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Results 451 - 500 of 836
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Hicks I R - - 1993
We have confirmed the value of measurement of end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration as an indicator of arterial carbon dioxide tension during the use of the laryngeal mask airway in healthy patients breathing spontaneously. The mean difference between arterial and end-tidal carbon dioxide tension was 0.52 kPa (range 0-1.5 kPa), which ...
Harvey J C - - 1993
The neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser has been reported to have advantages in pulmonary resections including superior control of bleeding and air leak with relative sparing of pulmonary parenchyma. Extensive metastasectomies were performed in two patients with bilateral metastases who might have been excluded from surgery with other techniques. The patients were ...
Mikawa K - - 1993
The efficacy of treatment with exogenous surfactant has been reported in children with respiratory failure due to severe pneumonia. Its effect in adults with similar features has not been established. We therefore administered 240 mg of surfactant to a 71 year old man, who had developed right lower lobe pneumonia ...
Kingsmore S F - - 1993
We have described an exogenously immunosuppressed, HIV-negative patient with a subacute presentation of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia characterized by normal arterial oxygen tension and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient and normal findings on serial chest radiographs. This case demonstrates that other studies in addition to chest radiograph and resting arterial blood gas measurement ...
Zalev A H - - 1993
Portal venous barium and air intravasation occurred during an air contrast enema in a man with ulcerative colitis. Abdominal plain radiography and CT subsequently showed increased hepatic density. Computed tomography also showed colonic intramural and pericolic nodal or venous barium, increased splenic density, and pulmonary arterial barium. The patient's course ...
Murray K D - - 1993
Embolism remains a significant complication of the total artificial heart (TAH). The ineffectual deairing of the TAH can allow embolization of the retained air. The standard needle aspiration of TAH air (Group A) was compared with a new protocol (Group B) that included standard needle TAH aspiration plus simultaneous pumping ...
Barker S J - - 1993
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that pulse oximeters whose sensors are positioned improperly may yield erroneously low saturation (SpO2) values on normoxemic subjects. The behavior of oximeters with malpositioned sensors during hypoxemia has not been studied. The current study is aimed at determining the behavior of several different pulse oximeters ...
Emre U - - 1993
In 44 episodes of acute chest syndrome of sickle cell disease occurring in 37 children, simple clinical severity score, duration of hospital stay, transfusion data, and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient were analyzed as indicators of severity of disease. The alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient, measured during breathing of room air, proved, on multivariate ...
Qvist J - - 1993
Korean female unassisted divers (cachido ama) breath-hold dive > 100 times to depths of 3-7 m during a work day. We sought to determine the extent of arterial hypoxemia during normal working dives and reasonable time limits for breath-hold diving by measuring radial artery blood gas tensions and pH in ...
Orihashi K - - 1993
Using transesophageal echocardiography during open heart operations, we found another form of retained intracardiac air, "pooled air," in addition to the form of "bubbles" that had been reported by other authors. The pooled air was detected in all of 13 patients (100%); it was located at the right upper pulmonary ...
Vik A - - 1993
With patent foramen ovale (PFO), thought to be a risk factor for some forms of DCS, venous bubbles may pass through the patent opening to become arterial bubbles. We exposed 14 anesthetized, spontaneously breathing pigs to air at 5 bar (500 kPa, absolute pressure) for 30 min and then rapidly ...
Nishimura M - - 1993
Although theophylline, an adenosine receptor antagonist, is known to reduce cerebral blood flow, little clinical attention has been paid to this adverse effect. This study was designed to examine the effect of theophylline on brain tissue oxygenation for a wide range of arterial PO2 in healthy volunteers. Partial gas pressures ...
Harris A P - - 1993
The noninvasive measurement of fetal arterial oxygen saturation using pulse oximetry could be of potential use in assessing fetal well-being in utero during labor. In this study, the accuracy and technical feasibility of reflectance pulse oximetry in utero was evaluated in acutely instrumented fetal sheep using a specially designed sensor. ...
