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Valente Angelica A FAME Laboratory, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Karies, Trikala, 42100, Greece; School of Physical Education and Exercise Sciences, University of Thessaly, Trikala, 42100, - - 2014
An increase in energy intake and/or a decrease in energy expenditure lead to fat storage, causing overweight and obesity phenotypes. The objective of this review was to analyse, for the first time using a systematic approach, all published evidence from the past 8 years regarding the molecular pathways linking non-shivering thermogenesis ...
Lillefosse Haldis H - - 2014
Whey protein intake is associated with modulation of energy metabolism and altered body composition both in human subjects and in animals, but the underlying mechanisms is yet not elucidated. We fed obesity prone C57BL/6J mice high-fat diets with either casein (HF Casein) or whey (HF whey) for six weeks. At ...
Lu Kun - - 2014
To describe the preparation of nano emodin transfersome (NET) and investigate its effect on mRNA expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2) in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese rats. NET was prepared by film-ultrasonic dispersion method. The effects of emodin components at different ratios on ...
Toedebusch Ryan G RG University of - - 2014
To better understand the impact of childhood obesity on intra-abdominal adipose tissue phenotype, a complete transcriptomic analysis using deep RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed on omental adipose tissue (OMAT) obtained from lean and western diet induced obese juvenile Ossabaw swine. Obese animals had 88% greater body mass, 49% greater body fat ...
Cichello S A SA School of Life Sciences, La Trobe University, Bundoora, VIC, 3086, Australia, - - 2014
There are a myriad of proteins responsible for modulation of expenditure of energy. Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a vital component of renin-angiotensin system that affects blood pressure and also linked to both cachexia and obesity via fat and muscle metabolism. Previous research suggests that the direct action of Ang ...
Nicod Nathalie - - 2014
While polyphenols are often merely perceived as antioxidants, their biological activities are manifold and include anti-inflammatory actions. A new area of research on polyphenols and health concerns their putative role on cholesterol metabolism, in particular their high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c)-raising potential. Indeed, some human studies showed that administration of polyphenol-rich ...
Miranda Diego A DA Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, - - 2014
Triglycerides within the cytosol of cells are stored in a phylogenetically conserved organelle called the lipid droplet (LD). LDs can be formed at the endoplasmic reticulum, but mechanisms that regulate the formation of LDs are incompletely understood. Adipose tissue has a high capacity to form lipid droplets and store triglycerides. ...
Ovilo C C Departamento de Mejora Genética Animal, INIA, 28040 Madrid, - - 2014
A trial was carried out to compare the effects of different dietary sources of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), on the fatty acid (FA) composition, lipid metabolism and gene transcription in different tissues of Iberian pigs. Twenty-seven Iberian male pigs of 28 kg Live Weight (LW) were divided in two groups ...
Gabriel Gutiérrez-Salmeán GS Sección de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigación. Escuela Superior de Medicina, Instituto Politécnico - - 2014
Overweight and obesity have been associated with increases in cardiometabolic risk. Therapeutics include lifestyle changes and/or pharmacologic agents. However, such interventions are often limited by poor compliance and/or significant side effects. The consumption of certain dietary products, such as cocoa, exerts positive effects on cardiometabolic risk factors. (-)-Epicatechin (EPI), the ...
Andrade João Marcus Oliveira JM Laboratory of Health Science, Postgraduate Program in Health Sciences, Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros (UNIMONTES), Montes Claros, Minas Gerais, - - 2014
Adipose tissue is central to the regulation of energy balance. Two functionally different fat pads are present in mammals: white adipose tissue, the primary site of triglyceride storage, and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which is specialized in heat production. In this context, new strategies capable of modulating the development and ...
Dong Jing J Hefei University of Technology, - - 2014
Adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) plays a central role in obesity-associated inflammation and insulin resistance. Quercetin, a dietary flavonoid, possesses anti-inflammation and anti-insulin resistance properties. However, it is unclear whether quercetin can alleviate high fat diet (HFD)-induced ATM infiltration and inflammation in mice. In this study, five-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed ...
Heymsfield S B SB Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, - - 2014
Maximizing fat loss while preserving lean tissue mass and function is a central goal of modern obesity treatments. A widely cited rule guiding expected loss of lean tissue as fat-free mass (FFM) states that approximately one-fourth of weight loss will be FFM (i.e. ΔFFM/ΔWeight = ∼0.25), with the remaining three-fourths being fat ...
