Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1627
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Scallan Ciaran - - 2010
Arterial stiffness plays a critical role in the function of the cardiovascular system as it represents the coupling of the left ventricle and arterial tree. Increased arterial stiffness is associated with a number of cardiovascular complications. Increased stiffness occurs with age and with the development of chronic conditions (e.g., hypertension) ...
Chhina Mantej K - - 2010
Imatinib mesylate is a small molecule inhibitor that selectively inhibits the PDGF receptor kinase as well the cKIT and Abl kinases, among other targets. Various studies have implicated the PDGF pathway in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Inhibition with imatinib mesylate has shown efficacy in human case reports ...
Ishigaki Kazuyoshi - - 2010
Thrombotic microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (TMHA) caused by antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is generally associated with renal or neurological complications and plasma exchange is the first line of treatment. We present the case of a 72-year-old woman with APS who had chronic TMHA and pulmonary hypertension without other major complications. TMHA and ...
Hovnanian A - - 2010
Schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases, endemic in more than 70 countries, mainly within the developing world. More than 200 million people might be infected worldwide; about 20 million of those might develop severe disease. The hepatosplenic form of schistosomiasis is the most prevalent form of chronic ...
Marshall G B - - 2010
Misalignment of pulmonary vessels, with or without alveolar capillary dysplasia, is a rare cause of persistent pulmonary hypertension in the newborn. The prognosis is poor, with virtually all patients succumbing to unremitting hypoxaemic respiratory failure and death during the newborn period. We report the CT and histological findings of misplaced ...
Rabinovitch Marlene - - 2010
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a nuclear receptor that functions as a transcription factor to regulate adipogenesis and metabolism by binding to PPAR response elements (PPAREs) in the promoter region of various target genes. Activation of PPARgamma suppresses smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration. This chapter discusses the potential ...
Furuya Yoshiaki - - 2010
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine with a wide range of biologic activities in immune regulation, hematopoiesis, inflammation, and oncogenesis. Recent accumulating evidence indicates a pathologic role for IL-6 in promoting proliferation of both smooth muscle and endothelial cells in the pulmonary arterioles, resulting in development of pulmonary arterial hypertension ...
Yang Zhen - - 2010
Endothelial dysfunction is related to reduced arterial elasticity in patients with essential hypertension. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), an important endogenous repair approach for endothelial injury, is altered in hypertensive patients. However, the association between alteration in circulating EPCs and hypertension-related reduced arterial elasticity has not been reported. The purpose ...
Falk Jeremy A - - 2010
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is found in a vast array of diseases, with a minority representing pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Idiopathic PAH or PAH in association with other disorders has been associated with poor survival, poor exercise tolerance, progressive symptoms of dyspnea, and decreased quality of life. Left untreated, patients with ...
Umar S - - 2010
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening disease characterized by an increase in pulmonary artery pressure leading to right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy, RV failure, and ultimately death. Current treatments can improve symptoms and reduce severity of the hemodynamic disorder but gradual deterioration in their condition often necessitates a lung transplant. ...
Saleemi Sarfraz - - 2010
Portopulmoanry hypertension (POPH) is a form of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) associated with portal hypertension with or without underlying chronic liver disease. POPH is increasingly recognized and recent evidence suggests that it is one of the leading causes of PAH. The pathophysiology of POPH is poorly understood although the pathological ...
Schuuring Mark J - - 2010
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease with poor survival outcome. PAH is classified by the 2009 updated clinical classification of pulmonary hypertension and a major subgroup is PAH due to congenital heart disease (CHD) with systemic-to-pulmonary shunt. CHD-PAH is a result of systemic-to-pulmonary shunting and chronic increased flow ...
Ruan Cheng-Huai - - 2010
In pulmonary arterial hypertension, the blood vessels that carry blood between the heart and lungs are constricted, making it difficult for the heart to pump blood through the lungs. Prostacyclin, a prostanoid metabolized from endogenous arachidonic acid through the cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway, is a potent vasodilator that has been identified ...
