Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1660
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Fernández-Golfín Covadonga - - 2008
Primary sarcoma of the pulmonary artery (PSPA) is extremely rare. Many cases are misdiagnosed as pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) because of chronic thromboembolic disease (CTD). Four cases of PSPA with the initial misdiagnosis are reported. The presence of a unique mass in the main pulmonary artery or proximal branches, rapidly ...
Langleben David - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary endothelial dysfunction is intertwined with the development and progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Pulmonary endothelium is an active metabolic tissue in healthy human subjects. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of PAH on pulmonary endothelial angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and to identify differences between common ...
Gomberg-Maitland M - - 2008
Prostacyclin and its analogues (prostanoids) are potent vasodilators and possess antithrombotic, antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory properties. Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with vasoconstriction, thrombosis and proliferation, and the lack of endogenous prostacyclin may considerably contribute to this condition. This supports a strong rationale for prostanoid use as therapy for this disease. ...
Ohno Takuro - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension has been reported to be observed in association with acquired portal hypertension. However, the contribution of congenital anomalies occurring in the portal system to the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension remains to be elucidated. METHODS: Nine patients with congenital portosystemic venous shunt were studied from January ...
Sztrymf Benjamin - - 2008
Germline mutations in the gene encoding for bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) are a cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We conducted a study to determine the influence, if any, of a BMPR2 mutation on clinical outcome. The French Network of Pulmonary Hypertension obtained data for 223 consecutive patients ...
Bauldoff Gerene S - - 2008
Pulmonary hypertension occurs when pulmonary vascular pressures are elevated. Pulmonary arterial hypertension is associated with occlusion of the pulmonary arterial tree, while pulmonary venous hypertension is seen when pulmonary vein outflow is impeded. Cardiovascular consequences are common with pulmonary hypertension, regardless of the underlying pathogenesis and whether management is complex. ...
Wrishko Rebecca E - - 2008
Tadalafil, an oral phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, is being investigated as a treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension. Bosentan is an oral endothelin receptor antagonist widely used in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Tadalafil is mainly metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, and as bosentan induces CYP2C9 and CYP3A4, a ...
Loukanov Tsvetomir - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is an endogenous vasoconstrictive peptide hormone and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) acts as an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. We hypothesized that both could contribute to pulmonary hypertension in patients with left-to-right shunt after intracardiac repair. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We prospectively analyzed ET-1 and ADMA plasma levels ...
Cool Carlyne D - - 2008
This review of pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension provides a framework within which to view pulmonary hypertension in children. Classification schemes, including the latest recommendations from the World Health Organization, are discussed, and the histopathology of severe pulmonary hypertension is reviewed. New information is provided regarding idiopathic and familial forms of ...
Asosingh Kewal - - 2008
Vascular remodeling in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) involves hyperproliferative and apoptosis-resistant pulmonary artery endothelial cells. In this study, we evaluated the relative contribution of bone marrow-derived proangiogenic precursors and tissue-resident endothelial progenitors to vascular remodeling in IPAH. Levels of circulating CD34+ CD133+ bone marrow-derived proangiogenic precursors were higher in ...
Rubin Lewis J - - 2008
Although progress has been made in treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension, serious challenges remain. This article provides an overview of the challenges faced in treatment of PAH caused by scleroderma. It also provides a glimpse into the future, based on recent developments in the field that hold promise for enhancing ...
van der Horst I W J M - - 2008
Treatment of pulmonary hypertension in neonates is a major challenge on the intensive care unit and involves high morbidity and mortality. However, we have gained considerable insights into the pathophysiology of pulmonary hypertension leading to an increasing number of possible treatment targets. Translation of these novel targets into clinical application ...
