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Meila Dan D Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, Klinikum Duisburg - Sana Kliniken, Zu den Rehwiesen 9, D-47055, Duisburg, Germany, - - 2014
Despite the variable anatomy of the anterior communicating artery (AcoA) complex, three main perforating branches can be typically identified the largest of which being the subcallosal artery (ScA). We present a case series of infarction in the vascular territory of the ScA to highlight the anatomy, the clinical symptomatology, and ...
Li Z Z The Third Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, China - - - 2014
Low ankle-brachial index (ABI<0.9) is considered a risk factor for stroke. However, there are disputes regarding the relationship between low ABI and intra-cranial atherosclerosis. The relationship between low ABI and intra/extracranial atherosclerosis was analyzed in the present study. Patients with large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) and small artery disease (SAD) were ...
Armstrong-Wells Jennifer J Departments of Pediatrics (Neurology) and OB/GYN (JA-W), University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora; and the University of California San Francisco Benioff Children's Hospital and Departments of Pediatrics and Neurology (DMF), University of California San - - 2014
Perinatal arterial ischemic stroke (PAIS) can be an unrecognized cause of short- and long-term neurologic disability. Focal clonic seizure in the newborn period is the most common clinical presentation of PAIS. MRI is optimal in diagnosing PAIS; negative cranial ultrasound or CT does not rule out PAIS. Given the low ...
Karaarslan Kemal K Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Izmir Tepecik Research and Education Hospital, Izmir, Turkey - - 2014
We assessed the effect of resveratrol on intimal hyperplasia and endothelial proliferation after its use for carotid artery anastomosis in rabbits. Fourteen New Zealand-type male rabbits, weighing a mean of 2-3 kg were selected randomly. Their right carotid arteries were transected and anastomosed side by side using 8/0 polypropylene. The ...
Brett Allan S AS Department of Medicine, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, - - 2014
Carotid ultrasonography is performed frequently to identify carotid stenosis in patients with no history of carotid-territory cerebrovascular ischemia. The premises of such testing are that the potential benefit of endarterectomy or stenting exceeds the potential harm in patients with asymptomatic stenosis and that discovery of asymptomatic stenosis may trigger beneficial ...
Suehiro K K Department of Anaesthesiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, - - 2014
Measurement of left ventricular stroke volume and cardiac output is very important for managing haemodynamically unstable or critically ill patients. The aims of this study were to compare stroke volume measured by three-dimensional transoesophageal echocardiography with stroke volume measured using a pulmonary artery catheter, and to examine the ability of ...
Boeckh-Behrens T T Department of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Rechts der Isar, Technical University Munich, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675, Munich, Germany, - - 2014
Thrombus composition has been suggested to have a decisive impact on the outcome of patients treated by mechanical thrombectomy because of embolic stroke. The recent development of stent retrievers allows collection and, hence, histopathological analysis of fresh thrombus material. Against this background, the aim of this prospective study was to ...
Pagel Paul S PS Anesthesia Service, the Clement J. Zablocki Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Milwaukee, WI. Electronic address: - - 2014
Standard methods of quantifying aortic valve stenosis (AS), which focus entirely on the valve itself, do not adequately characterize the magnitude, predict the onset, progression, and severity of symptoms, or identify the incidence of subsequent adverse events. Valvuloarterial impedance (Zva) is an index of global left ventricular (LV) afterload that ...
Truijman Martine T B MT From the Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM) (M.T.B.T., J.S., F.H.B.M.S., R.J.v.O., J.E.W., M.E.K.); Departments of Radiology (M.T.B.T., J.E.W., M.E.K.), Clinical Neurophysiology (M.T.B.T., F.H.B.M.S., W.H.M.), and Neurology (F.H.B.M.S., R.J.v.O.), Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, The Netherlands; Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands (A.A.J.d.R., J.H.); Hemodynamics AG, Bern, Switzerland (R.A.); Departments of Radiology (A.C.v.D., A.v.d.L.), Neurology (A.C.v.D.), and Cardiology (A.F.W.v.d.S.), Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Biomedical Engineering, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands (J.S.); Departments of Neurology (M.I.L., P.J.N.) and Pathology (M.J.A.P.D.), Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The - - 2014
In patients with mild to moderate symptomatic carotid artery stenosis, intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) and a thin/ruptured fibrous cap (FC) as evaluated with MRI, and the presence of microembolic signals (MESs) as detected with transcranial Doppler, are associated with an increased risk of a (recurrent) stroke. The objective of the present ...