Harrington Louise S - - 2010
Pulmonary vascular diseases are increasingly recognised as important clinical conditions. Pulmonary hypertension associated with a range of aetiologies is difficult to treat and associated with progressive morbidity and mortality. Current therapies for pulmonary hypertension include phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, endothelin receptor antagonists, or prostacyclin mimetics. However, none of these provide ...
Yagi Shusuke - - 2010
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a frequent complication in patients with systemic sclerosis. Bosentan is used in patients with symptomatic PAH; however, it has not been established whether or not bosentan ameliorates the progression of PAH in patients with no PAH-related symptoms. We present a case of systemic sclerosis with ...
Morrell Nicholas W NW Department of Medicine Box 157 Addenbrooke's Hospital, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine Hills Road, Cambridge, CB2 8DP - - 2010
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is usually a devastating condition with a poor prognosis. Nearly 10 years ago, the underlying molecular basis of heritable PAH was elucidated with the identification of mutations in the gene encoding the bone morphogenetic protein type II receptor (BMPR-II). This discovery is now beginning to suggest ...
Maclean Margaret R MR Integrative and Systems Biology, Faculty of Biomedical and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ, Scotland, UK. - - 2010
The serotonin hypothesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) arose after an outbreak of PAH in patients taking the anorexigenic drugs aminorex and dexfenfluramine. Both of these drugs are serotonin transporter (SERT) substrates and indirect serotinergic agonists. There is now a wealth of evidence to support a role for serotonin in ...
Toporsian Mourad - - 2010
OBJECTIVE: Loss-of-function mutations in genes coding for transforming growth factor-beta/bone morphogenetic protein receptors and changes in nitric oxide(*) (NO(*)) bioavailability are associated with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and some forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension. How these abnormalities lead to seemingly disparate pulmonary pathologies remains unknown. Endoglin (Eng), a transforming growth factor-beta ...
Arena Ross - - 2010
BACKGROUND: There is an increasing recognition of the potential value of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Key CPX characteristics in these patients include: (1) a diminished aerobic capacity; (2) an abnormally elevated minute ventilation-carbon dioxide production relationship; and (3) an abnormally diminished partial pressure of ...
Ito Naofumi - - 2010
A 45-year-old man, who had been diagnosed with primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) 8 years before, was referred to our hospital because of short breath and lower-limb edema. Findings of chest X-ray, electrocardiogram, and cardiac ultrasound showed right atrial and ventricular dilatation/hypertrophy that were compatible with advanced PPH. Chest enhanced computed ...
Montani D - - 2009
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) comprises a heterogeneous group of disorders characterised by increased pulmonary vascular resistance that results in progressive right ventricular failure. In order to translate current evidence into routine clinical practice, the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and the European Respiratory Society (ERS) have recently jointly proposed evidence-based guidelines ...
Confalonieri Marco - - 2009
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a severe and underdiagnosed disease characterized by progressive hypertension secondary to organized thrombi in pulmonary vessels. The arteriolar lesions of CTEPH are similar to those seen in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Surgical disobliteration of the vessels by pulmonary endarterectomy is the therapy of ...
Jerath Angela - - 2010
Acute pulmonary hypertension is a severe and life-threatening reaction that rarely occurs secondary to protamine administration. Management of systemic hypotension combined with severe pulmonary hypertension causing right ventricular failure is challenging. We describe a case of acute pulmonary hypertension induced by protamine during elective coronary artery bypass surgery refractory to ...
Amin R - - 2009
Pulmonary vein stenosis is a rare cause of pulmonary hypertension, with variable onset and presentation. One or more of the four pulmonary veins can be primarily or secondarily affected. A five-month-old girl presented with respiratory distress, lethargy and cyanosis requiring intubation. Echocardiography showed right ventricular dilation, a right ventricular systolic ...
