Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1510
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Baroncini Liz Andréa Villela - - 2007
BACKGROUND: To analyse histological composition and progression of carotid plaque. METHODS: Thirty-one patients (22 males, mean age 68.03 +/- 7.3 years) admitted for carotid endarterectomy for extracranial high-grade internal carotid artery stenosis (>or= 70% luminal narrowing) were enrolled. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to symptomatology (group I, ...
Gijsen Frank J H - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Bifurcations of coronary arteries are predilection sites for atherosclerosis and expansive remodeling, the latter being associated with plaque vulnerability. Both are related to blood flow-induced shear stress (SS). We present a new approach to generate 3-D reconstructions of coronary artery bifurcations in vivo and investigate the relationship between SS, ...
Babiarz Lukasz S - - 2007
PURPOSE: Carotid angiography is used to assess stroke risk, but it cannot reliably characterize plaque burden because the vessel remodels during plaque formation. High-resolution black blood cardiovascular magnetic resonance (BBCMR) depicts the outer wall thereby providing a truer estimate of plaque size. We compared carotid stenosis by gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular ...
Ashida Kazuhiro - - 2007
The association between coronary artery disease (CAD) and thoracic aortic plaques has often been reported using transesophageal echocardiography. However, studies showing the association between CAD and abdominal aortic plaques are scarce. CMR can visualize plaques in both the thoracic and abdominal aortas. Using CMR, we investigated the associations of thoracic ...
Auseon Alex J - - 2007
PURPOSE: To correlate cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR)-based measurement of aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) with serum markers for atherosclerosis and plaque burden in the thoracic aorta. METHOD: Individuals with risk factors for coronary atherosclerosis underwent CMR pulse wave velocity examination of the descending thoracic aorta and computed tomography for coronary ...
Mitsutake Ryoko - - 2007
A 35-year-old male was diagnosed as angina pectoris and showed severe stenosis with soft plaque in the proximal segment of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery as detected by multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT). Although percutaneous coronary stent implantation to the LAD lesion was performed, soft plaque remained in ...
Gillard Jonathan H - - 2007
Atherosclerosis affects all vascular beds, including the coronary, carotid, intracerebral, peripheral and aortic vascular beds, and is responsible for tremendous morbidity and mortality, with the most serious outcomes being myocardial infarction, stroke and death. Historically the effects of vascular narrowing and associated thrombosis have been key indicators of disease in ...
Chatzizisis Yiannis S - - 2007
Local hemodynamic environment, including low shear stress and increased tensile stress, determines the localization, growth and progression of coronary atherosclerosis. As atherosclerotic lesions evolve, the diseased coronary arteries undergo local quantitative and qualitative changes in their wall, and progressively become stiff. Arterial stiffening amplifies the atherogenic local hemodynamic environment, initiating ...
Selcuk A - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Myringosclerosis and atherosclerosis are two different pathologies seen in different parts of the body. Both of these occur following a similar physiopathological process. However this has not previously been adequately discussed in the literature. Trauma to either the tympanic membrane or to the intimal layer of the arterial wall ...
Mackey Rachel H - - 2007
Vascular calcification can occur in either the intimal or medial layers of the arterial wall. Intimal calcification is associated with atherosclerosis, which is characterized by lipid accumulation, inflammation, fibrosis and development of focal plaques. Medial calcification is associated with arterio sclerosis, i.e. age- and metabolic disease-related structural changes in the ...
Isbell David C - - 2007
A high resolution, noninvasive approach to quantify atherosclerotic plaque in the peripheral vasculature could have significant clinical and research utility. Seventeen patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) were studied in a 1.5T CMR scanner. Atherosclerotic plaque volume in the superficial femoral artery was measured and interobserver, intraobserver, and test-retest variability ...
Valgimigli Marco - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate whether plaques located in the left main stem (LMS) differ in terms of necrotic core content from those sited in the proximal tract of the left coronary artery. BACKGROUND: Plaque composition, favoring propensity to vulnerability, might be nonuniformly distributed along the vessel, which might explain ...