Cho Tae-Hee TH Urgences neurovasculaires, Hôpital Pierre Wertheimer, Hospices Civils de Lyon; CREATIS, CNRS UMR 5220 - INSERM U1044 - Université Lyon 1, Lyon, - - 2014
A 40-year-old hypertensive woman experienced a left hemispheric stroke revealing an acute pituitary apoplexy and a dissection limited to the lacerum segment of the left internal carotid artery. The relationship between pituitary apoplexy and arterial dissection is discussed.
Kurita Naohide N Department of Neurology, Juntendo University Urayasu Hospital, - - 2014
About 20 cases of cerebrovascular accidents in amusement parks have been documented. However, only a few cases of amusement park stroke (APS) after roller coaster rides have been reported. Here, we present triggers of stroke, clinical characteristics, and the angiographic appearance of 3 consecutive patients of APS. Their clinical characteristics ...
Pavlovic G G Division of Anesthesiology, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneva, - - 2014
Pulmonary embolism remains an important clinical problem with a high mortality rate. The potential for sudden and fatal hemodynamic deterioration highlights the need for a prompt diagnosis and appropriate intervention. The purpose of the present case report is to describe a successful peri-operative veno-arterial extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) implantation ...
Yilmaz Umut U Department of Neuroradiology, Saarland University Hospital, Kirrberger Str., 66424, Homburg, Germany, - - 2014
New techniques have substantially raised recanalization rates of mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke in the last few years with initial prospective trials reporting good neurological outcome in up to 58 % of the cases. However some recent reports questioning the benefit of endovascular therapy have initiated a discussion about the ...
Selwaness Mariana M From the Departments of Epidemiology (M.S., Q.v.d.B., R.S.v.O., A.H., O.H.F., M.V.), Radiology (Q.v.d.B., A.v.d.L., M.V.), and Cardiology (J.J.W.), Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The - - 2014
Ischemic stroke is more often diagnosed in the left hemisphere than in the right. It is unknown whether this asymmetrical prevalence relates to differences in carotid atherosclerosis. We compared atherosclerotic plaque prevalence, severity, and composition between left and right carotid arteries. In a population-based cohort, carotid MRI scanning was performed ...
Han Youngjin Y From the Departments of Surgery (Y.H., H.K., T.-W.K., Y.-P.C., G.-E.K.), Neurology (S.U.K., D.-W.K.), and Radiology (D.H.L.), University of Ulsan College of Medicine and Asan Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea; and Department of Surgery (H.P.), Ulsan University Hospital, Ulsan, South - - 2014
When carotid artery tandem lesions are present, the benefits of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) to reduce recurrent stroke remain uncertain. The present retrospective cohort study aimed to determine the clinical outcomes of CEA for carotid artery tandem stenosis that was diagnosed by contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography. Six hundred forty-seven consecutive patients ...
Moss Emmanuel E Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, - - 2014
The purpose of this study was to determine whether the incidence of postoperative stroke could be reduced by eliminating aortic clamping during coronary artery bypass grafting. From 2002 to 2013, 12,079 patients underwent primary, isolated coronary artery bypass grafting at a single US academic institution. Aortic manipulation was completely avoided ...
Reinhard Matthias M From the Department of Neurology (M.R., A.H.) and the Institute of Medical Biometry and Statistics (G.S., E.M.), University of Freiburg, Germany; Basel Institute for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (M.B.), University Hospital Basel, Switzerland; the Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (M.B.), McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada; Neurology Unit (C.A., P.P., F.V.), Università Campus Bio-Medico of Rome, Italy; School of Public Health (A.K.), Imperial College London, UK; the Department of Neurology (N.M.B.), Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center and Tel Aviv University, Israel; Columbia University Medical Center (N.P., R.S.M.), Neurological Institute of New York; the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery (C.J.M.K.), Brain Center Rudolf Magnus, University Medical Center Utrecht, the Netherlands; the Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine (M.S.), Marche Polytechnic University, Ancona, Italy; and Clinical Neurosciences (H.S.M.), University of Cambridge, UK. - - 2014
To assess the usefulness of transcranial Doppler CO2 reactivity (CO2R) for prediction of ipsilateral ischemic stroke in carotid artery stenosis and occlusion with a meta-analysis of prospective studies based on individual patient data. We searched Medline, Biosis Previews, Science Citation Index, The Cochrane Library, and EMBASE for studies in which ...
Beardsley Andrew L AL Section of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University School of Medicine and Riley Hospital for Children at Indiana University Health, Indianapolis, - - 2014
Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABC) are benign bone lesions found in children and young adults. Rarely, these lesions can arise from ribs, and there is disagreement on the best treatment because of proximity to vital structures. Frequently, surgeons remove ABC with en bloc resection. Selective arterial embolization has been used as ...