Mathai Stephen C - - 2009
Systemic sclerosis is commonly complicated by pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH-SSc) and is a leading cause of death in this population. We will review existing challenges and recent advances in the treatment of this disease. Traditionally employed outcome measures in pulmonary arterial hypertension research may not be applicable in PAH-SSc. Importantly, ...
Karyofillis Panagiotis - - 2009
The aim of this study was to record the results from a modern diagnostic and therapeutic approach to patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. We studied the clinical characteristics and the treatment of 69 patients (50 women, 72.5%), aged 44 +/- 17 years, who were diagnosed with pulmonary hypertension (World Health ...
Li Xiaodong - - 2009
Notch receptor signaling is implicated in controlling smooth muscle cell proliferation and in maintaining smooth muscle cells in an undifferentiated state. Pulmonary arterial hypertension is characterized by excessive vascular resistance, smooth muscle cell proliferation in small pulmonary arteries, leading to elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance, right ventricular failure and death. ...
Dahal Bhola Kumar - - 2010
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptors play a role in cell proliferation and survival and are implicated in the pathobiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). To study the role of EGF inhibition on experimental pulmonary hypertension. We investigated (1) the effects of three clinically approved EGF receptor (EGFR) antagonists ...
Kang Chang-Ki - - 2009
Hypertension, a major risk factor for stroke, is associated with altered arterial anatomy and function; however, the limited resolution of current imaging techniques has restricted the in vivo study of microvascular changes in the brain. In this report, we quantitatively examined the lenticulostriate arteries in hypertensive patients using ultrahigh-field 7T ...
Ward Ian - - 2009
The first orally active nonprostanoid PGI(2) receptor agonist has shown highly positive results in a Phase IIa study for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Toonkel Rebecca L - - 2010
Pulmonary hypertension, a common manifestation of advanced sarcoidosis, is thought to result from fibrosis with chronic hypoxia and destruction of small vessels, extrinsic compression of pulmonary arteries, or granulomatous vasculitis. We report a case of sarcoidosis-associated pulmonary hypertension due to fibrosing mediastinitis. Our patient presented with cough and dyspnea on ...
Melby Spencer J - - 2009
Aortopulmonary window is a rare abnormal congenital communication between the pulmonary artery and the ascending aorta with intact aortic and pulmonary valves. Because pulmonary hypertension and premature death are the natural history of the uncorrected left-to-right shunt physiology that occurs with aortopulmonary window, surgical correction, which is the gold standard ...
- - 2009
Jennifer Taylor MPhil, talks to Nazzareno Galiè , FESC, FRCP, chairman of the committee for the 2009 guidelines. What's new, changes from previous recommendations, which decisions were difficult, what they mean and should do.
Jensen Kurt W - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The currently recommended treatment for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE). No convincing evidence for the use of pulmonary hypertensive medical therapy (PHT) exists in operable candidates. We sought to determine the prevalence of the use of PHT on referral for PTE and the effects on pre-PTE ...
Vachiéry J-L - - 2009
The onset and progression of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) can be particularly aggressive; however, effective treatments are available. Therefore, early identification of patients with suspected PAH, confirmation of diagnosis, and intervention is essential. PAH may be challenging to diagnose in its earliest stages, particularly ...
Hemnes A R - - 2009
Understanding the haemodynamical profile of the right ventricle and pulmonary circulation is critical to not only the initial evaluation of, but also the continued management of pulmonary hypertension. Despite advances in non-invasive imaging techniques, right heart catheterisation (RHC) remains the gold standard for diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension and its various ...
Stepien Rebecca L - - 2009
Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a description of a physiological finding rather than a diagnosis. Pulmonary arterial pressure is the result of interactions among pulmonary blood flow (right ventricular cardiac output), pulmonary vascular impedance and post-capillary pressure (typically reflecting left atrial pressure). When elevations in pulmonary arterial pressure (systolic/diastolic pulmonary arterial ...