Daley Eleen - - 2008
Pulmonary arterial remodeling characterized by increased vascular smooth muscle density is a common lesion seen in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), a deadly condition. Clinical correlation studies have suggested an immune pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial remodeling, but experimental proof has been lacking. We show that immunization and prolonged intermittent challenge via ...
van Albada Mirjam E - - 2008
Pulmonary hypertension associated with congenital systemic-to-pulmonary shunts has been classified, in the Evian-Venice classification, as Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension, which includes a heterogeneous group of conditions. Emerging options for treatment of patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension are related to those with the idiopathic form of the disease, but may also improve ...
Sakai Tetsuro - - 2009
Treprostinil is a prostacyclin analog and has been used on idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). There is only limited clinical experience using treprostinil to manage PAH in patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD). We report three ESLD patients with PAH, who were treated with continuous intravenous treprostinil. A 59-year-old woman ...
Dunn Joel - - 2008
We present a case of a 52-year-old woman with beta-thalassaemia intermedia under investigation for pulmonary hypertension. V/Q scan demonstrated bilateral pulmonary emboli. In addition there was evidence of central, posterior matched defects. CT pulmonary angiogram confirmed the presence of extramedullary haematopoiesis (EMH) in the paravertebral region. Although a few case ...
Chapman M E - - 2008
There has been extensive interest in the role of serotonin (5-hydoxytryptamine, 5-HT) in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension because episodes of pulmonary arterial hypertension in humans have been linked to serotoninergic appetite-suppressant drugs. In this study, we investigated the role of serotonin in the development of pulmonary hypertension induced by ...
Yates Gillian - - 2008
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a progressive disease resulting from increased pulmonary vasoconstriction, vascular remodelling and thrombosis, leading to right heart failure. Symptoms at clinical presentation are often vague and difficult to differentiate from other diseases. A good history and identification of key physical findings will facilitate earlier diagnosis resulting in ...
Khan Sameer - - 2008
In this case report we describe an unusual appearance seen on a ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scan in a woman with pulmonary hypertension. Although the pulmonary hypertension was not caused by pulmonary emboli, the V/Q scan suggested several cardiac anomalies which may lead to pulmonary hypertension. Most of the cardiac anomalies, including ...
Highland Kristin B - - 2008
It is important for the general internist to maintain a high degree of suspicion for pulmonary hypertension in appropriate cases. This article reviews the definition and classification of pulmonary hypertension, epidemiology and risk factors, signs and symptoms, diagnostic approach, and treatment strategies. Multiple effective therapies now exist for pulmonary arterial ...
Tubek Sławomir - - 2008
The content of chemical elements in rainwater is a suitable indirect indicator of its presence in airborne dust, sometimes referred to as rain fallout. Rainwater is considered a suitable monitor for environmental or natural pollution. The yearly content of chemical elements in rainwater may be considered as a good indicator ...
Taylor James G JG - - 2008
Pulmonary hypertension is a common complication of sickle cell disease (SCD) and a risk factor for early death. Hemolysis may participate in its pathogenesis by limiting nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and producing vasculopathy. We hypothesized that hemoglobin mutations that diminish hemolysis in SCD would influence pulmonary hypertension susceptibility. Surprisingly, coincident ...
Tolle James - - 2008
PURPOSE: To determine the relative contributions of the Fick principle variables to impaired exercise tolerance in pulmonary arterial hypertension compared with pulmonary venous hypertension. METHODS: One hundred forty-seven consecutive, complete, clinically indicated cardiopulmonary exercise tests done with radial and pulmonary arterial catheters and radionuclide ventriculographic scanning were screened for an ...
Croom Katherine F - - 2008
Sildenafil citrate (Revatio), an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5), is approved for use in the US, Europe and other countries for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Oral sildenafil 20 mg three times daily added to conventional background therapy was significantly more effective than placebo at increasing exercise ...
Agrawal Akansha - - 2008
Weakness and fatigue are accepted as normal accompaniments of aging. Usually, older individuals are not investigated with much enthusiasm but a treatable cause is discernible on several occasions. We had a 67 year old hypertensive lady with a mitral stenosis, presenting in ischemic or hypertensive heart failure with underlying valvular ...
