Search Results
Results 501 - 550 of 1614
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Cogolludo Angel - - 2007
Pulmonary vasoconstriction is believed to be an early component of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) is a major trigger for pulmonary vasoconstriction; however, it is now well known that contractions and relaxations may also be elicited through Ca(2+)-independent mechanisms. A variety of intracellular protein kinases and cyclic nucleotides ...
Hrometz Sandra L - - 2006
Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive disease that has a high rate of mortality. For these reasons, early treatment is essential. Treatment choices for pulmonary arterial hypertension are limited by drug tolerability, drug cost and inconvenience associated with administration techniques and dosing schedules. Therefore, a therapy that provides oral dosing ...
Alioglu Bulent - - 2006
A 4-year-old girl with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia presented to the emergency room with dyspnea. Echocardiography was performed due to cardiomegaly and prominent main pulmonary artery on a chest X-ray film. On echocardiography the right ventricular pressure calculated from the velocity of tricuspid regurgitation jet was 55 mmHg with no pulmonary ...
Chapman M E - - 2006
There has been considerable interest in the role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension due to episodes of primary pulmonary hypertension in humans linked to serotoninergic appetite-suppressant drugs. In this study, we investigated the effect of 5-HT on the development of pulmonary hypertension induced by injecting ...
Blyth K G - - 2007
Right ventricular systolic dysfunction (RVSD) at baseline (pre-treatment) predicts early death in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, RVSD can only be detected reliably by prohibitively invasive or expensive techniques. N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide concentration ([NT-proBNP]) correlates with RV function in PH; however, an [NT-proBNP] threshold that indicates RVSD in ...
Hooper W Craig - - 2007
Although relatively rare, pulmonary hypertension can be devastating for those individuals who are affected and has significant societal implications. The 2003 WHO classification separates PAH (idiopathic, specific disease linked) from pulmonary hypertension related to lung disease, thromboembolic disease, and pulmonary venous hypertension. Another form of pulmonary hypertension, persistent pulmonary hypertension ...
Noori Shahab - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension is a common problem in patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). In a subset of these patients, pulmonary hypertension persists despite optimized ventilatory management and supportive care. Sildenafil, a phosphodiestrase V inhibitor, has been used in the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in adults and children. Cardiovascular effects ...
Perros F - - 2007
In the present study, the hypothesis that dendritic cells (DCs), key players in immunity and tolerance, might be involved in the immunopathology of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) was tested. The phenotype and localisation of DCs were characterised by immunohistochemistry and double-labelling immunofluorescence in lung samples from controls, human IPAH ...
Rakotoniaina Zo - - 2006
Hydroxymethylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, so called statins, improve endothelial function and exert antiproliferative effects on vascular smooth muscle cells of systemic vessels. This study aimed at comparing the protective effects of two statins, pravastatin and atorvastatin, against monocrotaline (MC)-induced pulmonary hypertension in rats. Pravastatin or atorvastatin (PS or ...
Prisant L Michael - - 2006
Erectile dysfunction is a common symptom among hypertensive patients that impairs quality of life and adherence to antihypertensive pharmacologic therapy. It is also associated with cardiovascular risk factors and disease. The Sexual Health Inventory in Men (SHIM) was administered to 105 ambulatory hypertensive patients, and large and small artery elasticity ...
Li Xue-Qin - - 2006
1. Serotonin (5-HT), as a type of mitogen for smooth muscle cells, plays an important role in the development of pulmonary hypertension. It is known that selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI) inhibit 5-HT internalization. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effect and mechanism of ...
Ozsoyoglu Aliye A - - 2006
Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a rare and severe form of pulmonary hypertension that is often difficult to differentiate from primary pulmonary hypertension. Differentiating these two entities before medical treatment is critical, as therapy commonly indicated for patients with primary pulmonary hypertension can be harmful and even fatal in patients ...
