Search Results
Results 451 - 500 of 1614
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Benza Raymond L - - 2007
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare but frequently fatal condition marked by vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling within small pulmonary arteries. The pathobiology of PAH involves imbalances in a multitude of endogenous mediators, which promote aberrant cellular growth, vasoconstriction and hemostasis within the pulmonary vascular tree. The mechanisms promoting these ...
Dorfmüller Peter - - 2007
Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a severe complication of connective tissue diseases. It is currently well established that pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with connective tissue diseases such as systemic sclerosis is frequently less responsive or even refractory to pulmonary vasodilator therapies. In that setting, pulmonary venoocclusive disease is believed to contribute ...
Peacock A J - - 2007
All hospitalisations for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in the Scottish population were examined to determine the epidemiological features of PAH. These data were compared with expert data from the Scottish Pulmonary Vascular Unit (SPVU). Using the linked Scottish Morbidity Record scheme, data from all adults aged 16-65 yrs admitted with ...
Keenan N G - - 2008
Pulmonary tumour thrombotic microangiopathy (PTTM) presents as acute pulmonary hypertension and sudden cardiovascular collapse in individuals with adenocarcinoma, usually of the stomach. The illness follows a fulminant course often before the adenocarcinoma has become clinically apparent. Frequently the diagnosis is made only at necropsy. The diagnosis can be made by ...
Park Jae Hyeong - - 2007
In developed countries, the incidence of cardiac beriberi is rare. It can lead to high output cardiac failure and pulmonary hypertension. We hereby report an atypical case of beriberi heart with reversible right heart failure and severe pulmonary hypertension. Thiamine deficiency can cause reversible pulmonary hypertension, and it must be ...
Hardziyenka Maxim - - 2007
AIMS: To study whether pre-operative assessment, using echocardiography, of the timing of a particular feature in the pulmonary flow (pulmonary flow systolic notch) may predict in-hospital mortality and mid-term haemodynamic improvement after pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) for chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifty-eight of 61 consecutive CTEPH patients ...
Penaloza Dante - - 2007
More than 140 million people worldwide live >2500 m above sea level. Of them, 80 million live in Asia, and 35 million live in the Andean mountains. This latter region has its major population density living above 3500 m. The primary objective of the present study is to review the ...
- - 2007
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life-threatening disorder characterized by elevated pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. Continuous infusion of a prostanoid, which acts as a vasodilator and anti-proliferative agent, is indicated in the treatment of patients with severe PAH. Two prostanoids are approved for intravenous (IV) use in ...
Trow Terence K - - 2007
Accurate diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension is a challenging and complex process that requires a high index of clinical suspicion from even the most astute clinician. This article discusses the use of a variety of noninvasive tests that can help define the population of patients in whom invasive cardiac catheterization ...
Smedema J P - - 2007
Hereditary spherocytosis consists of a group of haemolytic anaemias caused by defects in the proteins involved in the vertical interactions between the membrane skeleton and the lipid bilayer of the red blood cell. Inheritance is most commonly autosomal dominant with variable expression. Splenectomy may be indicated because of anaemia or ...
Lode Holger N - - 2007
The development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is the leading cause of mortality in patients with thalassemia and sickle cell anemia and was reported to occur in hemolytic anemias such as hereditary stomatocytosis, and paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria. Here, we report for the first time on the development of PAH in ...
Landzberg Michael J - - 2007
Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with congenital heart disease, although common (15%-30%) in all-comers with congenital heart disease, is variable in terms of clinical manifestations, severity of associated pulmonary arterial hypertension, and response to therapy and outcomes (depending on lesion anatomy, pulmonary circulation flows and pressures, and presence and timings of ...
Ravipati Gautham - - 2007
Since the discovery of sildenafil in 1989 as a highly selective inhibitor of the phosphodiesterase type-5 (PDE-5) receptor, 2 additional PDE-5 inhibitors, tadalafil and vardenafil, have emerged as safe and effective treatments of erectile dysfunction (ED). Enzymes in the PDE family catalyze the hydrolysis of the intracellular signaling molecules cyclic ...
