Search Results
Results 601 - 650 of 1627
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Scherrer Urs - - 2006
Studies of high-altitude populations, and in particular of maladapted subgroups, may provide important insight into underlying mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of hypoxemia-related disease states in general. Over the past decade, studies involving short-term hypoxic exposure have greatly advanced our knowledge regarding underlying mechanisms and predisposing events of hypoxic pulmonary ...
Ratti L - - 2006
Pulmonary abnormalities are common in patients with advanced chronic liver disease. Two distinct syndromes strictly related to the presence of portal hypertension, but clearly different from a pathophysiologic point of view, have been identified. Portopulmonary hypertension, characterized by an increased pulmonary arterial pressure, is due to a progressive arteriolar vasoconstriction ...
Sacks Richard S - - 2006
Recent efforts have seen major advances in elucidating the mechanisms underlying pulmonary arterial hypertension. However, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) often has been excluded from these studies. Consequently, whereas the clinical, radiographic, and hemodynamic characteristics of CTEPH have been well described, there remains a deficit in our understanding of the ...
Weber Martin A - - 2006
We present the case of a 9-year-old boy with portal hypertension who died suddenly and unexpectedly due to pulmonary hypertensive crisis during a routine endoscopic procedure. He had known portal hypertension with esophageal varices but had no preceding clinical symptoms suggestive of significant pulmonary hypertensive disease despite postmortem histological evidence ...
Singh Thokchom Sd - - 2006
Severe oyknibart arterial hypertension is a life-threatening disease with a poor prognosis. Continuous intravenous infusion of prostacyclin has proved effective in this condition. However, it carries the risk of serious complications arising from the complex delivery system along with a high cost. Prostacyclin analogs, endothelin antagonists, and the phophodiesterase-5 inhibitor ...
Wray C Jackson - - 2006
Chronic thromboembolic obstruction of the pulmonary vascular bed has been increasingly recognized as a treatable form of pulmonary hypertension, with surgery referred to as a pulmonary endarterectomy. Careful evaluation of patients with pulmonary hypertension and proper selection of those with surgically accessible, chronic thromboembolic disease are critical determinants for a ...
Thistlethwaite Patricia A - - 2006
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension has emerged as one of the leading causes of severe pulmonary hypertension. This disease is estimated to occur in approximately 1 to 5% of all patients who have previously developed an acute pulmonary embolism, although the true prevalence is suspected to be much higher. Chronic thromboembolic ...
Sakamaki Yasushi - - 2006
We report a case of pulmonary artery (PA) dissection complicating lung transplantation. A 30-year-old man with primary pulmonary hypertension underwent bilateral single lung transplantation. Thirty hours postoperatively he had signs of obstruction of the right main pulmonary artery develop due to dissection demonstrated on transesophageal echocardiography and pulmonary arteriography. Surgical ...
Raiesdana Azad - - 2006
Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a disease of the small pulmonary arteries characterized by vascular narrowing and increased pulmonary vascular resistance, which eventually leads to right ventricular failure. Vasoconstriction, vascular proliferation, remodeling of the pulmonary vessels, and thrombosis are all contributing factors to the increased vascular resistance seen in this disease. ...
Madani Michael M - - 2006
Pulmonary endarterectomy is the definitive treatment for chronic pulmonary hypertension as the result of thromboembolic disease. Although significant progress has been made over the last decade in recognition, diagnostic modalities, and treatment of this disease, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) continues to be severely underdiagnosed and as a consequence pulmonary ...
Raisinghani Ajit - - 2006
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a significant complication of venous thromboembolism and is caused by incomplete resolution of pulmonary emboli. The persistent chronic pulmonary hypertension leads to right-ventricle pressure overload. As a result, there is often significant functional and morphological alteration of both the right and the left ventricle. ...
Tsai Jeng-Dau - - 2006
The vein of Galen aneurysm is a rarely seen congenital intracranial vascular malformation with abnormal aneurysmal dilation of the vein of Galen in neonatal stage. We report a full- term female newborn presented with intractable heart failure, pulmonary artery hypertension, and respiratory distress soon after birth, in whom persistent pulmonary ...
