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Zhang-Sun Wei W Equipe «Endotoxins: Structures and Activities», Institut de Génétique et Microbiologie, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS UMR 8621, Orsay, - - 2014
The levels of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), including Desulfovibrionaceae, in the gut increase following a fat-enriched diet. Endotoxins from gut microbiota contribute to the inflammation process, leading to metabolic diseases. Thus, we sought to characterize the lipid A structures of Desulfovibrionaceae lipopolysaccharides (LPS) that are associated with the microbiota inflammatory properties. ...
Brown Derrick D ArtEZ Institute of the Arts, Onderlangs 9, 6812 CE Arnhem, the Netherlands. Tel +31655358027. - - 2014
Little is known of the prevalence and motives of dietary supplement use amongst dancers from different cultures. Investigating supplement use, presumed effects, and other factors may be crucial for improving educational and nutritional advice provided for this cohort. Therefore, this study investigated the use of dietary supplements in 334 dancers ...
Sullam Karen E KE Department of Biodiversity, Earth and Environmental Science, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA, US, - - 2014
A trophic niche shift can occur as an adaptive response to environmental change such as altered resource quality, abundance or composition. Alterations in digestive traits such as gut morphology and physiology may enable these niche shifts and affect the persistence of populations and species. Relatively few studies, however, have assessed ...
Wu Gary D GD Division of Gastroenterology, Perelman School of Medicine, The University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, - - 2014
The consumption of an agrarian diet is associated with a reduced risk for many diseases associated with a 'Westernised' lifestyle. Studies suggest that diet affects the gut microbiota, which subsequently influences the metabolome, thereby connecting diet, microbiota and health. However, the degree to which diet influences the composition of the ...
Toppozini Laura L Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4M1, - - 2014
Rafts, or functional domains, are transient nano-or mesoscopic structures in the plasma membrane and are thought to be essential for many cellular processes such as signal transduction, adhesion, trafficking, and lipid or protein sorting. Observations of these membrane heterogeneities have proven challenging, as they are thought to be both small ...
Grissom Nicola M NM University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, Institute for Translational Medicine and Therapeutics, Department of Pharmacology, 10-131 Smilow Center for Translational Research, Philadelphia, - - 2014
Poor-quality maternal diet during pregnancy, and subsequent gestational growth disturbances in the offspring, have been implicated in the etiology of multiple neurodevelopmental disorders, including ADHD, schizophrenia, and autism. These disorders are characterized in part by abnormalities in responses to reward and errors of executive function. Here, we demonstrate dissociable deficits ...
Marín-Guerrero A C AC Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health,School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de - - 2014
The dietary patterns of immigrants usually change with the duration of residence and progressively resemble those of the host country. However, very few studies have investigated individuals migrating to countries with a high-quality diet, such as the Mediterranean diet (MD), and none has yet focused on Latin-American immigrants. The present ...
Nørregaard Jesper J Xlab, Center for Healthy Aging, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej, Copenhagen, - - 2014
We studied the effect of physical inactivity and subsequent re-training on cardiovascular risk factors in seventeen young (Y; 23.4±0.5) and fifteen older adult (O; 68.1±1.1 yrs.) men who underwent 14 days of one leg immobilization followed by six weeks of training. Body weight remained unchanged. Daily physical activity decreased by ...
Delorenzo D M DM NOAA Fisheries Service-Southeast Fisheries Science Center, Panama City Laboratory, 3500 Delwood Beach Road, Panama City, FL 32408, - - 2014
A re-assessment of the diet of the Atlantic sharpnose shark Rhizoprionodon terraenovae was conducted to provide an update on their trophic level. Rhizoprionodon terraenovae primarily consume teleosts, but previously unreported loggerhead sea turtles Caretta caretta were also found in the diet. Analysis suggests that calculated trophic level may depend on ...
