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Yorgun Hikmet H Department of Cardiology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, - - 2014
Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), as an endocrine organ, may serve as a source of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Also, given the strong relationship between atrial fibrillation (AF), obesity and inflammation, the purpose of this study was to investigate the association of non-valvular AF with epicardial and periatrial fat. A total of 618 ...
Matsuda Hiroko H RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology, - - 2014
Living organisms adapt to environmental changes through metabolic homeostasis. Sugars are primarily used for the metabolic production of ATP energy and carbon sources. Trehalose is a non-reducing disaccharide that is present in many organisms. In insects, the principal hemolymph sugar is trehalose instead of glucose. As in mammals, hemolymph sugar ...
Mayorandan Sebene - - 2014
BackgroundFrequent feeds with carbohydrate-rich meals or continuous enteral feeding has been the therapy of choice in glycogen storage disease (Glycogenosis) type III. Recent guidelines on diagnosis and management recommend frequent feedings with high complex carbohydrates or cornstarch avoiding fasting in children, while in adults a low-carb-high-protein-diet is recommended. While this ...
Allah Yar Razia R Institute of Pure and Applied Biology, Zoology Division. Bahauddin Zakariya University Multan 60800, - - 2014
Currently there are no uniform standard treatments for newborn suffering from cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and to find new and effective strategies for treating the HI injury remains a key direction for future research. Present study was designed to demonstrate that optimal dose (1 or 3%) of creatine monohydrate (Cr) for ...
Rached Fabiana F National Institute for Health and Medical Research (INSERM), UMR-ICAN 1166, University of Pierre and Marie Curie - Paris 6, Pitié - Salpétrière University Hospital, ICAN, Paris, France Heart Institute-InCor, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, - - 2014
To evaluate functional and compositional properties of HDL in subjects from a kindred of genetic apoA-I deficiency, two homozygotes and six heterozygotes, with a nonsense mutation at APOA1 codon -2, Q[-2]X, were recruited together with age- and sex-matched healthy controls (n = 11). Homozygotes displayed undetectable plasma levels of apoA-I ...
Brambilla Alessandra A Department of Pediatrics, San Gerardo Hospital, University of Milano Bicocca, Monza, - - 2014
Glycogenosis type III (GSD III) is an autosomal recessive disorder due to amylo-1,6-glucosidase deficiency. This disease causes limit dextrin storage in affected tissues: liver, skeletal muscles, and heart in GSD IIIa and only liver in GSD IIIb. Cardiomyopathy is quite frequent in GSD IIIa with variable severity and progression of ...
Shelton N W NW Department of Animal Sciences and Industry, College of - - 2014
A total of 126 gilts and sows (PIC 1050) and their litters were used to determine the effects of dietary vitamin E concentration and source on sow plasma, milk, and pig concentrations of α-tocopherol. Additionally, we estimated the bioavailability of D-α-tocopheryl acetate (D-α-TAc) relative to DL-α-tocopheryl acetate (DL-α-TAc) when fed ...
Pignatelli Pasquale P I Clinica Medica, Atherothrombosis Center, Department of Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, - - 2014
Platelet activation plays a major role in cardiovascular events (CVEs). Mediterranean diet (Med-Diet) reduces the incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction but it is still unclear if it affects platelet activation. Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of Med-Diet on the urinary excretion of 11-dehydro-thromboxane (Tx) B2, ...
Shelton N W NW Department of Animal Sciences and Industry, College of - - 2014
A total of 126 gilts and sows (PIC 1050) and their litters were used to determine the effects of dietary vitamin E concentration and source on sow plasma, milk, and pig concentrations of α-tocopherol. Additionally, we estimated the bioavailability of D-α-tocopheryl acetate (D-α-TAc) relative to DL-α-tocopheryl acetate (DL-α-TAc) when fed ...
Sekretaryova Alina Nikolaevna - - 2014
Monitoring the cholesterol level is of great importance especially for people with high risk of developing heart disease. Here we report reagentless cholesterol detection in human plasma with a novel single-enzyme, membrane-free, self-powered biosensor, in which both cathodic and anodic bioelectrocatalytic reactions are powered by the same substrate. Cholesterol oxidase ...