Martin Kevin B - - 2006
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disorder characterized by abnormal increased vasoconstriction and vascular remodelling. In this review we discuss the pathophysiology, genetic basis and clinical features of this disorder. Current therapy of PAH is based on an understanding of its pathogenesis, and we review current treatment options based ...
Nyamande K - - 2006
Notable progress has been achieved in our understanding of the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension, in particular the role of vasodilators, vasoconstrictors and the intracellular signaling pathways, cytokines, chemokines and growth factors involved. A comprehensive history and clinical examination is mandatory in the assessment and determination of the cause of pulmonary ...
Rubin Lewis J - - 2006
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a term used to classify a variety of conditions that have in common an injury to the pulmonary vasculature that produces elevations in pulmonary arterial pressure. There have been considerable advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of PAH over the past decade. ...
Rabiller A - - 2006
Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a rare cause of pulmonary arterial hypertension that affects predominantly post-capillary pulmonary vessels. A major concern with PVOD is the poor response to available therapies and the risk of pulmonary oedema with continuous intravenous epoprostenol. The present authors hypothesised that alveolar haemorrhage may be a ...
Peng Suzette W - - 2006
Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) may lead to pulmonary hypertension, a lethal complication of chronic pulmonary thromboembolism. There are few viable treatment options for pulmonary hypertension, but pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) has been used to successfully treat this condition in many patient populations. Following is a description of a patient with APS ...
Pezzini A - - 2006
Because of the presumed non-atherosclerotic pathogenesis, the potential link between spontaneous cervical artery dissection (sCAD) and common risk factors for atherosclerosis has never been investigated systematically. Therefore, this prospective, multicentre, case-control study compared the frequency of tobacco use, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolaemia among a group of consecutive patients with ...
Liu C - - 2006
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease, which leads to right heart failure and premature death. Pulmonary arterial hypertension can be classified into five categories according to Venice classification: (1) Idiopathic PAH; (2) Familial PAH; (3) PAH associated with collagen vascular disease, congenital systemic-to-pulmonary shunts, portal hypertension, HIV infection, ...
Teichert-Kuliszewska Krystyna - - 2006
Mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) receptor-2 (BMPR2) have been found in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH); however, the mechanistic link between loss of BMPR2 signaling and the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension is unclear. We hypothesized that, contrary to smooth muscle cells, this pathway promotes survival ...
Willers Elisabeth D - - 2006
Serotonin is a pulmonary vasoconstrictor and smooth muscle cell mitogen. The serotonin transporter (SERT) is abundant in pulmonary vascular smooth muscle. Compared with the short (S) allele, the long (L) SERT promoter allele is associated with increased SERT transcription and more severe pulmonary hypertension in a cohort of patients with ...
Provencher Steeve - - 2005
Despite major advances in our understanding of the pathophysiologic processes leading to pulmonary arterial hypertension and recent developments in therapeutic approaches, the long-term prognosis for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension remains unsatisfactory. Early detection and adequate clinical classification of the disease, better assessment of patients' prognosis, and improved therapeutic strategies ...
Korecki Janusz - - 2005
A 27-year-old pregnant woman was admitted with supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) and symptoms of heart failure. Echocardiography revealed pulmonary hypertension due to a tumour infiltrating the left atrium and compressing the pulmonary veins. After delivery by Caesarean section, the paroxysmal SVT was controlled by amiodarone. Thoracic CT scan showed mediastinal masses ...
Palmieri V - - 2005
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is prognostically relevant, associated with major cardiovascular risk factors and with atherosclerosis. However, whether LVH is independently associated with impaired coronary flow reserve (CFR) and with endothelial dysfunction is disputed. We assessed the relationship of LV mass and systolic function to CFR and endothelial function in ...
Nicolls M R - - 2005
The association between autoimmunity and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has been appreciated for >40 yrs, but how autoimmune injury might contribute to the pathogenesis of this disease has only been examined in a case-specific manner. It is becoming increasingly clear that a variety of diverse clinical diseases, ranging from viral ...