Jauho Mikko M National Consumer Research Centre, Finland - - 2014
The article looks at conceptions of science and expertise among lay proponents of the low-carbohydrate high-fat diet in Finland. The research data consist of comments on a webpage related to a debate on the health dangers of animal fats screened in Finnish national television in autumn 2010. The article shows ...
Brannigan Mairead M Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW2109, - - 2014
Less sensitive interoception for hunger and fullness has been observed in people who consume a diet rich in saturated fat and added sugar. In this study we examined whether healthy young people who routinely consume such diets, also demonstrate less sensitive thirst interoception. Participants, varying primarily in diet, were made ...
Cipolat-Gotet C C Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural Resources, Animals and Environment (DAFNAE), University of Padova, Viale dell'Università 16-35020 Legnaro (PD), - - 2014
Traits associated with cheese yield and milk nutrient recovery in curd are used to describe the efficiency of the cheese-making process. This is fundamental for all dairy species, including the Italian Mediterranean buffalo, which is largely used for milk production aimed at the dairy industry. To assess cheese-making traits among ...
Braune Birgit M BM Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University , Raven Road, Ottawa, Ontario Canada K1A - - 2014
Arctic ecosystems are changing in response to climate change and some Arctic food web structures are being affected in ways which may have potential consequences for the biomagnification of environmental contaminants. Here, we examined how a shift in diet of an Arctic seabird resulted in a change of trophic position ...
Marriott Bernadette P BP Samueli Institute, 1737 King Street, Suite 600, Alexandria, VA - - 2014
Research indicates that dietary omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important in reducing the risk of mental illness. We used the DoD Survey of Health Related Behaviors among Active Duty Military Personnel (HRBS) to assess current military dietary patterns and meal locations. We used the Lands Equation to ...
Mubki Thamer - - 2014
Several controversies exist regarding the use of vitamin and mineral supplements in treating hair loss. To explore practices, knowledge, and attitudes for using vitamins and minerals in treating hair loss among dermatologists in Saudi Arabia. A self-administrated questionnaire containing 33 questions was distributed to 177 dermatologists attending a national dermatology ...
Alexander Michelle M MM BioArCh, Department of Archaeology, University of York, York, - - 2014
This article investigates the diets of neighboring Christians and Muslims in late medieval Spain (here 13th-16th centuries) through the analysis of the stable isotopes of carbon (δ(13) C) and nitrogen (δ(15) N) in adult human and animal bone collagen. Twenty-four Christians and 20 Muslims are sampled from two adjacent and ...
Wright Thomas M TM School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington Campus,LoughboroughLE12 - - 2014
There is increasing evidence that hyperenergetic diets have an impact on memory in rodents. However, it is largely unknown how diets, such as a cafeteria diet (CD), that mimic a Western-type diet act on learning and memory, in particular when fed during early stages of development. Here, we fed lactating ...
Loftfield Erikka E Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT. Electronic address: - - 2014
To provide evidence of the construct validity of a single-item overall diet question with a nomological network of self-rated and biometric measures of dietary intake and outcomes. The authors conducted a secondary analysis of survey and biometric data from a cross-sectional sample of urban-dwelling adults. In addition to self-rated diet ...
da Graça Cantarelli Maria M Neuroscience Post-Graduation Program, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), - - 2014
The role of cholesterol in psychiatric diseases has aroused the interest of the medical community, particularly in association with violent and suicidal behavior. Herein, we discuss some aspects of brain cholesterol metabolism, exploring possible mechanisms underlying the findings and reviewing the available literature on the possible neurochemical link between suicide ...
Clauss Marcus M Clinic for Zoo Animals, Exotic Pets and Wildlife, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, - - 2014
In herbivore ecophysiology, comparative chewing efficiency has only recently received increased attention. This measure is best assessed on un-processed forage-only diets; corresponding comparative datasets are missing. We measured a faecal mean particle size (MPS [mm]) in 14 large herbivore species (body mass (M) range 60-4000kg; 8 ruminants and 6 hindgut ...