Reyes-Vidal Carlos C Departments of Medicine (C.R-V., J.C.F., I.M.C., P.U.F.) and Neurosurgery (J.N.B.), Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York 10032rutg; Department of Neurosurgery (C.C.), Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, New Jersey 07103; Departments of Neurosurgery (J.K., E.B.G., K.D.P.) and Medicine (E.B.G., K.D.P.), Mt Sinai Medical Center, New York, New York - - 2014
Context: Although epidemiological studies have found that GH and IGF-1 normalization reduce the excess mortality of active acromegaly to expected rates, cross-sectional data report some cardiovascular (CV) risk markers to be less favorable in remission than active acromegaly. Objective: The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that ...
Müller Timo D - - 2014
Who among us hasn't fantasized about a diet that allows ingestion of a surfeit of calories that are burned off effortlessly by ramping up energy expenditure? In this issue of the JCI, research led by Christopher Morrison suggests that this dream may become a reality; however, a complete understanding of ...
Astorino Todd A - - 2014
Spinal cord injury (SCI) induces dramatic changes in body composition including reductions in fat-free mass (FFM) and increases in fat mass (FM). Objective To examine changes in body composition in response to chronic activity-based therapy (ABT) in persons with SCI. Design Longitudinal exercise intervention. Methods Seventeen men and women with ...
Petty Sandra J SJ Department of Medicine, Melbourne Brain Centre, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia; Department of Medicine, St Vincent's Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia; Ormond College, Parkville, Victoria, - - 2014
Chronic treatment with valproate (VPA) is commonly associated with weight gain, which potentially has important health implications, in particular increased central fat distribution. We utilized a VPA-discordant same-sex, twin and matched sibling pair study design to primarily examine for differences in fat distribution between patients with epilepsy treated with VPA ...
Alheiros-Lira Maria Cláudia MC Department of Nutrition, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, 50670-901, - - 2014
To investigate the short- and long-term effects of a maternal low-energy diet ad libitum during gestation and/or lactation on mothers and their offspring. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups according to their mother's diet: control [C (19.0 % protein, 63.0 % carbohydrates and 18.0 % lipids, total energetic value (TEV) = 3.5 kcal/g) during ...
Joseph R P RP College of Nursing and Health Innovation, Arizona State University, 500 North 3rd Street, Phoenix, AZ, 85004, USA, - - 2014
This study evaluated body composition outcomes following a 3-month exercise program for overweight/obese Black women. BMI decreased over the 3-month study despite an observed increase in body fat. Enhancements in bone marrow density and muscle density were also observed. Results show promising yet hypothesis-generating findings to explore in future research. ...
Bays Harold H Louisville Metabolic and Atherosclerosis Research Center, Louisville, Kentucky, - - 2014
Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) is often described as 'protective'. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is often described as 'pathologic'. However, both SAT and VAT have protective and pathologic potential, with interdependent biologic functions. Most of the body's (excess) energy is stored as fat in SAT. If during positive caloric balance, SAT ...
Ferrannini Ele E From the Department of Clinical & Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa School of Medicine, Pisa, Italy (EF), and the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Molecular Genetics, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY (MR and - - 2014
The high prevalence of obesity has called attention to the near-intractable problem of sustained weight reduction and its underlying mechanisms. With diet-induced weight loss, achieved body weight is closely related to initial body weight. The objective was to compare the relation between initial and achieved body mass index (BMI) in ...
Debevec Tadej T Department of Automation, Biocybernetics and Robotics, Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia, - - 2014
This study tested the hypothesis that hypoxia exacerbates reductions in body mass observed during unloading. To discern the separate and combined effects of simulated microgravity and hypoxia, 11 healthy males underwent three 21-day campaigns in a counterbalanced fashion: (1) normoxic bed rest (NBR; FiO2 = 0.209; PiO2 = 133.1 ± 0.3); (2) hypoxic ambulatory confinement (HAMB; ...
Hull H R HR Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, USA; New York Obesity Nutrition Research Center, Columbia University, St. Luke's-Roosevelt Hospital, New York, NY, - - 2014
It is suggested that maternal obesity perpetuates offspring obesity to future generations. To determine whether location of neonate fat mass (FM: central vs. peripheral) is related to total neonate FM and whether maternal obesity influences this relationship. Neonate body composition and skin-fold thicknesses were assessed in healthy neonates (n = 371; 1-3 ...