Alam Shoaib - - 2007
After half a century of clinical experience and research, management of pulmonary arterial hypertension remains a challenge. Currently, data to support the use of standard therapies for pulmonary arterial hypertension (oxygen supplementation, diuretics, digoxin, anticoagulation, and calcium channel blockers) are mostly retrospective, uncontrolled prospective, or derived from other diseases with ...
Sallach Susan M - - 2007
Pulmonary artery hypertension is a rare disease with significant morbidity and mortality. Initial and serial noninvasive assessment of these patients can be accomplished with transthoracic echocardiography and/or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. These complementary techniques provide the structural and functional information required to care for patients with pulmonary artery hypertension and ...
Taichman Darren B - - 2007
Progress in understanding the basic biology and the development of new therapies for pulmonary arterial hypertension have led to improvements in survival. This article reviews clinically important changes in the classification of the pulmonary hypertensive diseases, as well as the epidemiology of various forms of pulmonary hypertension. The risk factors ...
Tuder Rubin M - - 2007
The secondary role of pathology in the present clinical management of pulmonary hypertension (PH) reflects to some extent the limitations of the current understanding of the disease. Ample room exists for the diagnostic translation of the pathobiologic studies, with the goal of improving the diagnostic and prognostic power of the ...
Snow Jennifer L - - 2007
Recent discoveries in the disease pathophysiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension have been translated into effective therapies tested in clinical trials. The studies have focused on surrogate and intermediate end points, thought to reflect quantity and quality of life, respectively. The authors present the necessary requirements for establishing the reliability and ...
Eder Lihi - - 2007
Only a limited number of patients with amyloidosis and pulmonary hypertension have been reported in the literature. We report a 73-year-old female with AL type amyloidosis who developed respiratory insufficiency and right heart failure because of severe pulmonary hypertension. There were no signs of cardiac involvement with amyloid or findings ...
O'Callaghan Dermot S - - 2007
This review assesses the available evidence supporting the use of drug combinations for the management of the various forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Ongoing and forthcoming randomized trials evaluating this strategy are also highlighted. Furthermore, new types of agents to treat PAH in the future are explored.
Said Sami I - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a pulmonary vasodilator and inhibitor of vascular smooth muscle proliferation, has been reported absent in pulmonary arteries from patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We have tested the hypothesis that targeted deletion of the VIP gene may lead to PAH with pulmonary vascular remodeling. ...
Hoeper M M - - 2007
Blood gas abnormalities in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) may be related to disease severity and prognosis. The present authors performed a 12-yr retrospective analysis assessing arterialised capillary blood gases, haemodynamics, exercise variables and survival in 101 patients with IPAH. At baseline, arterial oxygen tension (P(a,O(2))) and carbon ...
Ulrich Silvia - - 2007
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is often difficult to diagnose and many different disorders may result in elevated pulmonary arterial pressure requiring therapy. Left untreated, PH usually has a dismal prognosis culminating in right ventricular failure and death. Besides conservative therapeutic strategies such as anticoagulation and diuretics, the past decade has brought ...
Suntharalingam Jay J Pulmonary Vascular Diseases Unit, Papworth Hospital NHS Trust, Papworth Everard, Cambridgeshire CB3 8RE, - - 2007
Although pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) is potentially curative in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH), some patients have distally distributed disease that is not amenable to surgery. The aetiology and characteristics of this patient group are currently not well understood. This study compares the baseline demographic features and outcomes in subjects with ...
Sayin Tamer - - 2007
Primary pulmonary hypertension is a rare disease with an ominous prognosis for which new therapeutic options are being developed. Recently, there have been case reports indicating that sildenafil may be of benefit in short- to midterm follow-up. However, long-term clinical data of sildenafil in primary pulmonary hypertensive patients is lacking. ...