Sewall L E - - 1993
Pulmonary pneumatoceles are uncommon but generally benign, thin-walled parenchymal air collections arising in association with acute pneumonia. Rarely, they may attain such size as to severely affect respiration. We describe the percutaneous placement of multiple drains in a patient with pneumonia due to atypical measles and large pneumatoceles. Decompression via ...
Campbell P R - - 1993
Traumatic air embolism is rare in Australia, but must be treated promptly if patients are to survive. A single fatal case of traumatic air embolism due to penetrating trauma is described with attention to the presenting symptoms and signs, the unsuccessful attempts at resuscitation and correlation with the post-mortem findings. ...
Inoue H - - 1993
Intratracheal bleeding and intrapleural air leakage that are uncontrollable by conventional therapy are life-threatening in patients with blunt pulmonary trauma. Selective exclusion of the injured lung is the most effective treatment in such cases. Two hundred six consecutive patients over a 5-year period with blunt pulmonary trauma who survived 5 ...
Markus H - - 1993
Cerebral angiography is associated with a risk of neurological complications and air embolism may contribute towards this risk. To test this hypothesis, transcranial doppler ultrasonography was used to monitor the presence of air emboli in the middle cerebral arteries of 7 patients undergoing cerebral angiography. Doppler signals consistent with numerous ...
Kol S - - 1993
Pulmonary barotrauma during scuba diving is a life-threatening event. In a skin diver, who does not use compressed air, this complication is rare and its pathophysiology is not readily understood. We present a young, healthy skin diver who suffered pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema after a sequence of free dives to ...
Gundry S R - - 1993
Recent clinical reports have suggested that continuous delivery of oxygenated warm blood cardioplegia through the coronary veins (retrograde cardioplegia) produces good myocardial preservation during aortic cross-clamping. No data exist, however, about actual myocardial metabolism/homeostasis during retrograde warm blood cardioplegia. We studied 100 consecutive patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, aortic ...
Gøthgen I H - - 1993
Artificial ventilation of patients with acute respiratory diseases, i.e. ARDS and severe asthma, may involve the risk of pulmonary oxygen toxicity as well as volutrauma. The relationship between ventilator treatment and volutrauma suggests that only in patients with normal lungs the aim of ventilator treatment should be an arterial carbon ...
Seki S - - 1993
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a diabetic disposition on pulmonary gas exchange by examining 72 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), using the arterial/alveolar oxygen tension ratio [(a/A)PO2] as a criterion. Patients were divided into a diabetic (DM) group and a nondiabetic ...
Malconian M K - - 1993
Measurements in alveolar gas have suggested extreme hypocapnia and alkalosis on the summit of Mt. Everest. However, tensions in both expired gas and arterial blood have not been reported for the summit of Mt. Everest (PIO2 = 43 mm Hg). To approach the problem, we examined alveolar (and end-tidal) and ...
Oudemans-van Straaten H M - - 1993
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether intra-pulmonary oxygen consumption or whole body oxygen consumption is the main determinant of the hypermetabolic response after cardiopulmonary bypass. Secondly, which method of measuring oxygen consumption best quantifies this hyperdynamic response. DESIGN: We measured oxygen consumption by analysing respiratory gas (VO2-gas), carbon dioxide excretion (VCO2), and ...
Dujić Z - - 1993
The aim of this study was to determine whether venous gas embolism after a single air dive, evaluated using precordial Doppler monitoring, was associated with alterations in spirometry, lung volumes, arterial blood gases, or pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO). Postdive time course monitoring of pulmonary function was undertaken ...
Regnard J - - 1992
Physiological and pathological respiratory responses are triggered by various conditions of exposure to cold climates. Beside airway smooth muscle, both the pulmonary and the tracheobronchial vasculatures are major effectors of respiratory responses to cold. General exposure to cold causes pulmonary vasoconstriction known as "Raynaud's phenomenon of the lung" in subjects ...
Vik A - - 1992
Recent studies have indicated that divers with a patent foramen ovale (PFO) are at risk of developing some forms of decompression sickness. Thus, the objective of the present study was to investigate if the occurrence of paradoxical air embolism (PAE) was enhanced in pigs with a PFO compared to the ...
