuracy of a new combined oxygen saturation and cutaneous carbon dioxide tension (SPO2-PCO2) sensor in a routine adult clinical environment. This probe provides a non-invasive and continuous monitoring of the arterial oxyhaemoglobin saturation, arterial carbon dioxide tension and pulse rate at the ear lobe. The sensor ...
Dennehy K C - - 1999
PURPOSE: To illustrate the multiple causes of hypoxemia to be considered following cardiopulmonary bypass and how therapy given to improve oxygen delivery may have contributed to a decrease in arterial oxygen saturation to life-threatening levels. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 61 yr old man with severe mitral regurgitation and chronic obstructive lung ...
Ratanakorn D - - 1999
The internal jugular (IJ) valve is the only valve between the heart and the brain, preventing venous reflux into the IJ vein. Internal jugular valve competence has been tested by IJ venography. Doppler ultrasonography of the IJ vein and M-mode ultrasonography of the IJ valve, and color flow imaging (CFI) ...
Brandi L S - - 1999
Oxygen consumption (VO2) measured by indirect calorimetry (Nellcor-Puritan-Bennett 7250; Carlsbad, CA, USA) has been compared with VO2 calculated by the Fick method in 22 volume-controlled ventilated general surgical patients in the early post-operative period. For 198 pairs of measurements, VO2 Fick and VO2 indirect calorimetry correlated significantly (y = 1.00x ...
Sherlock S - - 1998
A 50-year-old woman ASA 2 underwent carbon dioxide hysteroscopy under general anaesthesia. Monitoring showed a sudden and rapid fall in end-tidal carbon dioxide followed by oxygen desaturation. She became pulseless and cyanosed. Resuscitation with oxygen, intravenous adrenaline and head-down tilt restored her to haemodynamic stability. Hyperbaric therapy was also administered ...
Rider S P - - 1998
The objective of this study was to examine the interaction of cardiopulmonary bypass venous air with assisted venous drainage, focusing on its production of gaseous microemboli in the arterial line. An in-vitro recirculating cardiopulmonary bypass circuit containing fresh whole bovine blood was monitored with a pulsed-doppler microbubble detector. Air of ...
Anand I S - - 1998
BACKGROUND: High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) is characterized by pulmonary hypertension, increased pulmonary capillary permeability, and hypoxemia. Treatment is limited to descent to lower altitude and administration of oxygen. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied the acute effects of inhaled nitric oxide (NO), 50% oxygen, and a mixture of NO plus 50% ...
Roach R C - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a usually self-limiting syndrome encompassing headache, nausea and dizziness. AMS is seen in those that go from low to high altitudes too quickly, without allowing sufficient time to acclimatize. At present, susceptibility to AMS cannot be predicted. One feature of AMS noted in some ...
Juncker C - - 1998
We examined the influence of an experimental venous and arterial air embolism on the hearing level in laboratory mini pigs. Before and after the injection of air a threshold ABR was measured in anaesthetized mini pigs (n=15). A venous air embolism was performed in 6 animals: no changes in the ...
Opeskin K - - 1998
A case of cerebral air embolism complicating disconnection of a central venous catheter is presented. In the context of increasing use of central venous catheterization this case highlights the risk of cerebral air embolism associated with the use of central venous catheters. In this case there was no patent foramen ...
Hampson N B - - 1998
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the accuracy and quantitate the error of pulse oximetry measurements of arterial oxygenation in patients with severe carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. DESIGN: Retrospective review of patient clinical records. SETTING: Regional referral center for hyperbaric oxygen therapy. PATIENTS: Thirty patients referred for treatment of acute severe CO ...
Abrams G A - - 1998
No medical therapy exists for subjects with hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS). A patient with HPS was reported to have improvement in arterial oxygenation while self-administering garlic. Our goal was to determine whether a standardized garlic powder improves arterial oxygenation and dyspnea in subjects with HPS. A prospective, open label uncontrolled pilot ...
