Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 1648
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O'Callaghan Dermot S - - 2007
This review assesses the available evidence supporting the use of drug combinations for the management of the various forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Ongoing and forthcoming randomized trials evaluating this strategy are also highlighted. Furthermore, new types of agents to treat PAH in the future are explored.
Tuder Rubin M RM Division of Cardiopulmonary Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 720 Rutland Avenue, Ross Research Building, Baltimore, MD 21217, USA. - - 2007
The secondary role of pathology in the present clinical management of pulmonary hypertension (PH) reflects to some extent the limitations of the current understanding of the disease. Ample room exists for the diagnostic translation of the pathobiologic studies, with the goal of improving the diagnostic and prognostic power of the ...
Snow Jennifer L JL Division of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 844 West Gates Building, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104, - - 2007
Recent discoveries in the disease pathophysiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension have been translated into effective therapies tested in clinical trials. The studies have focused on surrogate and intermediate end points, thought to reflect quantity and quality of life, respectively. The authors present the necessary requirements for establishing the reliability and ...
Said Sami I - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a pulmonary vasodilator and inhibitor of vascular smooth muscle proliferation, has been reported absent in pulmonary arteries from patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We have tested the hypothesis that targeted deletion of the VIP gene may lead to PAH with pulmonary vascular remodeling. ...
Hoeper M M - - 2007
Blood gas abnormalities in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) may be related to disease severity and prognosis. The present authors performed a 12-yr retrospective analysis assessing arterialised capillary blood gases, haemodynamics, exercise variables and survival in 101 patients with IPAH. At baseline, arterial oxygen tension (P(a,O(2))) and carbon ...
Ulrich Silvia - - 2007
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is often difficult to diagnose and many different disorders may result in elevated pulmonary arterial pressure requiring therapy. Left untreated, PH usually has a dismal prognosis culminating in right ventricular failure and death. Besides conservative therapeutic strategies such as anticoagulation and diuretics, the past decade has brought ...
Suntharalingam Jay J Pulmonary Vascular Diseases Unit, Papworth Hospital NHS Trust, Papworth Everard, Cambridgeshire CB3 8RE, - - 2007
Although pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is potentially curative in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), some patients have distally distributed disease that is not amenable to surgery. The aetiology and characteristics of this patient group are currently not well understood. This study compares the baseline demographic features and outcomes in subjects with ...
Sayin Tamer - - 2007
Primary pulmonary hypertension is a rare disease with an ominous prognosis for which new therapeutic options are being developed. Recently, there have been case reports indicating that sildenafil may be of benefit in short- to midterm follow-up. However, long-term clinical data of sildenafil in primary pulmonary hypertensive patients is lacking. ...
Yang Ying - - 2007
Calcium signaling has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Verapamil, one of the calcium antagonists, is used to characterize the role of calcium signaling in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension syndrome in broilers. The suppression effect of verapamil on pulmonary arterial hypertension and pulmonary vascular ...
Nathan Steven D - - 2007
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has a poor prognosis and a course that is unpredictable. Pulmonary hypertension may complicate the course of IPF and potentially impact prognosis. There are multiple factors that might influence the onset and severity of pulmonary hypertension in IPF. The relationship between the physiologic and pathobiologic manifestations ...
Sahara Makoto - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that bone marrow (BM)-derived cells may differentiate into vascular cells that participate in arterial repair and/or lesion formation. However, it remains uncertain whether BM-derived cells also can participate in vascular remodeling associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS: The BM of Sprague-Dawley rats was reconstituted ...
van Wolferen S A - - 2007
Pulmonary hypertension is a rare disease with a poor prognosis. It was first described in the late 19th century as a clinical-pathological syndrome characterised by obstruction of the small pulmonary arteries and right ventricular hypertrophy in patients presenting with severe dyspnoea and cyanosis. After the development of right heart catheterisation ...