Gupta A A From the Departments of Radiology (A. Gupta, E.E.M., H.B., G.S., A.P., P.C.S.), Neurology (H.K.), and Healthcare Policy and Research (A.P., A. Giambrone, P.C.S.) and Brain and Mind Research Institute (A. Gupta, H.K.), Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York. - - 2014
Emerging evidence indicates that plaque imaging can improve stroke risk stratification in patients with carotid artery atherosclerosis. We studied the association between soft and hard (calcified) plaque thickness measurements on CTA and symptomatic disease status (ipsilateral stroke or TIA) in patients with moderate-grade carotid artery stenosis. We measured soft-plaque and ...
Sonny Abraham A From the Department of Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology, Anesthesiology Institute (A.S.), Department of Vascular Medicine, Heart and Vascular Institute (H.L.G.), Department of Quantitative Health Sciences (D.Y., E.J.M.), and Department of Outcomes Research (D.Y., E.J.M., D.I.S.), Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, - - 2014
Whether carotid artery stenosis predicts stroke after noncardiac surgery remains unknown. We therefore tested the primary hypothesis that degree of carotid artery stenosis is associated with in-hospital stroke or 30-day all-cause mortality after noncardiac surgery. As carotid artery stenosis is also a marker for cardiovascular disease, our secondary hypothesis was ...
Liu Dezhi D Department of Neurology, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing University School of Medicine, 305 East Zhongshan Road, Nanjing, 210002, Jiangsu Province, PR - - 2014
We aim to investigate the correlation between presence of anterior temporal artery (ATA), the first major branch of middle cerebral artery (MCA), on conventional angiography and clinical outcome in patients with acute atherosclerotic M1-MCA occlusion. Consecutive patients with acute atherosclerotic M1-MCA occlusion from Nanjing Stroke Registry Program (NSRP) between January ...
Silber Toni T Center of Neurology, Hertie-Institute for Clinical Brain Research, University of Tübingen, - - 2014
Treatment of symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease by angioplasty and stenting (PTAS) is limited by a high rate of periinterventional strokes. We performed a detailed analysis of these strokes at our center in order to identify strategies to reduce the risk of periinterventional complications. Case records and imaging data of 80 ...
Gaberel Thomas T From INSERM, INSERM UMR-S U919, Serine Proteases and Pathophysiology of the Neurovascular Unit, GIP Cyceron, University Caen, Caen, France (T.G., C.G., R.G., S.M.D.L., E.E., E.T., D.V., M.G.); and Departments of Neurosurgery (T.G., E.E.), Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine (C.G., J.-L.H.), and Neurology (E.T.), Caen University Hospital, Caen, - - 2014
The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of different stroke subtypes on the glymphatic system using MRI. We first improved and characterized an in vivo protocol to measure the perfusion of the glymphatic system using MRI after minimally invasive injection of a gadolinium chelate within the ...
Chatzikonstantinou Anastasios A aDepartment of Neurology and Institute of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Universitätsmedizin Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Mannheim, - - 2014
Abstract Objective: We investigated the association of cerebral and coronary artery atherosclerosis with the presence, burden and type of atherosclerotic plaques of the aorta (AP) in patients with ischemic stroke of undetermined etiology. Methods: 48 consecutive patients (32 males, mean age 68±11 years) with acute ischemic stroke of unknown etiology after ...
Lee John Ih JI LVR-Klinikum Düsseldorf, University Hospital Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf, - - 2014
Ischemic stroke may occur in patients in whom vascular imaging shows the ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) to be occluded. In younger patients this is often due to carotid artery dissection, while in older people this most likely results from cardiac embolism or thrombosis secondary to high-grade stenosis at the ...
Cohen José E JE Department of Neurosurgery, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, POB 12000, Jerusalem 91120, Israel; Department of Endovascular Neurosurgery and Interventional Neuroradiology, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel. Electronic address: - - 2014
Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) affecting the internal carotid artery (ICA) is considered a benign condition; however, retinal and cerebral ischemic events may occur. We present a patient with carotid FMD presenting with a major ischemic stroke due to major embolic occlusion of the ICA in conjunction with a hemodynamic component caused ...
Peng Qing Q Department of Neurology, Peking University First Hospital, Beijing 100034, - - 2014
Endothelial dysfunction is not only an early stage of atherosclerosis, but also involved in the pathogenesis of cerebral small-vessel diseases. Patients with cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) may have arteriolosclerosis as well as systemic atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the associations among CMBs, atherosclerosis of cerebral large arteries, and endothelial function. ...