Orebaugh S L - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: To examine the existing literature concerning venous air embolism. Causes, pathophysiology, and management are emphasized. DATA SOURCES: The literature that was reviewed was retrieved from the MEDLINE System under the headings "venous air embolism," "air embolism," "therapy of air embolism," "etiology of venous air embolism," and "pathophysiology of venous ...
Petts J S - - 1992
Venous air embolism is a common potential complication of several surgical procedures and should be understood by anesthesiologists. The first part of this article, which appeared in a previous issue (Sept/Oct 1991;18(5):29-37), reviewed the pathophysiologic aspects. This concluding segment discusses the detection of venous air embolism and its prevention and ...
Calverley P M - - 1992
BACKGROUND: The relation between pulmonary disease and physiological abnormality in patients with hypoxic cor pulmonale is controversial and the association between arterial hypoxaemia and right ventricular hypertrophy has been challenged. To address these problems matched patients treated with and without domiciliary oxygen were studied. METHODS: Necropsy data were obtained on ...
Kavanagh B P - - 1992
This study was designed to assess the accuracy of end-tidal PCO2 and transcutaneous PCO2 as measurements of arterial PCO2 in extubated, spontaneously breathing patients recovering from general anesthesia. In 30 patients, measurement of arterial transcutaneous, and end-tidal PCO2 were taken simultaneously with body temperature approximately every 15 minutes over a ...
Lee J H - - 1992
This prospective study evaluated the incidence and severity of arterial oxygen desaturation during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and assessed clinical factors in relation to arterial oxygen desaturation. Following pulmonary function testing, 192 patients underwent elective EGD with continuous recording of arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2). 62 patients (32.3%) showed arterial oxygen desaturation (SaO2 ...
Lee H C - - 1992
Subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and tension pneumothorax are previously unreported complications of shoulder arthroscopy with subacromial decompression. Three patients developed extensive subcutaneous emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and bilateral tension pneumothorax during or immediately after shoulder arthroscopy with subacromial decompression. The procedure was terminated and appropriate treatment was given. All three patients recovered completely ...
Beck E J - - 1992
Factors determining the outcome of an episode of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) in 149 AIDS patients treated at St Mary's Hospital were identified and their importance on improved survival evaluated between 1984 and 1989. The proportion of fatal episodes of PCP decreased over time. Fatal compared with nonfatal episodes had ...
Gutierrez G - - 1992
OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship of tonometrically measured gastric intramucosal pH to clinically accepted indices of systemic oxygenation. DESIGN: Prospective, nonintervention study. SETTING: Medical and surgical ICUs of a university hospital. PATIENTS: Critically ill patients (n = 22) with pulmonary artery catheters in place who also required nasogastric suctioning. MEASUREMENTS ...
Rudge F W - - 1992
Following a rapid decompression in an altitude chamber for routine training purposes, a 38-year-old altitude chamber technician developed rapid onset of mental dullness, right arm weakness, and sensory deficits. Immediate treatment with compression therapy in a hyperbaric chamber resulted in complete resolution. Ambient pressure changes great enough to result in ...
Tanaka M - - 1992
A case of Cushing's syndrome associated with chronic respiratory failure is presented. Although arterial blood gas analysis showed severe metabolic alkalosis, hypoxemia and mild hypercapnia, the patient had no evidence of pulmonary disease or neuromuscular disorder. Voluntary hyperventilation and inhalation of 100% oxygen (O2) revealed normalized arterial oxygen tension (PaO2). ...
Mastropasqua B - - 1992
Arterial computed PO2 (PO2 com) was computed from SaO2 ear and finger capillary pH using equations of Severinghaus and Ellis, and compared with measured arterial PaO2 in 100 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (76 men, aged 42 to 82 yr). SaO2 ear ranged from 73 to 98%. There was ...
Mardirossian G - - 1992
Pulse oximetry is a noninvasive, accurate, and safe method for the measurement of oxygen saturation during intravenous sedation or general anesthesia. Several factors should be considered with its use, since these variables will either alter the accuracy of the readings or may cause harm to the patient. These factors include ...