Leibovitch Leah - - 2007
Pulmonary hypertension is characterised by a progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance and a poor prognosis. The exact underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood; however, it is hypothesised that pulmonary medial hypertrophy and endothelial dysfunction lead to impaired production of vasodilators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin, and increased ...
Waxman Aaron B - - 2007
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life threatening, progressive condition which eventually leads to fatal right heart failure. Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor peptide, is increased in the pulmonary arteries of patients with pulmonary hypertension. Endothelin-1 acts through the stimulation of 2 subtypes of receptors (endothelin receptor subtypes A [ET(A)] ...
Batyraliev L I - - 2007
In a series of articles the authors discuss literature data concerning epidemiology of pulmonary hypertension (PH), its modern classification; peculiarities of its pathogenesis and treatment in various diseases and conditions. In the sixth communication they present classification of PH accepted at the Third World PH Symposium (venice, Italy, 2003). This ...
Jankowski Piotr - - 2007
Ascending aortic blood pressure-derived indices were shown to be related to coronary atherosclerosis. However, no study so far has analyzed the relation between ascending aortic pulsatility and the extent of coronary atherosclerosis in normotensives. Therefore, the aim of the present analysis was to assess the relation between central blood pressure-derived ...
Kawano Hiroaki - - 2007
We report a 16-year-old man with severe heart failure due to idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). The patient was initially treated with a combination of beraprost, a prostacyclin analog, and sarpogrelate, a serotonin receptor inhibitor. However, he was unresponsive to the treatment. We then changed the treatment to sildenafil, and ...
Buemi M - - 2007
Numerous uremic patients on hemodialysis have pulmonary hypertension attributable to the presence of arteriovenous fistulas, vascular calcification, and endothelial dysfunction due to alterations in the balance between vasoconstrictive and vasodilatory substances. For these reasons, the effects of recombinant human erythropoietin, a drug widely used in patients on dialysis, on the ...
Rabinovitch Marlene - - 2007
A variety of conditions can lead to the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Current treatments can improve symptoms and reduce the severity of the hemodynamic abnormality, but most patients remain quite limited, and deterioration in their condition necessitates a lung transplant. This review discusses current experimental and clinical studies ...
Hayes Don D - - 2007
Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a rare disorder that is progressive and often leads to right heart failure if left untreated. Because of the vague nature of symptoms at presentation, IPAH may take several months to diagnose. The most common presenting complaint in patients with IPAH is dyspnea with ...
Gortner Ludwig - - 2007
AIMS: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been demonstrated to have serious consequences for health in adult age. These include an increased risk for metabolic syndrome, pulmonary and cardiovascular disorders. These disorders are in part secondary to the development of arterial hypertension, which has been demonstrated to be more frequent in ...
Sakuma Masahito - - 2007
Cases with proximal pulmonary artery aneurysm (PAA) sometimes have severe complications. We report 4 cases of proximal PAA complicated by pulmonary hypertension. Three cases had proximal PAA and one had both proximal and peripheral PAA. Complications associated with proximal PAA are compression of the bronchus, dissection and/or rupture of the ...
Nisbet Rachel E - - 2007
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily that regulate diverse physiological processes ranging from lipogenesis to inflammation. Recent evidence has established potential roles of PPARs in both systemic and pulmonary vascular disease and function. Existing treatment strategies for pulmonary hypertension, the most ...
Hu J-J - - 2007
Vascular cells are very responsive to even subtle changes in their local mechanical environment, thus there is a pressing need to quantify normal states of stress and strain as well as any perturbations from these normal states. Toward this end, we must quantify constitutive behaviors for both normal and adapted ...
Heresi Gustavo A - - 2007
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a hemodynamic state characterized by elevation in the mean pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance leading to right ventricular failure and premature death. PH can be the result of a variety of diseases of different etiologies. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) should be distinctly differentiated from ...