Klose Gerald G Private practice for Internal Medicine, Gastroenterology, Cardiology and Preventional Medicine: Dres. T. Beckenbauer und S. Maierhof and joint practice Dres. K. W. Spieker and I van de Loo, - - 2014
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a congenital disorder of lipid metabolism characterized by a marked elevation of the plasma concentration of LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol beginning in childhood and by the early onset of coronary heart disease. It is among the commonest genetic disorders, with an estimated prevalence in Germany of ...
BrahmaNaidu Parim P Department of Biochemistry, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati 517502, Andhra Pradesh, - - 2014
An increased risk of obesity has become a common public health concern as it is associated with hypertension, diabetes, osteoarthritis, heart diseases, liver steatosis etc. Pharmacological intervention with natural product-based drugs is considered a healthier alternative to treat obesity. This study was aimed to evaluate anti-obesity effects of piperine on ...
Knapp Karen M KM Medical Imaging, University of Exeter, Exeter, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
Total body (TB) dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is increasingly being used to measure body composition in research and clinical settings. This study investigated the effect of body mass index (BMI) and body fat on precision errors for total and regional TB DXA measurements of bone mineral density, fat tissue, and ...
des Courtis X X Department of Molecular Biosciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, - - 2014
High-protein (HP) diets help prevent loss of lean mass in calorie-restricted (CR) cats. However, it is not entirely known whether these diets also induce changes of energy expenditure during periods of CR. To investigate this issue, sixteen overweight cats were fed either a high-protein [(HP), 54.2% of metabolizable energy (ME)] ...
Li Xiaoxiao X 1 Department of Human Nutrition, Foods and Exercise, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences , Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia, USA - - 2014
Abstract Obesity and diabetes are growing health problems worldwide. In this study, dietary provision of Chinese ginseng (0.5 g/kg diet) prevented body weight gain in high-fat (HF) diet-fed mice. Dietary ginseng supplementation reduced body fat mass gain, improved glucose tolerance and whole body insulin sensitivity, and prevented hypertension in HF diet-induced ...
Hallam Megan C MC Faculty of Kinesiology - - 2014
Maternal protein restriction (PR) during pregnancy is known to have numerous adverse effects on offspring, including increased adiposity and impaired glucose tolerance later in life. A few studies have shown that this adverse programming can be reversed by dietary or hormonal therapies early in postnatal life. The objective of this ...
Kubow Stan S School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, McGill University, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, QC, - - 2014
Both sexes of mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD) for 10 wk without and with polyphenolic-rich potato extracts (PRPE) of cultivars Onaway and Russet Burbank. PRPE attenuated weight gain in male and female mice by as much as 63.2%, which was associated mostly with a reduction in adiposity. ...
Bwakura-Dangarembizi Mutsawashe M 1University of Zimbabwe, College of Health Sciences, Harare, Zimbabwe 2Joint Clinical Research Centre, Kampala, Uganda 3Makerere University, College of Health Sciences, Kampala, Uganda 4Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Unit, London, United Kingdom 5Centre for Paediatrics, Blizard Institute, Queen Mary University of London, UK 6Medical Research Council/ Uganda Virus Research Institute Uganda Research Unit on AIDS, Entebbe, Uganda 7 Pediatric Infectious Diseases Clinic/Baylor - Uganda, Mulago Hospital, Kampala, - - 2014
Most pediatric lipodystrophy data come from high-/middle-income countries, but most HIV-infected children live in sub-Saharan Africa, where lipodystrophy studies have predominantly investigated stavudine-based regimens. Three years after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, body circumferences and skinfold thicknesses were measured (n=590), and fasted lipid profile assayed (n=325), in children from two ARROW ...
Aksentijević Dunja D Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Radcliffe Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, UK; Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, British Heart Foundation Centre for Research Excellence, University of Oxford, - - 2014
Inhibition of malonyl-coenzyme A decarboxylase (MCD) shifts metabolism from fatty acid towards glucose oxidation, which has therapeutic potential for obesity and myocardial ischemic injury. However, ~40% of patients with MCD deficiency are diagnosed with cardiomyopathy during infancy. To clarify the link between MCD deficiency and cardiac dysfunction in early life ...