Barros Alexandre Guimarães de Almeida AG Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Medicina Molecular, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, - - 2014
The regulation of energy balance involves an intricate interplay between neural mechanisms that respond to internal and external cues of energy demand and food availability. Compelling data have implicated the neurotransmitter dopamine as an important part of body weight regulation. However, the precise mechanisms through which dopamine regulates energy homeostasis ...
Moon Hyeongsun H The University of Queensland Diamantina Institute, The University of Queensland, Translational Research Institute, Brisbane, QLD 4102, - - 2014
The role of statin therapy in prostate cancer (PCa) prevention and treatment is plagued by controversy. This critical review of published clinical series reveals several caveats in earlier studies, which reported no benefit. Recent studies that adjust for confounding factors have demonstrated statin therapy to be associated with PCa prevention ...
Holma-Suutari A A Department of Biology, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, 90014 Oulu, Finland. Electronic address: - - 2014
A study concerning persistent organic pollutants in Finnish semi-domesticated reindeer was conducted in northern Finland. The aim of this study was to explore POP presence in different tissues of reindeer. In addition, it was studied how POPs are transported from food concentrates and lichen to reindeer hind tissues and further ...
Brunelli Roberto - - 2014
The long quest for a missing mechanistic rationale accounting for the correlation between plasma cholesterol levels and cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been focused on various possible modifications of low density lipoprotein (LDL), turning this physiological cholesterol carrier into a damaging agent able to trigger atherogenesis and later the onset of ...
Bursać Biljana N BN Department of Biochemistry, Institute for Biological Research "Siniša Stanković", University of Belgrade, 142 Despot Stefan Blvd., 11000 Belgrade, - - 2014
Fructose overconsumption has been involved in the genesis and progression of the metabolic syndrome. Hypothalamus and adipose tissue, major organs for control of food intake and energy metabolism, play crucial roles in metabolic homeostasis. We hypothesized that glucocorticoid signaling mediates the effects of a fructose-enriched diet on visceral adiposity by ...
Miksztowicz V V Laboratory of Lipids and Lipoproteins, Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, INFIBIOC, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, - - 2014
Adipose tissue produces different metalloproteinases (MMPs), involved in adipogenesis and angiogenesis. Different studies have shown that in obesity the behavior of different MMPs may be altered. However there are scarce data about the effect of insulin-resistance (IR) on MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in adipose tissue. Our aim was to determine ...
Cortes Victor A VA Departamento de Nutricion, Diabetes y Metabolismo, Escuela de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile. Marcoleta # 367, interior, 4to piso. Santiago, - - 2014
Cholesterol has evolved to fulfill sophisticated biophysical, cell signaling and endocrine requirements of animal systems. At a cellular level, cholesterol is found in membranes, where it increases both bilayer stiffness and impermeability to water and ions. Furthermore, cholesterol is integrated into specialized lipid-protein membrane microdomains with critical topographical and signaling ...
Handayani Dian D Nutrition Department, Faculty of Medicine, University of Brawijaya, Jl. Veteran, Malang 65145, Indonesia. - - 2014
Shiitake mushroom have been shown to have health benefits including lowering plasma lipids and preventing body weight gain. However, their underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. The study aim was to assess the potential underlying mechanism of Shiitake mushrooms in lowering plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) in rats fed a high fat diet ...
Gu Yeyi Y Department of Food Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA - - 2013
In diet-induced obesity, adipose tissue (AT) is in a chronic state of inflammation predisposing the development of metabolic syndrome. Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a polyphenol-rich food with putative anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we examined the impact and underlying mechanisms of action of cocoa on AT inflammation in high fat-fed mice. In ...
Iacobellis Gianluca - - 2013
Epicardial adipose tissue has recently emerged as new risk factor and active player in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Albeit its physiological and pathological roles are not completely understood, a body of evidence indicates that epicardial adipose tissue is a fat depot with peculiar and unique features. Epicardial fat is able ...
Shabalina Irina G - - 2013
The phenomenon of white fat "browning," in which certain white adipose tissue depots significantly increase gene expression for the uncoupling protein UCP1 and thus supposedly acquire thermogenic, fat-burning properties, has attracted considerable attention. Because the mRNA increases are from very low initial levels, the metabolic relevance of the change is ...
Carillon Julie - - 2013
Obesity-related metabolic syndrome is often associated with a decrease of insulin sensitivity, inducing several modifications. However, dietary antioxidants could prevent insulin resistance. We have previously shown the preventive effects of a melon superoxide dismutase (SOD) in obese hamsters. However, its antioxidant effects have never been studied on adipose tissue. We ...