Ciana Giovanni - - 2006
In generalized arterial calcification of infancy (OMIM no. 208000), calcification of the media and proliferation of the intima lead to arterial stenoses. Most affected patients present with untreatable arterial hypertension and die within the first months of life. The disease has recently been linked to mutations in ENPP1. We report ...
Foley Raymond J - - 2008
Sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology, in which the lungs and intrathoracic lymph nodes are predominant sites of involvement. Pulmonary hypertension is a known complication of sarcoidosis. Treatment of sarcoidosis-associated pulmonary hypertension has traditionally focused on the initiation of systemic corticosteroids, but has had inconsistent results. We ...
Agarwal P P - - 2005
A rare case of extensive in situ central pulmonary artery thrombosis in primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is presented. The differentiation from chronic thromboembolic pulmonary arterial hypertension (CTEPH) is of paramount importance because of different therapeutic strategies. In this case, the presence of mural thrombus in the central pulmonary arteries on ...
Widlitz Allison C - - 2005
Sitaxsentan is an orally active, selective endothelin-A receptor antagonist that may benefit patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension by blocking the vasoconstrictive effects of endothelin-A receptors, while maintaining the vasodilator and endothelin-1 clearance functions of the endothelin-B receptors. In its first randomized, placebo-controlled study, sitaxsentan improved exercise capacity assessed by the ...
Ulrich S - - 2005
Stenoses of multiple peripheral pulmonary artery branches represent a rare cause of pulmonary hypertension in children, but the prognosis is very poor for such patients. Herein we describe 2 patients with multiple peripheral pulmonary artery stenoses (MPPAS) presenting with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension in adulthood, which has only once been ...
Zakir Ramzan M - - 2005
To the best of our knowledge, acute decompensated left-sided heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction in a patient with scleroderma has not been previously reported. We describe a patient with severe pulmonary hypertension due to limited scleroderma in whom nesiritide led to marked reductions in pulmonary arterial and ...
Sakuma Masahito - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The goal of the present study was to examine the cardiac configuration and pulmonary vascular changes in patients with portopulmonary hypertension (PPHTN) and compare them with those of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). METHODS AND RESULTS: The subjects were 10 patients with PPHTN and 18 with IPAH. In PPHTN, ...
Chaudhari M - - 2005
We report a case of severe pulmonary hypertension in a neonate associated with impaired alveolarisation and plexiform pulmonary arteriopathy. Treatment with oral sildenafil in addition to inhaled nitric oxide (NO) resulted in recovery from the pulmonary hypertensive crisis. Long term sildenafil therapy was associated with complete resolution of the pulmonary ...
Martínez-Palli G - - 2005
Two pulmonary vascular disorders, considered mutually exclusive, may be present in candidates for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). On the one hand, hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS), with a prevalence about 20% in end-stage liver disease, is characterized by pulmonary vascular dilatation and abnormal gas exchange. On the other hand, portopulmonary hypertension (POPH), ...
Kradin Richard - - 2005
Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH) is an unusual disorder characterized by the proliferation of capillaries in the alveolar septa and pulmonary interstitium. Originally conceived as a primary idiopathic disorder of the pulmonary microcirculation, recent studies have demonstrated that PCH may be associated with other pathologies. Nitric oxide (NO) is a gaseous ...
Kuroda Tadashi - - 2006
Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease is refractory to medical treatment and is generally associated with a poor prognosis. Treatment with vasodilators, such as prostacyclin, of patients with PVOD is controversial because of concerns regarding hemodynamic deterioration. Although a preferential pulmonary vasodilatory effect of a specific phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor, sildenafil, has recently been reported ...
Barrow Susan - - 2005
Pulmonary artery thromboendarterectomy (PTE) is a surgical procedure that offers the only cure for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (TPH), a progressive form of secondary pulmonary hypertension. Current estimates indicate that 1% to 5% of patients who survive a pulmonary embolus will develop chronic TPH with progressively worsening pulmonary hypertension and ...
Hongo Minoru - - 2005
We investigated whether nicorandil might prevent and reverse monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension. Rats were injected with 50 mg/kg of MCT subcutaneously and randomized to either 7.5 mg/kg/d of nicorandil in drinking water or placebo for 3 weeks. Animals that were treated with MCT and survived for 3 weeks were ...