Kapoor Nikhil - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension complicating severe aortic stenosis increases morbidity and mortality. Causes and mechanisms of this are unclear. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study of 626 patients with severe aortic stenosis who had measurable pulmonary arterial pressure by Doppler echocardiography. Clinical, echocardiographic and pharmacological data were related to the ...
Oka Masahiko - - 2008
There is current controversy regarding whether vasoconstriction plays a significant role in the elevated pressure of severe, advanced stages of pulmonary hypertension. Results of acute vasodilator testing using conventional vasodilators in such patients suggest there is only a minor contribution of vasoconstriction. However, there is a possibility that these results ...
Radulescu Dan - - 2008
AIM: to estimate the comparative value of conventional radiology and cardiac catheterization in establishing the diagnosis and severity of primary and secondary pulmonary hypertension. We also tried to achieve some correlations between the radiological and invasive parameters. METHODS: we performed a retrospective study over an 11-years time period, analyzing data ...
Majic Tamara - - 2008
Cerebrovascular complications are a rare manifestation of pheochromocytoma. We report a case of pheochromocytoma presenting initially with reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy and subsequently a cerebral infarction. A patient with a prior history of episodic hypertension and reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy presented with headache, palpitations, and weakness of the right leg. A magnetic ...
Tsapenko Mykola V - - 2008
Pulmonary artery pressure elevation complicates the course of many complex disorders treated in a noncardiac intensive care unit. Acute pulmonary hypertension, however, remains underdiagnosed and its treatment frequently begins only after serious complications have developed. Significant pathophysiologic differences between acute and chronic pulmonary hypertension make current classification and treatment recommendations ...
Skoro-Sajer Nika - - 2008
Treprostinil is a stable, long-acting prostacyclin analogue which can be administered as a continuous subcutaneous infusion using a portable miniature delivery system. Subcutaneous treprostinil has been shown in a large multicenter randomized controlled trial to improve exercise capacity, clinical state, functional class, pulmonary hemodynamics, and quality of life in patients ...
Catapano-Minotti Girolamo - - 2008
We present a case of scleroderma complicated by severe pulmonary hypertension. The use of a three-drug (bosentan, iloprost, and sildenafil) approach contributed to significant improvement of both the clinical conditions and the pulmonary hemodynamics. Combining three pulmonary vasodilators with different mechanisms of action could benefit patients with severe pulmonary hypertension ...
Saleh J A - - 2008
Pulmonary hypertension is a disorder that is perpetually fatal unless a tentative therapy is instituted. It can be described as a syndrome considering its clinical and pathophysiological manifestations. In this disorder, there is an imbalance within the vascular mediators which possibly arises due to pulmonary endothelial cell injury or dysfunction. ...
Winchester C C CC University of Mary Washington in Fredericksburg, VA, USA. - - 2008
Arterial stiffening is associated with a number of known cardiovascular risk factors, including advancing age, increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), diabetes, hypertension, heart failure, myocardial infarction, and obesity. Many methodologies, both invasive and noninvasive, have been applied to the assessment of the stiffening of large elastic arteries in vivo, but ...
Linguraru Marius George MG Diagnostic Radiology Department, Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA. - - 2008
This retrospective study investigates the potential of image analysis to quantify for the presence and extent of pulmonary hypertension secondary to sickle cell disease (SCD). A combination of fast marching and geodesic active contours level sets were employed to segment the pulmonary artery from smoothed CT-Angiography images from 16 SCD ...
Guilpain P - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a severe hemodynamic disorder in which the pulmonary artery pressure is persistently elevated, leading to right-sided heart failure. Some studies have suggested an association between PH and myeloproliferative diseases (MPD). OBJECTIVES: This study describes clinical, hematological and hemodynamic characteristics of PH associated with MPD. METHODS: ...
McArdle John R - - 2007
Pulmonary hypertension is a frequently encountered problem in older patients. True idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension can also be seen and requires careful exclusion in older patients. Institution of therapies must be tempered with an appreciation of individual comorbidities and functional limitations that may affect patients' ability to comply and benefit ...