Russell G B - - 1992
Venous air embolism (VAE) results in both hypoxemia and hypercapnea with decreased end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO 2). Relative sensitivities for VAE detection were determined for (a) continuous oxygen saturation monitoring, as measured by pulse oximetry (SapO 2), an arterial fiberoptic catheter (SacO 2), and a pulmonary artery (PA) fiberoptic catheter ...
Sellman M - - 1992
Three cerebral biochemical markers, adenylate kinase (AK), neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and protein S-100, were determined in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of male patients 24 h after coronary artery bypass grafting to investigate the extent of possible center nervous system (CNS) damage and relation to the type of oxygenator and the ...
Dumire R - - 1992
A persistent pulmonary air leak, whether as a result of pulmonary surgery or as a result of a traumatic or spontaneous pneumothorax, is a difficult and frustrating problem to manage. Several therapies have been employed, including thoracotomy and repair of the air leak, prolonged tube thoracostomy suction, and chemical pleurodesis. ...
Ramsing T - - 1992
Measurement of arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry was performed in two patients with acute and chronic anaemia (haemoglobin concentrations: 2.9 mmol/l (4.7 g/dl) and 1.9 mmol/l (3.0 g/dl), respectively) using a Radiometer OXI and a Nellcor N-200 pulse oximeter. The two oximeters read alternating different values in the two ...
Rice J H - - 1992
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To establish the frequency of large visible bubbles or collections of bubbles in the jugular vein during radical neck dissection in the supine position. DESIGN: Prospective observation by at least two investigators of random consecutive patients scheduled for radical neck surgery. SETTING: Operating room suite in a university ...
Phillips M - - 1992
Carbon disulfide (CS2) is toxic to the heart and arteries; chronic exposure can result in accelerated atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease in humans and animals. Exposure to CS2 was investigated in normal volunteers working in New York City, using a new and highly sensitive assay. Volatile organic compounds in breath ...
Russell G B - - 1991
Increased end-tidal (ET) nitrogen in a patient being ventilated with a nitrogen-free gas mixture through a leak-free circuit has been considered a specific sign of venous air embolism. We hypothesized that increased ETN2 would occur after arterial air emboli, just as following venous air emboli, and that clinically relevant arterial ...
Skwarski K - - 1991
Long-term oxygen is the only therapy that has been shown to improve survival in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The aim of this study was to assess the predictors of survival in such patients treated with long-term oxygen therapy. We studied 179 patients who were assessed for long-term oxygen ...
Marcovitz P A - - 1991
Transesophageal echocardiography was performed on a patient with critical aortic stenosis and severe three-vessel coronary artery disease. Immediately after the procedure the patient experienced marked cyanosis (oxygen saturation of 53%) secondary to methemoglobinemia (methemoglobin saturation of 45%). Toxic methemoglobinemia was thought to be caused by topical anesthetic. He responded dramatically ...
Renowden S A - - 1991
Sixty-three patients undergoing isotope ventilation/perfusion scintigraphy for suspected pulmonary embolism were monitored using pulse oximetry. Xenon inhalation had no adverse effect on arterial oxygen saturation. Fifty-seven per cent of patients demonstrated a drop in oxygen saturation of 2-10% within 5 min of injection of macroaggregates. Small changes in arterial oxygen ...
Viale J P - - 1991
This study was designed to determine the significance of changes in mixed venous oxygen saturation (SVO2) associated with aortic surgery. In 12 patients undergoing aortic aneurysm repair, SVO2 was monitored using a fiberoptic pulmonary arterial catheter, and oxygen uptake (VO2) was measured at 2-min intervals by a mass-spectrometer system. Excluding ...
Elborn J S - - 1991
Assessment of blood gas status is important in the management of patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Arterial puncture is often painful and may damage the arterial wall. Measurement of oxygen saturation by transcutaneous oximetry offers a non-invasive alternative to arterial methods but does not allow assessment of partial pressure of ...
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