Paini Anna - - 2007
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Carotid plaque rupture depends on the various types of mechanical stresses. Our objective was to determine the multiaxial mechanical characteristics of atherosclerotic plaque and adjacent segment of the common carotid artery. METHODS: A novel noninvasive echotracking system was used to measure intima-media thickness, diameter, pulsatile strain, and ...
Wehman J Christopher - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: Carotid angioplasty with stenting (CAS) has evolved as a viable method for treating patients at high risk for carotid endarterectomy. Strokes complicating CAS are most commonly caused by the liberation and distal embolization of embolic material from plaque during the procedure. METHODS: CAS with distal embolic protection (DEP) was ...
Seo Yoshihiro - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Carotid arterial ultrasound examination may be helpful for screening populations at high risk for acute coronary syndrome (ACS), so the present study was designed to identify the carotid arterial characteristics of patients with ACS. METHODS AND RESULTS: Carotid ultrasound examinations were performed in 172 patients with ACS, 166 patients ...
Scherl Holger - - 2007
We present a new level-set based method to segment and quantify stenosed internal carotid arteries (ICAs) in 3D contrast-enhanced computed tomography angiography (CTA). Within these data sets it is a difficult task to evaluate the degree of stenoses deterministically even for the experienced physician because the actual vessel lumen is ...
Jensen Lisette Okkels - - 2007
Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) allows precise measurements of plaque plus media (P+M) volume and neointimal hyperplasia after coronary artery stenting. Conventional IVUS volumetric analysis is performed mostly without electrocardiographically gated acquisition, and the IVUS images are selected at 1-mm intervals, whereas the electrocardiographically gated approach consists of images in end-diastole. The ...
Lenzi Gian Luigi - - 2007
Factors involved in atherosclerotic plaque progression are still a topic of hot debate. With the advance of new ultrasound techniques it has been possible to identify atherosclerotic plaque characteristics that may reflect a higher risk of vulnerability. Among the various proposed mechanisms, one of the least investigated is plaque motion, ...
Debette Stéphanie - - 2006
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Carotid plaques and elevated carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) are major predictors of vascular morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to test their association with 2 polymorphisms of the apolipoprotein E (apoE) gene, epsilon and -219G/T. METHODS: The study was performed on 5856 subjects aged > or ...
Virmani Renu - - 2006
Stroke is the third leading cause of death in the United States, constituting approximately 700,000 cases each year, of which about 500,000 are first attacks and 200,000 are recurrent attacks. Ischemic stroke accounts for the majority of all strokes (88%), followed by intracerebral hemorrhage (9%) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (3%). Patients ...
Prabhudesai Vikramaditya - - 2006
PURPOSE: The decision to intervene surgically in patients with carotid artery disease is based on the presence of symptoms, along with the severity of carotid artery stenosis as assessed by ultrasound or X-ray computed tomography (CT). Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a relatively new imaging technique that offers potential in ...
Lehtinen Allison B - - 2007
CONTEXT: Cardiovascular disease is significantly increased in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), especially in the presence of calcified atherosclerotic plaque. Fetuin A is an important mineralization inhibitor, and polymorphisms in the corresponding alpha2-Heremans-Schmid glycoprotein (AHSG) gene have been shown to be associated with serum fetuin A levels and ...
Trostdorf F - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis has been associated with thrombus formation on an eroded atherosclerotic plaque surface. Alongside plaque rupture, it may constitute another mechanism of plaque destabilisation. We investigated whether EC apoptosis also may be involved in plaque destabilisation in high-grade internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. METHODS: We compared ...
Libby Peter - - 2006
The concept of the vulnerable plaque has generated much interest and stimulated a quest to develop diagnostic modalities to identify potentially unstable atherosclerotic plaques. However, accumulating clinical data now suggest that multiple vulnerable plaques coexist in a single coronary tree and that inflammation is a critical determinant of the stability ...
Nam H S - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a relationship between aortic plaques and intracranial (IC) atherosclerosis. METHODS: We reviewed 922 patients with stroke who had both transesophageal echocardiography and cerebral angiography. The plaques of these patients were classified as either complex aortic plaques (CAP), which protruded > or =4 mm or ...