Yang Ying - - 2007
Calcium signaling has been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Verapamil, one of the calcium antagonists, is used to characterize the role of calcium signaling in the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension syndrome in broilers. The suppression effect of verapamil on pulmonary arterial hypertension and pulmonary vascular ...
Nathan Steven D - - 2007
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has a poor prognosis and a course that is unpredictable. Pulmonary hypertension may complicate the course of IPF and potentially impact prognosis. There are multiple factors that might influence the onset and severity of pulmonary hypertension in IPF. The relationship between the physiologic and pathobiologic manifestations ...
Sahara Makoto - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that bone marrow (BM)-derived cells may differentiate into vascular cells that participate in arterial repair and/or lesion formation. However, it remains uncertain whether BM-derived cells also can participate in vascular remodeling associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS: The BM of Sprague-Dawley rats was reconstituted ...
van Wolferen S A - - 2007
Pulmonary hypertension is a rare disease with a poor prognosis. It was first described in the late 19th century as a clinical-pathological syndrome characterised by obstruction of the small pulmonary arteries and right ventricular hypertrophy in patients presenting with severe dyspnoea and cyanosis. After the development of right heart catheterisation ...
Leibovitch Leah - - 2007
Pulmonary hypertension is characterised by a progressive increase in pulmonary vascular resistance and a poor prognosis. The exact underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood; however, it is hypothesised that pulmonary medial hypertrophy and endothelial dysfunction lead to impaired production of vasodilators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin, and increased ...
Waxman Aaron B - - 2007
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a life threatening, progressive condition which eventually leads to fatal right heart failure. Endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstrictor peptide, is increased in the pulmonary arteries of patients with pulmonary hypertension. Endothelin-1 acts through the stimulation of 2 subtypes of receptors (endothelin receptor subtypes A [ET(A)] ...
Batyraliev L I - - 2007
In a series of articles the authors discuss literature data concerning epidemiology of pulmonary hypertension (PH), its modern classification; peculiarities of its pathogenesis and treatment in various diseases and conditions. In the sixth communication they present classification of PH accepted at the Third World PH Symposium (venice, Italy, 2003). This ...
Jankowski Piotr - - 2007
Ascending aortic blood pressure-derived indices were shown to be related to coronary atherosclerosis. However, no study so far has analyzed the relation between ascending aortic pulsatility and the extent of coronary atherosclerosis in normotensives. Therefore, the aim of the present analysis was to assess the relation between central blood pressure-derived ...
Kawano Hiroaki - - 2007
We report a 16-year-old man with severe heart failure due to idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). The patient was initially treated with a combination of beraprost, a prostacyclin analog, and sarpogrelate, a serotonin receptor inhibitor. However, he was unresponsive to the treatment. We then changed the treatment to sildenafil, and ...
Buemi M - - 2007
Numerous uremic patients on hemodialysis have pulmonary hypertension attributable to the presence of arteriovenous fistulas, vascular calcification, and endothelial dysfunction due to alterations in the balance between vasoconstrictive and vasodilatory substances. For these reasons, the effects of recombinant human erythropoietin, a drug widely used in patients on dialysis, on the ...
Rabinovitch Marlene - - 2007
A variety of conditions can lead to the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Current treatments can improve symptoms and reduce the severity of the hemodynamic abnormality, but most patients remain quite limited, and deterioration in their condition necessitates a lung transplant. This review discusses current experimental and clinical studies ...
Hayes Don D - - 2007
Idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) is a rare disorder that is progressive and often leads to right heart failure if left untreated. Because of the vague nature of symptoms at presentation, IPAH may take several months to diagnose. The most common presenting complaint in patients with IPAH is dyspnea with ...
Gortner Ludwig - - 2007
AIMS: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been demonstrated to have serious consequences for health in adult age. These include an increased risk for metabolic syndrome, pulmonary and cardiovascular disorders. These disorders are in part secondary to the development of arterial hypertension, which has been demonstrated to be more frequent in ...