Kaneki T - - 1998
Spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) is an uncommon disorder. The mechanism of spontaneous pneumomediastinum has been speculated as follows: when air pressure in the alveoli rapidly increases, free air leaks from ruptured alveoli and accumulates along the bronchovascular tissue sheath, and then free air moves toward the mediastinum. In this case report ...
Curry C A - - 1998
Although frequently referred to as pulmonary abscess or necrotizing pneumonia, pulmonary gangrene is a distinct entity, requiring prompt medical and often surgical management. Radiographically, it begins as a lobar consolidation, usually in the upper lobes, develops lucencies, and coalesces to form a cavity. A "mass within a mass" or air ...
Hardman J G - - 1998
We aimed to validate the mathematical validity and accuracy of the respiratory components of the Nottingham Physiology Simulator (NPS), a computer simulation of physiological models. Subsequently, we aimed to assess the accuracy of the NPS in predicting the effects of a change in mechanical ventilation on patient arterial blood-gas tensions. ...
Igarashi T - - 1998
We examined the extradural space using a flexible extraduroscope in 113 patients undergoing extradural anaesthesia. Patients were classified into two groups to receive either thoracic or lumbar extradural anaesthesia as needed for perioperative analgesia. The extraduroscopy showed that the thoracic extradural space becomes widely patent after injecting a given amount ...
Sanders J - - 1998
As clinicians continue to gain experience with the use of emergency cricothyrotomy, a need exists to continue to explore methods to perfect both the technique and the equipment used. The clinician in the austere military environment may be forced to be innovative in the design of such a device. A ...
Settergren G - - 1998
Nitric oxide is present in high concentration in the human nasal airways. During inspiration through the nose a bolus is transported to the lungs. In a randomized cross-over study the effect of two different patterns of breathing, nasal breathing and mouth breathing, was evaluated in 10 patients (mean age 65 ...
Neuman T S - - 1998
Cardiac arrest in cases of barotraumatic arterial gas embolism (AGE) is usually ascribed to reflex dysrhythmias secondary to brainstem embolization or secondary to coronary artery embolization. Several case reports suggest that obstruction of the central circulation (i.e., the heart, pulmonary arteries, aorta, and arteries to the head and neck) may ...
Rozycki H J - - 1998
BACKGROUND: Continuous noninvasive monitoring of arterial carbon dioxide (CO2) in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients would help clinicians avoid complications of hypocarbia and hypercarbia. End-tidal CO2 monitoring has not been used in this population to date, but recent technical advances and the introduction of surfactant therapy, which improves ventilation-perfusion ...
Tellides G - - 1998
BACKGROUND: The occurrence of systemic air embolism during bronchoscopic neodymium:yttrium-aluminum garnet laser operations has been suspected. Here we describe its mechanism. METHODS: Two patients with embolic cardiac and neurologic complications after bronchoscopic neodymium: yttrium-aluminum garnet laser tumor ablation are described. A subsequent third patient was monitored for intracardiac and aortic ...
Kühnert M - - 1998
OBJECTIVE: To discuss and substantiate the 30% critical threshold of fetal arterial oxygen saturation and to complete the puzzle with low fetal arterial oxygen saturation and low scalp pH data, scalp samples have been performed while fetal arterial oxygen saturation registration during labor was in place and while the saturation ...
Rolla G - - 1998
Impaired arterial oxygenation, ranging from an increased alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient to severe hypoxaemia, is commonly reported in patients with advanced liver disease. Hepatopulmonary syndrome is defined by the clinical triad of liver disease, alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient of >15 mmHg, evidence of intrapulmonary vascular dilatations. Three methods are available for detecting ...
Bajanowski T - - 1998
Venous air embolism is a rare cause of death. Entry of gas into the circulation is caused by trauma, mostly surgical or therapeutic, and sometimes resulting from criminal intervention. The detection of air embolisms requires special precautions during autopsy. An aspirometer has to be used for the detection, measurement and ...