Sharma Rashmi - - 2007
Cardiovascular diseases like hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes mellitus and obesity are the important predictors of erectile dysfunction (ED). Endothelial dysfunction is proposed to be the underlying cause of ED, just like coronary artery disease. Sildenafil was originally developed to treat angina pectoris but later on was recognized as novel treatment option ...
Raimondi Francesco - - 2008
We have compared intravenous magnesium sulphate vs. inhaled nitric oxide in the therapy of moderate persistent pulmonary hypertension of the neonate. A retrospective collection of clinical data from 58 neonates was carried out in six neonatal intensive care units of Southern Italy sharing the same operational protocols. In our setting, ...
Dony E - - 2008
Phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors are currently under investigation for the therapy of pulmonary hypertension. The present study was designed to investigate chronic effects of oral pumafentrine, a mixed selective PDE-3/4 inhibitor, in monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. Treatment with pumafentrine (10 mg.kg(-1) daily) from week 4 to 6 after a ...
Tissot Cécile - - 2008
An eight-month-old boy with findings of persistent left pulmonary basal infiltrate was diagnosed with congenital unilateral pulmonary vein atresia by bronchoscopy. Cardiac catheterization documented slow left pulmonary venous return to atretic pulmonary veins. Conservative treatment was chosen because the child was asymptomatic and corrective surgery or percutaneous intervention was not ...
Lim Zek S - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Complex pulmonary atresia (CPA) i.e. pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect and major aorto-pulmonary collaterals (MAPCAs) or Tetralogy of Fallot with MAPCAs frequently have a clinical course complicated by development of pulmonary arterial (PA) hypertension. METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective review of patients >16 years with CPA or Tetralogy of ...
Kasturi Sanjay - - 2007
BACKGROUND: A 55-year-old male with poorly controlled hypertension and a history of coronary artery disease presented with a large adrenal mass. The patient also reported a long-standing history of profuse sweating, tinnitus, vomiting and headaches. INVESTIGATIONS: Physical examination, 24-hour urine metanephrine level, CT, MRI and bone scan. DIAGNOSIS: Pheochromocytoma of ...
Wryobeck John M - - 2007
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by progressive and sustained elevation of pulmonary-artery pressure, which ultimately leads to right-ventricular failure and death. The diagnosis carries with it an uncertain and historically very bleak prognosis. Although new oral and chronic parenteral (intravenous and subcutaneous) treatments have had a significant positive medical ...
Nagai Yayoi - - 2007
We report an autopsy case of a 60-year-old Japanese woman who died 27 years after the onset of systemic sclerosis and 4 years after the diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Oral administration of bosentan was effective in improving her dyspnea but had to be stopped because of drug eruption along ...
Schannwell C M - - 2007
Pulmonary hypertension is a serious disease with a poor prognosis. Pulmonary hypertension is defined by a mean pulmonary arterial pressure over 25 mm Hg at rest or over 30 mm Hg during activity. According to the recent WHO classification from 2003 pulmonary hypertension can be categorized as pulmonary arterial hypertension, ...
Bull Todd M - - 2007
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Systemic sclerosis is a major risk factor for the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Often this disease is far advanced by the time it is detected in the individual patient, severely impacting quality of life and survival. RECENT FINDINGS: Therapeutic options available for patients with scleroderma-associated pulmonary ...
Souza R - - 2008
The aim of the present study was to describe a large cohort of fenfluramine-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (fen-PAH) and its possible prognostic markers. The records of all patients with a diagnosis of fen-PAH evaluated at the present authors' centre from 1986-2004 were retrospectively studied. Baseline clinical and haemodynamic data were ...
Tam Nga Lei - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Portopulmonary hypertension (PPH) is defined as the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with increased pulmonary vascular resistance complicated by portal hypertension, with or without advanced hepatic disease. In spite of the relatively rare prevalence, the clinical implications of PPH are significant. It has high perioperative morbidity and mortality. ...
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