Rogers Jason H - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Assessing the clinical importance of angiographically intermediate coronary artery stenoses at the time of cardiac catheterization remains a challenge. Spectral analysis of radiofrequency ultrasound backscatter signals, or virtual histology (VH), allows in vivo assessment of plaque composition. This study characterizes the VH composition of fractional flow reserve (FFR)-negative intermediate ...
Mazzone Annamaria - - 2006
Neoangiogenesis and inflammation have a pivotal role in atherosclerosis. Observations support the hypothesis that calcified aortic valve stenosis is an inflammatory process, similar to atherosclerosis in tissue features and risk factors. We studied 2 groups of cases: 47 were affected by hemodynamic atherosclerotic carotid plaque (group 1) and 35 by ...
Ishii A - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: Limited availability of a large animal model of carotid atherosclerosis has limited preclinical evaluation of endovascular therapeutic devices. The present study is aimed at developing such animal models with a novel approach, emphasizing the role of hemodynamics. METHODS: Using 18 carotid arteries from 9 miniswine, surgical partial ligation (approximately ...
Harloff Andreas - - 2006
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We hypothesized that for the prediction or exclusion of aortic thrombi or plaques >or=4 mm, the combination of intima-media thickness (IMT) and distensibility (DC) of the common carotid arteries would be superior to the measurement of IMT alone. METHODS: We prospectively included 208 stroke patients (mean age, ...
Zureik Mahmoud - - 2006
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We examined the associations of parental longevity with carotid intima-media thickness, carotid plaques, and aortic arterial stiffness in adult offspring. METHODS: A population of 1117 volunteers who participated in the SUVIMAX Vascular Study (mean age, 59.7 years; 49.0% women) were included. Carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (PWV) was used ...
Price P A - - 2006
The present experiments investigate medial artery calcification in adult rats made uremic by feeding a synthetic diet containing 0.75% adenine for 4 weeks. Calcification was assessed by Alizarin red staining of intact aortas, by von Kossa staining of carotid artery sections, and by calcium and phosphate incorporated into the thoracic ...
Lamina Claudia - - 2006
AIMS: Peripheral arterial occlusive disease is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We prospectively examined the association of the ankle-brachial index (ABI) and arterial plaques in carotid and femoral arteries with incident myocardial infarctions (MIs) and cardiovascular and total mortality in 1325 participants of the population-based ...
Mureebe Leila - - 2006
Excision of atheromatous plaque is an attractive option for the minimally invasive treatment of peripheral arterial disease. Approved for use in 2003, the SilverHawk Plaque Exicison System (FoxHollow Technologies, Redwood City, CA) is a catheter-based plaque excision device allowing percutaneous removal of atheromatous material. This device represents the most recent ...
Sipahi Ilke - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Arterial remodeling is a major determinant of the clinical manifestations of coronary artery disease. Assessment of arterial remodeling with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) used to rely on comparing the external elastic membrane (EEM) areas of lesion and reference sites at a single time point (static assessment). Recently, performance of serial ...
Kinoshita Yoshihisa - - 2006
BACKGROUND: In the drug-eluting stent era, minimum stent diameter is one independent predictor of restenosis. Some plaque modification is necessary before stenting to obtain the minimum stent diameter, but plaque modification using current devices is difficult in certain lesions, such as those in eccentric small vessels. As a potential solution ...
Park Haing Kee - - 2006
BACKGROUND: We intended to identify proteins that are differentially expressed in human atherosclerotic plaques. METHODS AND RESULTS: Comparative 2-dimensional electrophoretic analysis on carotid atherosclerotic endarterectomy specimens (n = 10) revealed that heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) expression was significantly increased in the nearby normal-appearing area compared with the plaque core ...
Laurberg Jacob Marsvin - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive methods of evaluating atherosclerosis in humans and experimental animals are needed. Studies indicate that FDG-PET has a potential to detect vulnerable, inflamed atherosclerotic lesions. METHODS: Nine atherosclerotic apoE-deficient mice were PET scanned. Four to determine optimal timing for imaging, and five post mortem after 1h redistribution of FDG ...
de Weert Thomas T - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: In a previous in vitro study we have demonstrated that atherosclerotic plaque components can be characterized with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) based on differences in Hounsfield values (HV). Now we evaluated the use of MDCT in vivo to characterize and quantify atherosclerotic carotid plaque components compared with histology as ...