Dib Lea - - 2013
Liver X receptors (LXR) are transcription factors known for their role in hepatic cholesterol and lipid metabolism. Though highly expressed in fat, the role of LXR in this tissue is not well characterized. We generated adipose tissue LXRα knock-out (ATaKO) mice and show that these mice gain more weight and ...
Gaborit B - - 2013
Regional body-fat distribution is one of the key variables that explains the metabolic heterogeneity of obesity and its related cardiovascular risks. According to the ectopy concept, the inability of subcutaneous adipose tissue to store surplus triglycerides may lead to the development of fat in ectopic sites, such as the heart. ...
Zampatti Stefania S Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, School of Medicine, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Rome, - - 2014
The actions of nutrients and related compounds on age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are explained in this review. The findings from 80 studies published since 2003 on the association between diet and supplements in AMD were reviewed. Antioxidants and other nutrients with an effect on AMD susceptibility include carotenoids (lutein and ...
Harazaki Tomomi T Laboratory of Nutritional Physiology, Graduate School of Nutritional and Environmental Sciences and Global COE Program, University of Shizuoka, Shizuoka, - - 2014
CD11s/CD18 dimers induce monocyte/macrophage infiltration into many tissues, including adipose tissues. In particular, it was reported that β2-integrin CD11c-positive macrophages in adipose tissues are closely associated with the development of insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to determine whether intake of resistant starch (RS) reduces macrophage accumulation in ...
Frayn K N - - 2013
Subcutaneous adipose tissue represents about 85% of all body fat. Its major metabolic role is the regulated storage and mobilization of lipid energy. It stores lipid in the form of triacylglycerol (TG), which is mobilized, as required for use by other tissues, in the form of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). ...
Chee Melissa Js - - 2013
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is an orexigenic neuropeptide that is a ligand for two subtypes of MCH receptors, MCHR1 and MCHR2. MCHR1 is universally expressed in mammals ranging from rodents to humans but the expression of MCHR2 is substantially restricted. In mammals, MCHR2 has been defined in primates as well as ...
Candiracci Manila M Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Pharmacy, University of Seville, Seville, - - 2014
Chronic low-grade inflammation in obesity is characterized by macrophage accumulation in white adipose tissue and adipokine production deregulation. Obesity also is characterized by oxidative stress related to inflammatory signaling. The aim of this study was to analyze whether dietary supplementation with a rice bran enzymatic extract (RBEE), rich in bioactive ...
Engeli S S Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Strasse 1, 30625 Hannover, Germany. Electronic address: - - 2013
The influence of dietary sodium intake on cardiovascular risk factors has been a matter of decade-long discussions. Needed is a clear-cut elucidation of the beneficial mechanisms of action of reduced salt intake. In a recent study, lean and obese mice were subjected to a high or low salt diet for ...
Palou Andreu - - 2013
Recent findings in animals suggest that diet-related factors can programme adipose tissue features in early life and remodel white adipose tissue (WAT) towards a brown adipose tissue (BAT)-like phenotype in adulthood, while impacting on body fat content and susceptibility to obesity. The purpose of this review is to address the ...
Schneck Anne-Sophie - - 2013
Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) has become a popular bariatric procedure. The mechanisms responsible for weight loss and improvement of metabolic disturbances have still not been completely elucidated. We investigated the effect of SG on body weight, adipose tissue depots, glucose tolerance, and liver steatosis independent of reduced caloric intake in high-fat-diet-induced ...
Karastergiou Kalypso - - 2013
Adipose tissue modifies the development of cardiovascular disease in a complex manner: obesity is a major risk factor, especially when accompanied by a central fat distribution. For that reason the characteristics of visceral adipose tissue have attracted most of the research interest thus far, and measurement of waist circumference is ...
Alexander Eric T - - 2013
It is important to understand HDL heterogeneity because various subspecies possess different functionalities. To understand the origins of HDL heterogeneity arising from the existence of particles containing only apoA-I (LpA-I) and particles containing both apoA-I and apoA-II (LpA-I+A-II), we compared the abilities of both proteins to promote ABCA1-mediated efflux of ...
Lukaszewski Marie-Amelie - - 2013
Epidemiological studies initially demonstrated that maternal undernutrition results in low birth weight with increased risk for long-lasting energy balance disorders. Maternal obesity and diabetes associated with high birth weight, excessive nutrition in neonates and rapid catch-up growth also increase the risk of adult-onset obesity. As stated by the Developmental Origin ...