Garg Sumit S Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, Illinois, USA. - - 2014
The solubility limits of cholesterol in small unilamellar vesicles made of POPS and POPC were probed using Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) and coarse grained (CG) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. SANS, being non-invasive, allowed the direct and quantitative measurement of cholesterol in intact vesicles. Our experimental measurements reveal a 61% ...
Rothgerber Hank H Bellarmine University, 2001 Newberg Rd., Louisville, KY 40205, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
As criticisms of factory farming continue to mount, an increasing number of individuals have changed their existing dietary practices. Perhaps the two most important food movements reacting against industrial farming are (1) vegetarianism, the avoidance of animal flesh; and (2) conscientious omnivorism (CO), the consumption of meat or fish only ...
Yannakoulia Mary M Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University, Athens, - - 2014
Mediterranean diet is a term used to describe the traditional eating habits of people in Crete, South Italy and other Mediterranean countries. It is a predominantly plant-based diet, with olive oil being the main type of added fat. There are many observational studies exploring the potential association between adherence to ...
Wierzbicki Anthony S AS Consultant in Metabolic Medicine/Chemical Pathology, Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals, St. Thomas' Hospital Campus , Lambeth Palace Road, London SE1 7EH , - - 2014
Introduction: Niacin and fibrates are lipid-lowering drugs with actions to raise high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), reduce triglycerides and non-HDL-C but with modest (if any) effect in reducing low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Niacin and fibrates have an evidence base from monotherapy trials starting from the Coronary Drug Project and ...
Scott Jeremiah E JE Southern Illinois University, United - - 2014
Many organisms exhibit a decrease in the ability to modify their phenotypes in response to shifts in environmental conditions as they mature. Such age-dependent plasticity has important implications in a variety of evolutionary and ecological contexts, particularly with respect to understanding adaptive responses to heterogeneous environments. In this study we ...
Whiteley Paul P ESPA Research,2A Hylton Park,Hylton Park Road,Sunderland SR5 - - 2014
Autism spectrum disorders represent a diverse and heterogeneous array of conditions unified by the variable presence of specific behaviours impacting social and communicative functions (social affect) alongside other presentation. Common overt characteristics may come about as a consequence of several different genetic and biological processes differentially manifesting across different people ...
Reyes Teresa M TM Systems Pharmacology and Translational Therapeutics, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 10-131 Smilow Center for Translational Research, Philadelphia, PA 19104, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
This commentary will summarize the manuscripts in the 2014 Named Series, Diet, Inflammation, and the Brain. The series included studies that addressed the effect of dietary manipulations, including high fat diet, caloric restriction, or variations in dietary composition, on immune system endpoints in the brain, including microglial characterizations, changes in ...
Kroshus Emily E a Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences , Harvard School of Public Health , Boston , Massachusetts , - - 2014
Disordered eating behaviors and restrictive dieting can have negative health consequences for female athletes. Teammates can play an important role in primary and secondary prevention of these unhealthy eating practices through verbal and non-verbal communication about what behaviors are normative and desirable. The present study tested two tested hypotheses related ...
Muller Karen K Equipe Ecologie Evolutive, Université de Bourgogne, UMR CNRS 6282 Biogéosciences, 6 Boulevard Gabriel, 21000, Dijon, France, - - 2014
The tritrophic interactions hypothesis, integrating bottom-up (plant-herbivore) and top-down (herbivore-natural enemies) effects, predicts that specialist herbivores should outcompete generalists. However, some phytophagous insects have generalist diets, suggesting that maintenance of a diverse diet may confer certain fitness advantages that outweigh diet specialization. In field conditions, the European grapevine moth, Lobesia ...