Plötz FB - - 1998
BACKGROUND: The present study was undertaken to examine the feasibility of venous oxygen measurements in the inferior vena cava (IVC) via a catheter through the umbilical vein. This may serve as a proxy for mixed venous oxygenation and the complications of right atrial cannulation can be avoided at the same ...
Droste D W - - 1997
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clinically silent circulating microemboli can be detected by transcranial Doppler sonography. The composition of these emboli in different clinical conditions is unclear. METHODS: We performed 1-hour transcranial Doppler sonographic recordings from the middle cerebral or posterior cerebral artery in 20 patients with mechanical prosthetic heart valves, in ...
Harrison A M - - 1997
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether capillary blood gas measurements provide a clinically acceptable estimate of arterial pH, PCO2, and PO2. DESIGN: Prospective convenience sample. SETTING: Pediatric intensive care unit at a referral children's hospital. PATIENTS: Fifty children > 1 month of age with indwelling arterial catheters. INTERVENTIONS: A local anesthetic was ...
Hwang J H - - 1997
The most common high resolution CT (HRCT) findings of bronchiolitis are centrilobular nodules and branching linear structures in the secondary pulmonary lobules or areas of air trapping. These findings can be helpful in suggesting the presence of bronchiolitis. However, they are nonspecific because there are overlapping features among various kinds ...
Rios-Tejada F - - 1997
In the course of a decompression at flight level 280 (28,000 ft) in an altitude chamber flight, a 45-yr-old cabin air traffic controller developed sudden numbness in his left upper and lower extremities and, soon after, complete paralysis in the left side, dysarthria and left facial palsy. A presumptive diagnosis ...
Groell R - - 1997
Venous air embolism has been reported as a complication of invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures or accidental trauma. Little is known about the incidence of air embolism after minimal intravenous manipulations, such as the insertion of a peripheral intravenous cannula. Small air emboli in the central veins, central arteries, and ...
Lorz C - - 1997
BACKGROUND: The integrity of both pulmonary surfactant and surfactant producing cells, type II pneumocytes, is essential for normal pulmonary function. Almost all studies about air pollution effects on the pulmonary surfactant system have been performed by biochemical techniques, using atmospheric pollutants in a much higher concentration than that found in ...
Mitchell S J - - 1997
We have previously shown significant bubble formation in Medtronic Maxima hard-shell venous reservoirs (HSVRs). In the present study, we not only investigated the mechanism of this bubble formation, but also the extent of bubble clearance by membrane oxygenators and arterial line filters. In addition, we also compared the performance of ...
Breen D - - 1997
Adequate delivery of oxygen to the tissues is an important factor both in the initial resuscitation of the shocked patient and subsequently in the development of multiple organ failure. The advent of the pulmonary artery catheter has facilitated the calculation of global measurements of oxygen transport at the bedside. Calculated ...
Reasoner D K - - 1997
BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicate leukocytes play a role in the pathogenesis of cerebral arterial air embolism. Because doxycycline inhibits numerous leukocyte activities, the authors hypothesized doxycycline would decrease neurologic impairment after cerebral arterial air embolism. METHODS: New Zealand White rabbits anesthetized with methohexital received either intravenous saline (n = 7) ...
Vocelka C R - - 1997
The risk of air emboli is a concern for all perfusionists. A new clamping device for use with centrifugal pumps is designed to clamp both the arterial and venous lines at the first indication of air or retrograde flow, thereby allowing the perfusionist to evaluate the situation and correct the ...
Carpenter C R - - 1997
A 27-yr-old male scuba diving student suffered two episodes of pulmonary barotrauma 6 mo. apart after 12-ft training scuba dives. In the interval between these episodes, four uneventful hyperbaric chamber dives occurred. No definite cause or risk factors were identified. A MEDLINE review of diving literature revealed few studies of ...
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