Duffels M G J - - 2009
Background. In patients with pulmonary hypertension, it is unknown whether the treatment effect of bosentan is dependent on the duration of pulmonary vessel changes. Therefore, we studied the response to bosentan in patients with life-long pulmonary vessel changes (pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) due to congenital heart disease (CHD)) and in ...
Mubarak Kamal K - - 2010
Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a chronic, progressive disease characterized by elevation of pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance that ultimately results in right ventricular failure and death. Multiple mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension, including prostacyclin, endothelin-1, and nitric oxide pathways amongst others. The first ...
Steiner Ivo - - 2010
Pulmonary hypertension is clinically defined as a pulmonary arterial pressure greater than 25 mmHg at rest or greater than 30 mmHg during exercise. We report a unique case of an infant with congenital heart disease causing pulmonary hypertension and necrotizing pulmonary arteritis but affecting only one lung. In conclusion, in ...
Thakare Manisha - - 2013
Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a rare condition diagnosed by a combination of clinical and laboratory features and after ruling out other conditions. Pulmonary manifestations, apart from pleuritis, are uncommon and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in extremely uncommon. We have described a case of AOSD with severe PAH. There have ...
Naclerio Caterina - - 2010
This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of bosentan in the treatment of severe pulmonary hypertension in a young female patient with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) associated with antiphospholipid syndrome. A 27-year-old woman presented with sudden onset of dyspnea. She had not experienced any dyspnea before this period, and ...
Safi Morteza - - 2009
Compression of left main coronary artery (LMCA) secondary to pulmonary trunk dilatation is a newly recognized entity that has been associated with severe pulmonary hypertension. In this paper we present a case of extrinsic compression of LMCA caused by dilated pulmonary trunk secondary to pulmonary hypertension documented using 64-slice multidetector ...
Selimovic Nedim - - 2009
BACKGROUND: The endothelin-1 (ET-1) system plays a pathophysiologic role in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Results from previous studies assessing the transpulmonary gradient of ET-1 have been inconsistent. The influence of an intravenous epoprostenol infusion on the transpulmonary ET-1 gradient is unknown. METHODS: In a prospective investigation, serum concentrations ...
Rubenfire Melvyn - - 2009
To our knowledge, there are no specific and validated measures of quality of life (QoL) or degree of disability for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). A review of the literature shows that, with the exception of one recently designed specifically for pulmonary hypertension, QoL questionnaires used in PAH studies are generic ...
Labombarda Fabien - - 2009
Mortality in children with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension is high, emphasizing the need for novel therapeutic approaches. A surgical approach consisting in the creation of anastomosis between descending aorta and left pulmonary artery, the Potts shunt, has been proposed to decompress right ventricle. We reported two cases of severe idiopathic ...
Tuder Rubin M - - 2009
The pathological features of pulmonary arterial hypertension are highlighted in this review, which can serve as a guide to diagnosis and identification of potential cellular targets for novel lines of therapy. It also emphasizes the variability of pathological processes found in pulmonary hypertensive lungs collected by the Pulmonary Breakthrough Initiative ...
Beghetti Maurice - - 2009
Pulmonary hypertension complicates the course of many children and adults with congenital heart diseases (CHDs). The increase in pulmonary pressure associated with CHD is secondary to either increased pulmonary blood flow or increased postcapillary pressures. Pulmonary arterial hypertension is in the vast majority associated with congenital cardiac shunts. Despite major ...
Hoeper Marius M - - 2009
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a distinct subgroup of pulmonary hypertension that comprises idiopathic PAH, familial/heritable forms, and PAH associated with connective tissue disease, congenital heart disease, portal hypertension, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and some other conditions. The hemodynamic definition of PAH was recently revised: PAH is now defined ...
Souza Rogério - - 2009
Recent years have witnessed a significant increase in the knowledge about the pathophysiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and the availability of multiple drugs specifically aimed at pulmonary circulation. Although most of this is related to the idiopathic form of PAH, this development has also turned attention to other forms ...
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