Tyagi Ethika E Department of Integrative Biology & Physiology, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, - - 2014
Quality nutrition during the period of brain formation is a predictor of brain functional capacity and plasticity during adulthood; however it is not clear how this conferred plasticity imparts long-term neural resilience. Here we report that early exposure to dietary omega-3 fatty acids orchestrates key interactions between metabolic signals and ...
Flint Harry J HJ Microbiology Group,Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Aberdeen,Greenburn Road,Aberdeen,Scotland AB21 - - 2014
The gut microbiota and its metabolic products interact with the host in many different ways, influencing gut homoeostasis and health outcomes. The species composition of the gut microbiota has been shown to respond to dietary change, determined by competition for substrates and by tolerance of gut conditions. Meanwhile, the metabolic ...
Trifirò Gianluca G Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Messina , Messina , Italy - - 2014
Abstract No clinical trials have specifically explored the benefits of low-protein diet in patients with different stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) 3B. In the absence of RCTs, expert opinion may be a valid surrogate to estimate treatment effectiveness. A questionnaire-based survey of a large sample of nephrologists from Southern ...
Gugliucci Alejandro A Glycation, Oxidation and Disease Laboratory, Touro University California College of Osteopathic Medicine, Vallejo, CA, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Understanding the kinetics and function of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is becoming an important issue in atherosclerosis. Low PON1 activity has been consistently linked with an increased risk of major cardiovascular events in the setting of secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. Recent studies have shown that there is a specific ...
An R R Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, College of Applied Health Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL, - - 2014
Physical, mental and financial barriers among persons with disabilities limit their access to healthier diet. The present study investigated the relationship between disabilities and nutrient intake among US adults. Data originated from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 waves (n = 11 811). Five disability categories include activities of daily ...
Lamichhane Santosh - - 2014
The aim of the present study was to elucidate the impact of polydextrose (PDX), an insoluble fiber, on the human fecal metabolome by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based metabolomics in a dietary intervention study (n=12). Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed a strong effect of PDX consumption on the fecal ...
Ordóñez-Gómez José D JD Posgrado en Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, - - 2014
Understanding the response of species to changes in landscape configuration is required to design adequate management and conservation strategies. Yet, the most appropriate spatial scale (i.e., landscape size) to assess the response of species to changes in landscape configuration (so-called "scale of effect") is largely unknown. In this paper, we ...
Dutton Paul P School of Biological Sciences, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New - - 2014
We investigated the dietary preferences of chimpanzees residing in a Nigerian submontane forest using a combination of fecal analysis, observations of feeding remains, evidence from feeding tools and fruiting phenological data between April 2010 and March 2011. A total of 495 fecal samples were collected in which 52 fruit taxa ...
Gross Josef J JJ Veterinary Physiology, Vetsuisse Faculty,University of Bern,CH-3001 - - 2014
Instruments for on-farm determination of colostrum quality such as refractometers and densimeters are increasingly used in dairy farms. The colour of colostrum is also supposed to reflect its quality. A paler or mature milk-like colour is associated with a lower colostrum value in terms of its general composition compared with ...
Malik Sumaira S Atlantis Healthcare, London, UK, - - 2014
Background: Type 1 hereditary tyrosinaemia (HT1) is a rare metabolic disorder caused by an enzymatic defect in the metabolism of the amino acid tyrosine. Primary treatment for HT1 is nitisinone (Orfadin) in conjunction with a low-tyrosine/phenylalanine diet. The appropriate use of nitisinone medication and adhering to specialist diet is thus ...
Rogers Maximillian A MA Department of Biochemistry, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH, United States; Maximillian A. Rogers' present address: Center for Interdisciplinary Cardiovascular Sciences, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United - - 2014
Cholesterol is essential to the growth and viability of cells. The metabolites of cholesterol include: steroids, oxysterols, and bile acids, all of which play important physiological functions. Cholesterol and its metabolites have been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple human diseases, including: atherosclerosis, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and diabetes. Thus, understanding ...