Acampa Maurizio M Stroke Unit, Department of Neurological and Sensorineural Sciences, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Senese, "Santa Maria alle Scotte" General Hospital, Siena, - - 2014
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for approximately 10% of stroke cases. Hypertension may play a role in the pathogenesis of ICH that occurs in the basal ganglia, thalamus, pons, and cerebellum, but not in that of lobar ICH. Hypertension contributes to decreased elasticity of arteries, thereby increasing the likelihood of rupture ...
Kim Hyung-Seok HS 0000-0001-7340-0898 Department of Neurosurgery, Myongji St. Mary's Hospital, Seoul, - - 2014
Vertebral artery hypoplasia (VAH) can be easily overlooked if the contralateral side vertebral artery is intact, because of compensation by the contralateral artery or cerebral collateral network. The clinical relevance and hemodynamic impact of VAH is still controversial. However, VAH has recently been considered a risk factor for posterior circulation ...
Kim Jeong-Min JM Department of Neurology, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu, Korea. ; School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, - - 2014
In acute ischemic stroke patients with major intracranial vessel occlusion due to infective endocarditis, treatment modalities are not well established. A 40-year-old woman presented with acute stroke due to left middle cerebral artery occlusion. She was successfully treated with intra-arterial mechanical thrombectomy, and the subsequent clinical outcome was favorable. Pathological ...
Fankhauser Grant T GT Division of Vascular Surgery, Mayo Clinic Arizona, Phoenix, - - 2014
Extracranial carotid artery aneurysms (ECCAs) are extremely rare with limited information about management options. Our purpose was to review our institution's experience with ECCAs during 15 years and to discuss the presentation and treatment of these aneurysms. A retrospective review of patients diagnosed with ECCAs from 1998 to 2012 was performed. ...
Kleinberg Teri T TT Wills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
A 30-year-old man presented with painless total visual loss in the right eye. Fundus exam and imaging was consistent with total internal carotid artery occlusion and hemispheric stroke. The presentation and management options of retinal vascular occlusive disease in association with asymptomatic stroke are discussed.
Di Bartolomeo Roberto R Department of Cardiac Surgery, S. Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna, - - 2014
Acute aortic dissection is a catastrophic condition, for which emergency surgery is the mainstay of therapy. In approximately 70% of patients who survive surgery, a dissected distal aorta remains, posing a risk of late aneurysmal degeneration, rupture, and malperfusion, and secondary extensive interventions are often required. In order to improve ...
Meier Pascal - - 2014
Recent innovations in interventional cardiology have dramatically expanded the therapeutic options for patients with cardiac conditions. Interventional cardiology is no longer limited to the treatment of coronary artery disease but allows also treatment of valvular disease, stroke prevention, hypertension, etc. One of the most important new treatment options is the ...
Liebeskind David S DS UCLA Stroke Center, Los Angeles, Calif., - - 2014
The Stroke Outcomes and Neuroimaging of Intracranial Atherosclerosis (SONIA) study validated noninvasive imaging tests of intracranial atherosclerosis against catheter angiography in a prospective, blinded, multicenter setting. Critical evaluation of transcranial Doppler (TCD) and magnetic resonance angiography in the SONIA study standardized their performance and interpretation. We performed a similar analysis ...
Frankowska Emilia E Department of Radiology, Military Institute of Medicine, Warsaw, Poland. Electronic address: - - 2014
Growing number of vertebral artery dissection has been detected due to higher awareness and improved imaging techniques, even after seemingly minor head turning in young- or middle-aged adults without predisposing risk factors for cerebrovascular disease. Treatment options for this condition at this time are limited and there is a troubling ...
Reardon Michael J MJ Houston-Methodist-Debakey Heart and Vascular Center, Houston, Tex. Electronic address: - - 2014
The CoreValve Extreme Risk US Pivotal Trial enrolled patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis deemed unsuitable for surgical aortic valve replacement. Implants were attempted using transfemoral access (n = 489) or an alternative access (n = 150). In present analysis, we sought to examine the safety and efficacy of CoreValve transcatheter aortic valve replacement ...
- - 2014
Previous studies have indicated a neuroprotective effect of remote limb ischemic preconditioning. The aim of the present study was to assess whether upper arm ischemic preconditioning is feasible and safe in patients with unilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis as compared to healthy volunteers. Ten patients with unilateral middle cerebral ...