Graziosi Pedro - - 2007
BACKGROUND: In patients with advanced non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NIC), right-sided cardiac disturbances has prognostic implications. Right coronary artery (RCA) flow pattern and flow reserve (CFR) are not well known in this setting. The purpose of this study was to assess, in human advanced NIC, the RCA phasic flow pattern and CFR, ...
Shujaat Adil - - 2007
Hypoxia and endothelial dysfunction play a central role in the development of pulmonary hypertension. Cor pulmonale is a maladaptive response to pulmonary hypertension. The presence of peripheral edema in cor pulmonale is almost invariably associated with hypercapnia. Correction of abnormalities of gas exchange and ventilation can ameliorate pulmonary hypertension and ...
Baughman Robert P - - 2007
Pulmonary involvement is common in sarcoidosis, an immune-mediated inflammatory disorder that is characterized by non-caseating granulomas in tissue. Sarcoid patients with advanced pulmonary disease, especially end-stage pulmonary fibrosis, risk developing pulmonary hypertension (World Health Organization group III pulmonary hypertension secondary to hypoxic lung disease). Increased levels of endothelin (ET)-1 in ...
Gabbay Eli - - 2007
The dual endothelin receptor antagonist, bosentan, is an orally active therapy, which is effective in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). This review critically appraises the evidence for the efficacy of bosentan in idiopathic and familial PAH, in PAH associated with connective tissue disease and in PAH which may ...
Kamata Y - - 2007
Sildenafil and bosentan were added recently to the treatment with great expectations, effectiveness for the acute exacerbation of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is not fully examined. Two cases of acutely exacerbated PAH associated with collagen vascular diseases were treated first with sildenafil for six months followed by bosentan for another ...
Perros F - - 2007
Pulmonary hypertension is characterised by a progressive increase in pulmonary arterial resistance due to endothelial and smooth muscle cell proliferation resulting in chronic obstruction of small pulmonary arteries. There is evidence that inflammatory mechanisms may contribute to the pathogenesis of human and experimental pulmonary hypertension. The aim of the study ...
Chau Elaine M C - - 2007
BACKGROUND: To test the hypothesis that chronic sildenafil treatment has similar functional and hemodynamic effects in patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension due to Eisenmenger syndrome as those due to idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension without intracardiac shunts. METHODS: A prospective open-label study was carried out to compare the effects of ...
Wipff J - - 2007
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by early generalized microangiopathy with disturbed angiogenesis. Endoglin gene (ENG) encodes a transmembrane glycoprotein which acts as an accessory receptor for the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily, and is crucial for maintaining vascular integrity. A 6-base insertion in intron 7 (6bINS) ...
Cogolludo Angel - - 2007
Pulmonary vasoconstriction is believed to be an early component of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) is a major trigger for pulmonary vasoconstriction; however, it is now well known that contractions and relaxations may also be elicited through Ca(2+)-independent mechanisms. A variety of intracellular protein kinases and cyclic nucleotides ...
Hrometz Sandra L - - 2006
Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive disease that has a high rate of mortality. For these reasons, early treatment is essential. Treatment choices for pulmonary arterial hypertension are limited by drug tolerability, drug cost and inconvenience associated with administration techniques and dosing schedules. Therefore, a therapy that provides oral dosing ...
Alioglu Bulent - - 2006
A 4-year-old girl with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia presented to the emergency room with dyspnea. Echocardiography was performed due to cardiomegaly and prominent main pulmonary artery on a chest X-ray film. On echocardiography the right ventricular pressure calculated from the velocity of tricuspid regurgitation jet was 55 mmHg with no pulmonary ...
Chapman M E - - 2006
There has been considerable interest in the role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension due to episodes of primary pulmonary hypertension in humans linked to serotoninergic appetite-suppressant drugs. In this study, we investigated the effect of 5-HT on the development of pulmonary hypertension induced by injecting ...
Blyth K G - - 2007
Right ventricular systolic dysfunction (RVSD) at baseline (pre-treatment) predicts early death in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, RVSD can only be detected reliably by prohibitively invasive or expensive techniques. N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide concentration ([NT-proBNP]) correlates with RV function in PH; however, an [NT-proBNP] threshold that indicates RVSD in ...