Jensen Lisette Okkels - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Although intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) can detect plaque rupture, the fibrous cap remnant has not previously been studied in detail. The aim of the present study is to assess the fibrous cap remnants by IVUS in ruptured plaques. METHODS: In 53 patients, a ruptured plaque with a fibrous cap remnant ...
Tsujikawa Tetsuya - - 2006
PURPOSE: The acute coronary syndrome is often caused by the rupture of plaques and thrombus formation even without significant stenosis, and patients with soft plaques, but without significant stenosis evidenced by coronary angiography (CAG), often develop an acute coronary syndrome. To address this discrepancy, a qualitative diagnosis of coronary plaques ...
Rodriguez-Granillo Gastón A - - 2006
AIMS: To compare the global characteristics of patients with and without evidence of plaque rupture (PR) in their coronary tree and to evaluate the phenotype of ruptured plaques using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) radiofrequency data analysis (IVUS-VH). METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty patients underwent three-vessel IVUS-VH interrogation. Twenty-eight PRs were diagnosed in ...
Pundziute Gabija - - 2006
Current noninvasive detection of coronary artery disease (CAD) is based on the demonstration of ischemia using stress-rest imaging, which is an indirect way of identifying CAD by demonstration of the hemodynamic consequences, rather than direct visualization of the obstructive lesions in the coronary arteries. Multislice computed tomography (MSCT) has recently ...
Langheinrich Alexander C - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: To increase understanding of the substantial variation in the incidence and distribution of atherosclerotic lesions among different vascular beds. In view of some evidence that there are different distributions of adventitial vasa vasorum (VV) in different vascular beds, and that this correlates with lesion formation, we explored this possible ...
Norja Silja - - 2007
BACKGROUND: An increased level of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) is a known prognostic factor for acute coronary events and sudden cardiac death, and it is associated with coronary calcification. CRP is expressed in coronary arteries, but its role in the development of coronary plaques is unclear. AIM: To investigate CRP ...
Fujii Kenichi - - 2006
Angiographic studies have shown that lesions preceding nonfatal acute events are usually not hemodynamically significant. This has led to the concept that plaque ruptures occur at minimal disease sites. We used intravascular ultrasound to create a prerupture "profile" of unstable (vulnerable) plaques. We analyzed 112 ruptured plaques detected by intravascular ...
Kawasaki Masanori - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present study was to validate the diagnostic accuracy of optical coherence tomography (OCT), integrated backscatter intravascular ultrasound (IB-IVUS), and conventional intravascular ultrasound (C-IVUS) for tissue characterization of coronary plaques and to evaluate the advantages and limitations of each of these modalities. BACKGROUND: The diagnostic accuracy ...
Wilson A M - - 2007
OBJECTIVES: Evidence of local vascular production and a relationship between serum hsCRP levels and tissue expression of CRP in subjects with vascular disease would support a direct role for CRP in atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Vascular tissue from subjects undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABGS) (n=28) and carotid endarterectomy ...
Hartmann Marc - - 2006
AIMS: Glagov's histopathological observation and non-serial intravascular ultrasound studies (IVUS) concluded that compensatory coronary remodelling diminishes as 40% atherosclerotic plaque burden is reached. We tested this hypothesis with serial IVUS. METHODS AND RESULTS: Serial IVUS examinations of 46 atherosclerotic non-stenotic left main stems (18+/-8 months apart) were analysed to assess ...
Hong Myeong-Ki - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Plaque rupture is more frequently observed in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) rather than in patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP). Consequently, studies regarding plaque rupture, which occurred in SAP patients, are rare. Therefore, we evaluated the frequency and axial location of plaque ruptures in SAP patients and ...
Engelmann Markus Georg - - 2006
Hypercholesterolemic and normocholesterolemic rabbit models of chronic arterial Chlamydophila (Chlamydia) pneumoniae (CPN) inoculation were established and the role of both viable and inactivated bacteria was investigated in atherogenesis. A total of 29 rabbits were randomized to four groups. Groups A and B were fed a cholesterol-enriched diet, and groups C ...
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