Aissa Alexandre Ferro - - 2013
Inadequate nutrient intake can influence the genome. Since methionine is an essential amino acid that may influence DNA integrity due to its role in the one-carbon metabolism pathway, we were interested in whether methionine imbalance can lead to genotoxic events. Adult female Swiss mice were fed a control (0.3% DL-methionine), ...
Ying Hua-Zong - - 2013
Pentamethylquercetin (PMQ) is a natural polyphenolic quercetin derivative found in a variety of edible herb. Although PMQ has potential as anti-diabetic agent, there have been no reports on the anti-adipogenic effects of PMQ in the white adipose tissues of obese animals. This study investigated whether PMQ attenuates high-fat diet (HFD)-induced ...
Lee Hansongyi - - 2013
Obesity is a state in which there is an over-accumulation of subcutaneous and/or abdominal adipose tissue. This adipose tissue is no longer considered inert and mainly devoted to storing energy; it is emerging as an active tissue in the regulation of physiological and pathological processes, including immunity and inflammation. Adipose ...
Mizonova O V - - 2013
Long-term calorie-restricted diet (8 weeks, 60% of control food intake) was followed by an increase in thermogenic activity of interscapular brown fat. The relative amount of DNA and protein and the rate of oxygen consumption increased and tissue-specific marker of brown fat (uncoupling protein UCP1) appeared in significantly reduced deep-pink ...
Sasaki Tsutomu - - 2013
Miglitol is an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor that improves post-prandial hyperglycemia, and it is the only drug in its class that enters the bloodstream. Anecdotally, miglitol lowers patient body weight more effectively than other alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, but the precise mechanism has not been addressed. Therefore, we analyzed the anti-obesity effects of miglitol ...
Aprahamian Tamar R - - 2013
Despite the clinical prevalence of obesity, only recently has the importance of adipose tissue microenvironment been addressed at a molecular level. Here, I focused on the fat-derived cytokine adiponectin as a model system to understand the mechanism underlying adipose tissue vascularity, perfusion, inflammation, and systemic metabolic function. Wild type, adiponectin-deficient, ...
Bi Sheng S Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, - - 2013
Two types of fat, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), exist in mammals including adult humans. While WAT stores excess calories and an excessive accumulation of fat causes obesity, BAT dissipates energy to produce heat through nonshivering thermogenesis for protection against cold environments and provides the potential ...
Soto David X - - 2013
A steady-state mass-balance model describing controls on the stable hydrogen isotopic ratios (δ(2)H) of tissues in fish was previously developed but physiological effects related to fish size and growth had not been tested. Here, we assessed the influence of size (or growth rate) on tissue δ(2)H composition of a fish ...
Claycombe Kate J - - 2013
Maternal low-protein diets result in lower birth weight followed by accelerated catch-up growth that is accompanied by the development of obesity and glucose intolerance in later life. Whether postnatal high-fat (HF) diets further contribute to the development of obesity and insulin resistance in offspring by affecting adipose tissue metabolism and ...
Ford Nikki A - - 2013
Carotene-15,15'-monooxygenase (CMO-I) cleaves β-carotene to form vitamin A, whereas carotene-9',10'-monooxygenase (CMO-II) preferentially cleaves non-provitamin A carotenoids. Recent reports indicate that β-carotene metabolites regulate dietary lipid uptake, whereas lycopene regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor expression. To determine the physiologic consequences of carotenoids and their interactions with CMO-I and CMO-II, we characterized mammalian ...
Röhrl Clemens - - 2013
HDL removes excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues and delivers it to the liver and steroidogenic tissues via selective lipid uptake without catabolism of the HDL particle itself. In addition, endocytosis of HDL holo-particles has been debated for nearly 40years. However, neither the connection between HDL endocytosis and selective lipid uptake, ...
Camargo Antonio - - 2013
Adipose tissue is now recognized as a highly active metabolic and endocrine organ. Our aim was to investigate the effect of the dietary fat on the two main adipose tissue functions, endocrine and lipid store, by analyzing the adipose tissue gene expression from metabolic syndrome patients. A randomized, controlled trial ...
Brockmann Gudrun A - - 2013
Obesity, a state of imbalance between lean and fat mass, is important for the aetiology of diseases affected by the interplay of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Albeit genome-wide association studies have repeatedly associated genes with obesity and body weight, the mechanisms underlying the interaction between the muscle and adipose ...
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