Hooper W Craig - - 2007
Although relatively rare, pulmonary hypertension can be devastating for those individuals who are affected and has significant societal implications. The 2003 WHO classification separates PAH (idiopathic, specific disease linked) from pulmonary hypertension related to lung disease, thromboembolic disease, and pulmonary venous hypertension. Another form of pulmonary hypertension, persistent pulmonary hypertension ...
Noori Shahab - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension is a common problem in patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). In a subset of these patients, pulmonary hypertension persists despite optimized ventilatory management and supportive care. Sildenafil, a phosphodiestrase V inhibitor, has been used in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in adults and children. Cardiovascular effects ...
Perros F - - 2007
In the present study, the hypothesis that dendritic cells (DCs), key players in immunity and tolerance, might be involved in the immunopathology of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) was tested. The phenotype and localisation of DCs were characterised by immunohistochemistry and double-labelling immunofluorescence in lung samples from controls, human IPAH ...
Rakotoniaina Zo - - 2006
Hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, so called statins, improve endothelial function and exert antiproliferative effects on vascular smooth muscle cells of systemic vessels. This study aimed at comparing the protective effects of two statins, pravastatin and atorvastatin, against monocrotaline (MC)-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. Pravastatin or atorvastatin (PS or ...
Prisant L Michael - - 2006
Erectile dysfunction is a common symptom among hypertensive patients that impairs quality of life and adherence to antihypertensive pharmacologic therapy. It is also associated with cardiovascular risk factors and disease. The Sexual Health Inventory in Men (SHIM) was administered to 105 ambulatory hypertensive patients, and large and small artery elasticity ...
Li Xue-Qin - - 2006
1. Serotonin (5-HT), as a type of mitogen for smooth muscle cells, plays an important role in the development of pulmonary hypertension. It is known that selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI) inhibit 5-HT internalization. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect and mechanism of ...
Ozsoyoglu Aliye A - - 2006
Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a rare and severe form of pulmonary hypertension that is often difficult to differentiate from primary pulmonary hypertension. Differentiating these two entities before medical treatment is critical, as therapy commonly indicated for patients with primary pulmonary hypertension can be harmful and even fatal in patients ...
Pietri Panagiota - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness is an independent cardiovascular risk factor in hypertensive individuals. Inflammation is associated with increased arterial stiffness and is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether low-grade inflammation contributes to arterial stiffness and wave reflections independently of blood pressure, in patients with essential hypertension and ...
Kojonazarov B K - - 2007
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate Doppler echocardiography for the detection of pulmonary hypertension in high-altitude inhabitants. In total, 60 (55 male) patients aged 18-71 yrs were recruited from an ECG screening programme applied to 1,430 inhabitants living at an altitude of 2,500-3,600 m in Kyrgyzstan. Of ...
Mathai S C - - 2007
Combination therapy has been recommended for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, there is scant information on combination therapy after failure of monotherapy, particularly in patients with scleroderma-associated PAH (PAH-SSD). From a group of 82 consecutive patients with PAH who received initial bosentan monotherapy, a total of 13 ...
Yamanaka Asuka - - 2006
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), caused by collagen diseases, Eisenmenger syndrome or of idiopathic etiology, generally has a poor prognosis. Recently, bosentan, a dual endothelin receptor antagonist, has become available for treating PAH. This report describes a bosentan-effective case of combined PAH, hemodialysis and mild aortic stenosis. A 71-year-old woman on ...
Hsiao Shih-Hung - - 2006
In this study, myocardial performance index (MPI) was used to identify pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with echocardiographic signs of pulmonary hypertension. One hundred patients with echocardiographic signs of pulmonary hypertension were enrolled in this study after informed consent was obtained. All patients underwent multidetector-row computed tomography of the chest, ...
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