Pucca Manuela Berto MB Department of Physics and Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo, Av. do Café, s/n, 14040-903, Ribeirão Preto, SP, - - 2014
The role of diet in venom composition has been a topic of intense research interest. This work presents evidence that the variation in the venom composition from the scorpion Tityus serrulatus (Ts) is closely associated with post-starvation extraction time and prey-specific diet. The scorpions were fed with cockroach, cricket, peanut ...
Wade Kristin R KR Department of Microbiology and Immunology, The University of Oklahoma Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States of - - 2014
Streptococcus pneumoniae produces the pore-forming toxin pneumolysin (PLY), which is a member of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin (CDC) family of toxins. The CDCs recognize and bind the 3β-hydroxyl group of cholesterol at the cell surface, which initiates membrane pore formation. The cholesterol transport lipoproteins, which carry cholesterol in their outer monolayer, ...
Briški Marijana - - 2014
The paper presents overview of nutrition in rural areas in Croatia in the period from the middle of the 19th to the middle of 20th century collected from scientific papers, ethnographic collections of "Zbornik za narodni zivot i obicaje juznih Slavena" and popular scientific papers. Paper offers critical overview of ...
Platt Frances M FM Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QT, United Kingdom; email: - - 2014
Cholesterol plays a key role in many cellular processes, and is generated by cells through de novo biosynthesis or acquired from exogenous sources through the uptake of low-density lipoproteins. Cholesterol biosynthesis is a complex, multienzyme-catalyzed pathway involving a series of sequentially acting enzymes. Inherited defects in genes encoding cholesterol biosynthetic ...
Granado-Lorencio F F Unidad de Vitaminas, Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro-Majadahonda, 28222, Madrid, Spain, - - 2014
Phytosterol (PS) intake may be used for hypercholesterolaemia in some groups although the presence of non-responders is well known. Carotenoids and PS/cholesterol may compete for the same transporters during absorption. As part of a randomized, double-blind, crossover, multiple-dose supplementation study with β-cryptoxanthin (β-Cx) and PS, single and combined, polymorphisms of ...
Carr S E SE Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Guildford, UK; Division of Nutritional Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, - - 2014
Patients with chemotherapy-induced neutropenia are at increased risk of infection. Historically, dietary restrictions commonly referred to as 'clean', 'low bacteria', 'low-microbial' or 'neutropenic' diets have been prescribed to reduce the risk of foodborne infection. Although research does not support their effectiveness, they continue to be used in clinical practice. The ...
De Backer Charlotte J S CJ Department of Communication Studies, University of Antwerp, Sint-Jacobstraat 2, 2000 Antwerp, - - 2014
The aim of this work is to explore the relation between morality and diet choice by investigating how animal and human welfare attitudes and donation behaviors can predict a meat eating versus flexitarian versus vegetarian diet. The results of a survey study (N=299) show that animal health concerns (measured by ...
Daş Gürbüz G University of Göttingen, Department of Animal Sciences, Albrecht-Thaer-Weg 3, 37075 Göttingen, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2014
In modern husbandry systems, feed rations for laying hens may contain high levels of dietary fibre, which may only be fermented intestinally. Depending on fermentation properties, the type of dietary fibre may influence the intra-caecal environment constituting the predilection site of Heterakis gallinarum. We investigated egg production dynamics and fecundity ...
Yilmaz Lutfu Safak LS Program in Systems Biology, Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, - - 2014
Micronutrients are required in small proportions in a diet to carry out key metabolic roles for biomass and energy production. Humans receive micronutrients either directly from their diet or from gut microbiota that metabolize other nutrients. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and its bacterial diet provide a relatively simple and genetically ...
Alphantonogeorgos George - - 2014
Objective: To investigate the role of the Mediterranean diet and physical activity on the relation between living environment and childhood asthma. Methods: 1125 children (529 boys), 10 to 12 years old were recruited either in an urban environment (Athens, n = 700) or rural environment (n = 425) in Greece. ...
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