Pietri Panagiota - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness is an independent cardiovascular risk factor in hypertensive individuals. Inflammation is associated with increased arterial stiffness and is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether low-grade inflammation contributes to arterial stiffness and wave reflections independently of blood pressure, in patients with essential hypertension and ...
Kojonazarov B K - - 2007
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate Doppler echocardiography for the detection of pulmonary hypertension in high-altitude inhabitants. In total, 60 (55 male) patients aged 18-71 yrs were recruited from an ECG screening programme applied to 1,430 inhabitants living at an altitude of 2,500-3,600 m in Kyrgyzstan. Of ...
Mathai S C - - 2007
Combination therapy has been recommended for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, there is scant information on combination therapy after failure of monotherapy, particularly in patients with scleroderma-associated PAH (PAH-SSD). From a group of 82 consecutive patients with PAH who received initial bosentan monotherapy, a total of 13 ...
Yamanaka Asuka - - 2006
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), caused by collagen diseases, Eisenmenger syndrome or of idiopathic etiology, generally has a poor prognosis. Recently, bosentan, a dual endothelin receptor antagonist, has become available for treating PAH. This report describes a bosentan-effective case of combined PAH, hemodialysis and mild aortic stenosis. A 71-year-old woman on ...
Hsiao Shih-Hung - - 2006
In this study, myocardial performance index (MPI) was used to identify pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with echocardiographic signs of pulmonary hypertension. One hundred patients with echocardiographic signs of pulmonary hypertension were enrolled in this study after informed consent was obtained. All patients underwent multidetector-row computed tomography of the chest, ...
Lehtonen Jukka - - 2007
A 48-year-old male patient presented with dyspnea on exertion. Patient was found to have pulmonary hypertension. Myocardial biopsy showed amyloidosis and further work-up revealed Salmon-Durie stage 1A multiple myeloma. Patient had no other clinical manifestations of amyloidosis. It is possible that the pulmonary hypertension is caused by amyloid deposition into ...
Launay David - - 2006
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a severe condition characterized by chronic obstruction of small pulmonary arteries leading to progressive right heart failure and ultimately death. Inflammatory mechanisms may play an important part in the origin or progression of the disease in a subset of ...
Al-Saadi Muslim M - - 2006
An 18-month-old boy presented with signs and symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea and pulmonary hypertension of 12 months duration. Confirmatory laboratory studies, in the form of echocardiography and overnight oximetry, were carried out, which showed hypoxemia and severe pulmonary hypertension. He had adenotonsillectomy, which resulted in complete resolution of signs ...
Berger Stuart - - 2006
Pulmonary hypertension is an elevation in pulmonary artery pressure that is associated with a spectrum of diseases and causes. Its clinical severity and presentation are widely varied. The field of study has changed immensely over the past several years. Significant knowledge has been gained in the pathophysiology, genetics, and vascular ...
Arruda C G - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Arterial hypertension and postmenopausal reduction of estrogen levels may be involved in modifications of the stiffness of large arteries. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the pulse-wave velocity (PWV) and indirectly the arterial stiffness in hypertensive postmenopausal women submitted to hormone therapy with estradiol alone or combined with norethisterone acetate. SUBJECTS: Forty-five ...
Cassandro Roberto - - 2006
Pulmonary artery hypertension secondary to chronic lung diseases is a clinical entity with no specific symptoms that can develop as a result of parenchymal lung disorders (COPD-emphysema, sleep apnea syndrome, diffuse parenchymal lung diseases, etc.) and pulmonary vascular disorders (vasculitis, sarcoidosis, etc.). In the clinical history of these chronic and ...
Hoeper M M - - 2006
Addition of inhaled iloprost to bosentan may have beneficial effects in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). A multicentre, open, randomised, controlled trial was performed to assess the safety and efficacy of inhaled iloprost in patients with IPAH who had already been treated with bosentan. The trial was terminated ...
Sahara Makoto - - 2006
Recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms involved in pulmonary arterial hypertension have led to the development of novel and rational pharmacological therapies. In addition to conventional therapy (i.e., supplemental oxygen and calcium channel blockers), prostacyclin or endothelin receptor antagonists have been recommended as a first-line ...