Tofovic Stevan P - - 2005
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PH) is a deadly disease characterized by pulmonary arterial vasoconstriction and hypertension, pulmonary vasculature remodeling, and right ventricular hypertrophy. Our previous in vivo studies, performed in several models of cardiac, vascular, and/or renal injury, suggest that the metabolites of 17beta-estradiol may inhibit vascular and cardiac remodeling. The ...
Dakshinamurti Shyamala - - 2005
Neonatal circulatory transition is dependent upon tightly regulated pulmonary circuit relaxation. Persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN), a rapidly progressive disease of pulmonary arterial vasospasm and remodelling, may be characterized by pulmonary arterial myocyte relaxation failure. A key regulator of vascular tone is myocyte calcium sensitivity, determined by the relative stoichiometry of ...
Castro Oswaldo - - 2005
Pulmonary hypertension affects nearly one-third of adults with sickle cell disease and is related to hemolysis. Although pulmonary pressures are not as high as in other forms of pulmonary hypertension, sickle cell patients poorly tolerate even moderate elevations of pulmonary pressures, because this complication predicts short survival. Tricuspid regurgitant jet ...
Agarwal R - - 2005
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of pulmonary hypertension in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) by noninvasive methods. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty seven patients with IPF attending the Chest Clinic over a period of one-and-a-half-years underwent echocardiography for evidence of pulmonary hypertension, which was defined as pulmonary artery systolic pressure ...
Yoshimoto Akihiro - - 2005
Hereditary stomatocytosis is an autosomal dominant, congenital hemolytic form of anemia, and thromboembolic complications may ensue after a splenectomy is performed in a patient with hereditary stomatocytosis. However, little is known about the relationship between pulmonary hypertension and hereditary stomatocytosis. We describe here a rare case of a patient with ...
Kokturk Nurdan - - 2005
Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD), a rapidly progressive and fatal disorder, is a rare cause of pulmonary hypertension. We report the occurrence of PVOD in a female patient with Hasimoto's thyroiditis. This report emphasises that PVOD can co-exist with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and a high index of clinical suspicion is required to ...
Di Guglielmo Lucio - - 2005
Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have a leading role in the diagnosis and evaluation of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Technical aspects, advantages, limitations and potential contraindications will be considered. MDCT has many advantages: 1) fast examination, 2) good identification of central and peripheral vessels, 3) good characterization ...
Kawato Hitoshi - - 2005
We report a rare autopsy case of sudden death due to primary pulmonary hypertension. A seven-year-old boy, who had been diagnosed with primary pulmonary hypertension at the age of four years, died suddenly. Forensic autopsy and histopathologic examination revealed extensive obstruction of small muscular pulmonary arteries by plexiform lesions and ...
Schermuly Ralph Theo - - 2005
Progression of pulmonary hypertension is associated with increased proliferation and migration of pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells. PDGF is a potent mitogen and involved in this process. We now report that the PDGF receptor antagonist STI571 (imatinib) reversed advanced pulmonary vascular disease in 2 animal models of pulmonary hypertension. In ...
Prakash Udaya B S - - 2005
The erythropoietic system plays a major role in tissue oxygenation because the erythrocytes are the primary carriers of oxygen in the form of oxyhemoglobin. Therefore, clinical entities such as abnormal hemoglobins, polycythemia, anemia, and significant changes in blood volume frequently produce alterations in various respiratory functions. The pulmonary manifestations can ...
Barst Robyn J - - 2005
The pathobiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) includes endothelial cell dysfunction and proliferation and migration of VSMCs. As PDGF has been implicated in these processes, Schermuly et al. hypothesized that altered PDGF signaling may be involved in the vascular remodeling observed in PAH. To explore this notion further, the authors ...
Frisbie J H - - 2005
Case report. To describe an unusual case of progressive pulmonary hypertension due to recurrent pulmonary embolism in a chronically paralyzed spinal cord injury patient. Veterans Administration Hospital, West Roxbury, MA, USA. A 57-year-old man, tetraplegic, sensory incomplete and motor complete for 30 years due to a diving accident, complained of ...
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