Yang Nan - - 2014
The prevalence of obesity is increasing in industrialized countries. Obesity increases the risk of coronary artery disease, stroke, cancer, hypertension, and type-2 diabetes. Unfortunately, conventional obesity drug treatment is often associated with adverse effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate a novel natural formula, Weight loss herbal intervention ...
Emenheiser J C JC Department of Animal and Poultry Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA - - 2014
The experiment was designed to validate the use of ultrasound to evaluate body composition in mature beef cows. Both precision and accuracy of measurement were assessed. Cull cows (n = 87) selected for highly variable fatness were used. Two experienced ultrasound technicians scanned and assigned BCS to each cow on ...
Cheong Ying Y Institute of Developmental Sciences, University of Southampton Faculty of Medicine, Southampton, United Kingdom; Princess Anne Hospital, Southampton University Hospital NHS Trust, Southampton, United - - 2014
To examine the effects of high-fat (HF) diet-induced maternal obesity on follicular population and gene expression in adult offspring ovaries. Experimental mouse study. Laboratory. Mice on HF diet. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed an HF or standard chow (C) diet 6 weeks before conception, through pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were fed ...
García-Quirós A A Instituto de Ciencias Biomédicas, Universidad CEU Cardenal Herrera, Avda. Seminario, s/n, Moncada, 46113 Valencia, - - 2014
The present work evaluates how a rabbit line selected for robustness and two other lines selected for productive criteria, could have affected the physiological maturity and blood leukocytes counts of young rabbits at weaning, as well as their possible effect on the subsequent performance and health status during the growing ...
Hoek-van den Hil E F EF Human and Animal Physiology, Wageningen University, De Elst 1, 6708 WD, Wageningen, The - - 2014
Dietary flavonoids may protect against cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Increased circulating lipid levels and hepatic lipid accumulation are known risk factors for CVD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and underlying molecular mechanisms of the flavonoid quercetin on hepatic lipid metabolism in mice with high-fat diet induced ...
Blackmore Heather L HL University of Cambridge, Metabolic Research Laboratories and MRC Metabolic Diseases Unit, Wellcome Trust-MRC Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrookes Hospital, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, United - - 2014
Obese pregnancies are not only associated with adverse consequences for the mother but also the long-term health of her child. Human studies have shown that individuals from obese mothers are at increased risk of premature death from cardiovascular disease (CVD), but are not able to define causality. This study aimed ...
Ochiai Masaru M Faculty of Agriculture, Kagawa University , Kagawa , - - 2014
Abstract We investigated the dietary effects of egg white (EW) and its hydrolysate (EWH) on fat metabolism in rats. Wistar rats were divided into casein, EW and EWH dietary groups, and fed their respective diet for 8 weeks. Dietary EW and EWH decreased food intake, body weight gain and fat ...
Goss Amy M AM Department of Nutrition Sciences, Georgia Regents University, Augusta, GA. Electronic address: - - 2014
To determine if consumption of a reduced-carbohydrate (CHO) diet would result in preferential loss of adipose tissue under eucaloric conditions, and whether changes in adiposity were associated with changes in postprandial insulin concentration. In a crossover-diet intervention, 30 women with PCOS consumed a reduced-CHO diet (41:19:40% energy from CHO:protein:fat) for ...
Hollander K S KS Minerva Center for Cholesterol, Gallstones Research and Lipid Metabolism in the Liver - - 2014
Abstract Objective: Our objective was to test the contribution of dietary enrichment in essential or saturated fatty acids, in normocaloric diets, on the lipid accumulation and insulin resistance in the adult offspring in a C57Bl6/J mice model. Methods: Pregnant mothers were fed normocaloric diets containing 6% fat enriched in essential ...
Bradley Warren W 1Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Tom Reilly Building, Liverpool, L3 3AF, UK 2Munster Rugby, Tyco Building, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork, Ireland 3Sport and Exercise Sciences, Glyndwr University, Plas Coch Campus, Wrexham, - - 2014
Rugby Union is a high-speed collision sport consisting of an intermittent activity profile. Given the extreme physical demands of the sport, significant emphasis is placed on players possessing high lean body-mass whilst minimising body-fat. Anecdotally, the most significant changes in body composition are observed during the pre-season, however there are ...