Sakuma Masahito - - 2007
Cases with proximal pulmonary artery aneurysm (PAA) sometimes have severe complications. We report 4 cases of proximal PAA complicated by pulmonary hypertension. Three cases had proximal PAA and one had both proximal and peripheral PAA. Complications associated with proximal PAA are compression of the bronchus, dissection and/or rupture of the ...
Nisbet Rachel E - - 2007
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily that regulate diverse physiological processes ranging from lipogenesis to inflammation. Recent evidence has established potential roles of PPARs in both systemic and pulmonary vascular disease and function. Existing treatment strategies for pulmonary hypertension, the most ...
Hu J-J - - 2007
Vascular cells are very responsive to even subtle changes in their local mechanical environment, thus there is a pressing need to quantify normal states of stress and strain as well as any perturbations from these normal states. Toward this end, we must quantify constitutive behaviors for both normal and adapted ...
Heresi Gustavo A - - 2007
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a hemodynamic state characterized by elevation in the mean pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance leading to right ventricular failure and premature death. PH can be the result of a variety of diseases of different etiologies. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) should be distinctly differentiated from ...
Graziosi Pedro - - 2007
BACKGROUND: In patients with advanced non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NIC), right-sided cardiac disturbances has prognostic implications. Right coronary artery (RCA) flow pattern and flow reserve (CFR) are not well known in this setting. The purpose of this study was to assess, in human advanced NIC, the RCA phasic flow pattern and CFR, ...
Shujaat Adil - - 2007
Hypoxia and endothelial dysfunction play a central role in the development of pulmonary hypertension. Cor pulmonale is a maladaptive response to pulmonary hypertension. The presence of peripheral edema in cor pulmonale is almost invariably associated with hypercapnia. Correction of abnormalities of gas exchange and ventilation can ameliorate pulmonary hypertension and ...
Baughman Robert P - - 2007
Pulmonary involvement is common in sarcoidosis, an immune-mediated inflammatory disorder that is characterized by non-caseating granulomas in tissue. Sarcoid patients with advanced pulmonary disease, especially end-stage pulmonary fibrosis, risk developing pulmonary hypertension (World Health Organization group III pulmonary hypertension secondary to hypoxic lung disease). Increased levels of endothelin (ET)-1 in ...
Gabbay Eli - - 2007
The dual endothelin receptor antagonist, bosentan, is an orally active therapy, which is effective in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). This review critically appraises the evidence for the efficacy of bosentan in idiopathic and familial PAH, in PAH associated with connective tissue disease and in PAH which may ...
Kamata Y - - 2007
Sildenafil and bosentan were added recently to the treatment with great expectations, effectiveness for the acute exacerbation of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is not fully examined. Two cases of acutely exacerbated PAH associated with collagen vascular diseases were treated first with sildenafil for six months followed by bosentan for another ...
Perros F - - 2007
Pulmonary hypertension is characterised by a progressive increase in pulmonary arterial resistance due to endothelial and smooth muscle cell proliferation resulting in chronic obstruction of small pulmonary arteries. There is evidence that inflammatory mechanisms may contribute to the pathogenesis of human and experimental pulmonary hypertension. The aim of the study ...
Chau Elaine M C - - 2007
BACKGROUND: To test the hypothesis that chronic sildenafil treatment has similar functional and hemodynamic effects in patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension due to Eisenmenger syndrome as those due to idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension without intracardiac shunts. METHODS: A prospective open-label study was carried out to compare the effects of ...
Wipff J - - 2007
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disorder characterized by early generalized microangiopathy with disturbed angiogenesis. Endoglin gene (ENG) encodes a transmembrane glycoprotein which acts as an accessory receptor for the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily, and is crucial for maintaining vascular integrity. A 6-base insertion in intron 7 (6bINS) ...
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