Haberl Ines - - 2007
Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive disease, characterised by increased proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells, vasoconstriction and remodelling of the vascular wall leading to right heart failure and death. The idiopathic form is rare (idiopathic arterial primary hypertension (IPAH); formerly PPH, MIM# 178600). Our group correlated a deficiency ...
Johnson Sindhu R - - 2006
Pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) is a rare cause of pulmonary hypertension (PH). We describe a series of 4 patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), concomitant PH, and biopsy-proven/presumed PVOD. We review the literature describing the association of PVOD and SSc and discuss diagnostic features and treatment implications. In our case series, ...
Antoniu Sabina A - - 2006
Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a life-threatening, rare disease characterised by vasoconstriction and vascular remodelling of pulmonary artery vessels. Pulmonary arterial hypertension can occur without an obvious cause or can be secondary. Until several years ago, therapeutic approaches were represented mainly by 'conventional therapy' (anticoagulants, calcium channel blockers, diuretics and digoxin, ...
Bresser Paul - - 2006
Pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is recommended as the treatment of choice for eligible patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). However, only a proportion of patients fulfill the criteria for surgical intervention. In addition, operated patients with CTEPH may experience a gradual hemodynamic and symptomatic decline related to a secondary hypertensive ...
Walker Alexander M - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Reports have linked anorexigen intake to an increased risk of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). With the rise in anorexigen use in the latter half of the last decade, we established a surveillance network within the United States to monitor temporal trends in the number of reported cases of PAH. ...
Peacock Andrew - - 2006
A number of controversies exist regarding the pathophysiology, natural history, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Although CTEPH is regarded by many to be a complication of pulmonary embolism (PE) arising subsequent to venous thromboembolism (VTE)-the embolic hypothesis-it has been suggested that PE is rarely the sole ...
Sanal Shirin - - 2006
We investigated the accuracy of computed tomographic measurements of main pulmonary artery diameter (MPAD) and of MPAD/ascending aorta diameter (AAD) in predicting moderate or severe pulmonary hypertension in 190 patients with acute pulmonary embolism. A pulmonary artery systolic pressure of > or = 50 mm Hg measured by Doppler echocardiography ...
Khan Sadaf A - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Children with pulmonary hypertension secondary to large left-to-right, post-tricuspid valve shunts can eventually have severe and/or irreversible pulmonary vascular disease, yielding them inoperable for conventional surgery. It has been shown, however, that unloading of the pulmonary hypertension can result in remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature and, thus, improvement of ...
Kecskes Zsuzsoka - - 2006
Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) remains an important cause of mortality and morbidity in the term neonate. Preliminary but limited data suggest that there may be a role for sildenafil in the treatment of PPHN. We report the successful treatment of PPHN caused by pulmonary hypoplasia in a ...
Wasseem Rock - - 2006
We describe a case of pulmonary hypertension and high-output heart failure in a 61-year-old woman suffering from relapsing Graves disease. The patient experienced prompt hemodynamic and symptomatic recovery after normal thyroid function was restored. Possible mechanisms for the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension due to hyperthyroidism include damage to pulmonary ...
Neuhofer W - - 2006
Portopulmonary hypertension (PPHT) is a rare but devastating complication in patients with portal hypertension, characterized by pulmonary arterial obliterative disease with a concomitant rise in pulmonary vascular resistance. A broad body of evidence has accumulated, indicating that endothelin (ET) peptides and their cognate receptors are causally involved in the pathophysiology ...
Stähler G - - 2006
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is found in 2-20% of cirrhosis patients who have portal hypertension (portopulmonary hypertension, PPHT). Endothelin (ET), a potent vasoconstrictor, is likely to play a role in the pathogenesis of portal hypertension. We describe the long-term successful use of the dual ET(A)/ET(B) receptor antagonist bosentan in a ...