Shin Hee Sup HS Department of Neurosurgery, Stroke and Neurological Disorders Centre, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul, - - 2014
A 70-year-old woman presented with headaches and recurrent stroke symptoms. During five years, the patient has been treated for cerebral infarction associated with severe atherosclerotic stenosis of the internal carotid artery. Three-year follow-up magnetic resonance angiography showed a tiny de novo aneurysm arising from the distal part of atherosclerotic internal ...
Cornelius Jan Frederick JF Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Heinrich Heine University, Düsseldorf, - - 2014
Surgical C1C2-stabilization may be complicated by arterial-arterial embolism or arterial injury. Another potential complication is hemodynamic stroke. The latter might be induced in patients with poor posterior fossa collateralization (risk factor 1) when the vertebral artery (VA) is compressed during reduction (risk factor 2). We report a clinical case where ...
Shetkar Sudhir S SS Department of Cardiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi 110029, - - 2014
Percutaneous Transseptal Mitral Commissurotomy (PTMC) has replaced surgical commissurotomy as a treatment of choice in selected patients of rheumatic mitral stenosis. Various randomized trials have shown PTMC to be equal or superior to surgical commissurotomy in terms of hemodynamic improvement as well as long term survival. Systemic embolism is one ...
Choi Jae Young JY Department of Neurosurgery, Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan, - - 2014
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the technical feasibility and clinical efficacy of emergent carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) for acute stroke due to athero-thrombotic occlusion of the cervical internal carotid artery (ICA). Review of medical records identified 17 patients who underwent emergent CAS for treatment of athero-thrombotic ...
Kanemaru Kazuya K Department of Neurosurgery, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Medicine and Engineering, University of Yamanashi; Chuo, Yamanashi, Japan - - - 2014
We describe a case of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) successfully treated by coil embolization with an anchor coil inserted in the varix to facilitate dense packing at the shunting site. AVF of the left anterior choroidal artery (AChoA) draining into the ipsilateral basal vein of Rosenthal was incidentally found in a ...
Shovlin Claire L CL NHLI Cardiovascular Sciences, Imperial College London, London, UK; ; Respiratory Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, - - 2014
Has the recent identification of iron deficiency as a risk factor for ischaemic stroke in patients with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) unmasked a new paradigm for stroke/infarct pathogenesis? This commentary reviews evidence that spans associations between iron deficiency and ischaemic strokes, iron deficiency enhancement of platelet aggregation in response to ...
Correa Edgar E Department of Neurology, Andrade Marín Hospital, San Francisco of Quito University Quito, - - 2014
Traumatic intracranial internal carotid artery dissection is a rare but significant cause of stroke in patients in their forties, leading to high morbidity and mortality. Simultaneous ischemic stroke and optic nerve infarction can occur. Clinical suspicion of dissection is determining in the acute management.
Sun D J DJ Department of Neurology, LianyunGang Second People's Hospital (Bengbu Medical College, Lianyungang Hospital), District Xinpu, LianyunGang, - - 2014
This study aimed to assess the relationship between the recurrence and prognosis of patients with acute middle cerebral artery infarction, atherosclerotic brain infarction, and the existence of microemboli. We continuously enrolled patients with acute atherosclerotic thrombotic cerebral infarction artery stenosis. We performed transcranial Doppler color ultrasound micro emboli monitoring, color ...
Lin Chen C Department of Neurology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710, - - 2014
Background. Nontraumatic cerebral air embolism cases are rare. We report a case of an air embolism resulting in cerebral infarction related to angioinvasive cavitary aspergillosis. To our knowledge, there have been no previous reports associating these two conditions together. Case Presentation. A 32-year-old female was admitted for treatment of acute ...
Rubin Mark N MN Mayo Clinic, Department of Neurology, Jacksonville, FL, - - 2014
Stroke remains an exceedingly incident and prevalent public health burden across the globe, with an estimated 16 million new strokes per annum and prevalence over 60 million, and extracranial internal carotid artery atherosclerotic disease is an important risk factor for stroke. Randomized trials of surgical treatment were conducted (North American ...
Salvati Bruno - - 2014
Cervical carotid dissection is more common in extracranical vessel: internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) is typical, vertebral artery dissection is uncommon, common carotid artery dissection (CCAD) is rare and even a more rare cause of ischemic stroke. Cervical artery dissections account up to 20-25% of ischemic strokes in young patients. ...
Jin Rong R Vascular Biology and Stroke Research Laboratory, Department of Neurosurgery, Louisiana State University Health Science - - 2014
Clinically, thrombolytic therapy with use of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) remains the most effective treatment for acute ischemic stroke. However, the use of tPA is limited by its narrow therapeutic window and by increased risk of hemorrhagic transformation. There is an urgent need to develop suitable stroke models to ...
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