Selva-O'Callaghan Albert - - 2007
Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a recognized clinical component of systemic autoimmune diseases, especially systemic sclerosis. Mutations in the bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 gene reported in sporadic and familial primary pulmonary arterial hypertension have failed to be detected in patients with either scleroderma spectrum disease or underlying connective tissue diseases. ...
Suzuki Chihiro - - 2006
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by abnormal proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), leading to occlusion of pulmonary arterioles, right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy, and death. We investigated whether mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), a potent immunosuppresssant, prevents the development of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH in rats. MMF effectively decreased RV systolic pressure ...
Garg Hari G - - 2006
Proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) appears to play a significant role in chronic pulmonary hypertension. The proliferation of PASMCs is strongly inhibited by some commercial heparin preparations. Heparin fragments were prepared by periodate treatment, followed by sodium borohydride reduction, to enhance potency. The tributylammonium salt of this ...
Haworth S G - - 2006
Pulmonary hypertension represents a significant disease burden in both the developed and developing worlds. Certain forms of pulmonary hypertension are more common in some countries than others but people of all races, all ages and both sexes are affected. Treatment options are limited and expensive. The development of new therapies ...
Mayer Eckhard - - 2006
Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is a commonly overlooked cause of physical incapacity and dyspnoea, with a higher incidence than is generally appreciated and a poor prognosis. The diagnosis can be suspected based on echocardiographic examinations and ventilation perfusion scanning of the lung. Pulmonary angiography still remains the gold standard for ...
Reesink Herre J - - 2006
BACKGROUND: In non-thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, endothelin (ET)-1 levels are increased and correlate with the hemodynamic severity of the disease. Whether such correlations exist in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is unknown, nor whether ET-1 levels correlate with hemodynamic outcome after pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA). METHODS AND RESULTS: ET-1 levels were determined ...
Johnson Sindhu R - - 2006
The role of thrombotic arteriopathy in the pathophysiology of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) and the use of anticoagulants in the treatment of IPAH are currently controversial issues. This article reviews the evidence for a role of vascular thrombosis in the pathophysiology of IPAH. There is sufficient biological rationale to ...
Ghofrani Hossein A - - 2006
Pulmonary hypertension can occur as an isolated disease affecting the lung vessels only, in association with underlying hypoxic lung disorders, or due to chronic thromboembolic disease. Pulmonary hypertension caused by pulmonary venous congestion will not be focused on in this review. Regardless of the underlying disease, chronic cor pulmonale is ...
Lee Min-Yi - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Pulse wave velocity (PWV), a relevant indicator of arterial stiffness, can be measured noninvasively with a variety of automatic devices, but most are complexly equipped. We developed a novel index for estimating arterial stiffness as "QPV interval," which was determined by means of surface electrocardiogram and Doppler ultrasound of ...
Nicolle Audrey P - - 2006
A dog was presented with a history of dyspnea, coughing, and ascites. Angiostrongylosis and severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) were found, as well as a marked discordance between the electrical and mechanical events of the heart. Pulmonary arterial hypertension related to Angiostrongylus vasorum has rarely been reported.
Minai Omar A - - 2006
Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension is a disease involving small muscular pulmonary arteries and arterioles. Treatment with prostacyclin analogs and endothelin receptor antagonists is the cornerstone of therapy in these patients. Recent evidence suggests that phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors such as sildenafil may improve functional capacity and hemodynamics in patients with pulmonary arterial ...
Mubashir Eisha - - 2007
Pulmonary manifestations of adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) include aseptic pneumonitis, pleural effusions, rarely acute respiratory distress syndrome, and restrictive lung disease. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) occurs with several rheumatologic diseases, however, has only been reported once in AOSD. We describe a 29-year-old woman with a 9-year history of AOSD, who ...
Gurbanov Emin - - 2006
In recent years, the process of the programmed cell death has gained much interest because it has important pathophysiological consequences contributing to the deletion of unwanted cells in the vessel wall, loss of pulmonary smooth muscle cells and therefore in reversing the pulmonary pressure. For the reason that most patients ...
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