Heller Jenna E JE Department of Family and Consumer Sciences and the Athletics Department, University of Wyoming, Laramie, - - 2014
Excess body fat or obesity is known to increase risk of poor vitamin D status in non-athletes but it is not known if this is the case in athletes. Furthermore, the reason for this association is not understood, but is thought to be due to either sequestration of the fat-soluble ...
Krośniak Mirosław M Department of Food Chemistry and Nutrition, Jagiellonian University Medical College, 9 Medyczna Str, 30-688, Krakow, Poland, - - 2014
In the treatment of lifestyle diseases, including metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, it is important to lower body mass and fat tissue, and consequently, to increase insulin-sensitivity. Unfortunately, it often happens that low-energy diet which would lower overweight is not observed and, thus, it does not bring the expected ...
Wang Xing-Chun - - 2014
Body adiposity, especially ectopic fat accumulation, has a range of metabolic and cardiovascular effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between head fat and metabolic values in Chinese obese patients. Data of this cross-sectional study from 66 obese patients were collected. Fat distribution was measured by ...
Bosy-Westphal Anja A aInstitute of Nutritional Medicine, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart bInstitute of Human Nutrition and Food Science, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Keil, - - 2014
The impact of weight cycling on body composition and metabolic risk remains controversial. Very few studies, however, meet the methodological requirements to analyze and normalize changes in body composition with weight loss and regain. Methodological drawbacks that limit the interpretation of results are as follows:first, a small and only partial ...
Cheng G G 1] West China School of Public Health, Sichuan University, Chengdu, China [2] IEL-Nutritional Epidemiology, University of Bonn, DONALD Study at the Research Institute of Child Nutrition, Dortmund, Germany [3] Department of Nutritional, Food and Consumer Sciences, Fulda University of Applied Sciences, Fulda, - - 2014
OBJECTIVES:To examine whether maximal velocities of weight, height and fat mass during potentially critical periods of growth were associated with body composition in young adulthood.SUBJECTS/METHODS:Analyses were performed on 277 female and 271 male participants of the DOrtmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study with anthropometric measurements in young adulthood ...
Fallowfield Joanne L JL Institute of Naval Medicine,Alverstoke,HampshirePO12 - - 2014
Understanding the nutritional demands on serving military personnel is critical to inform training schedules and dietary provision. Troops deployed to Afghanistan face austere living and working environments. Observations from the military and those reported in the British and US media indicated possible physical degradation of personnel deployed to Afghanistan. Therefore, ...
Kahlhöfer J J Institute of Nutritional Medicine, University Hohenheim, Stuttgart, - - 2014
Background/objectives:Because both, glycemic index (GI) and carbohydrate content of the diet increase insulin levels and could thus impair fat oxidation, we hypothesized that refeeding a low GI, moderate-carbohydrate diet facilitates weight maintenance.Subjects/methods:Healthy men (n=32, age 26.0±3.9 years; BMI 23.4±2.0 kg/m(2)) followed 1 week of controlled overfeeding, 3 weeks of caloric restriction ...
Spiezio Sabrina H SH Institute for Systems Biology, 401 North Terry Ave, Seattle, WA, 98109, - - 2014
Metabolic diseases such as obesity and atherosclerosis result from complex interactions between environmental factors and genetic variants. A panel of chromosome substitution strains (CSSs) was developed to characterize genetic and dietary factors contributing to metabolic diseases and other biological traits and biomedical conditions. Our goal here was to identify quantitative ...
Gryka Dorota D Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University School of Physical Education, al. Jana Pawła II 78, 31-571, Kraków, Poland, - - 2014
The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of Finnish sauna bathing on lipid profile in healthy, young men. Sixteen male subjects (20-23 years) were subjected to 10 sauna bathing sessions in a Finnish sauna every 1 or 2 days. The mean sauna temperature was 90±2°C, while humidity was ...
Fan S S Department of Nephrology, Barts & The London NHS Trust, Royal London Hospital, London, - - 2014
Residual renal function has been reported to be a major determinant of peritoneal dialysis (PD) technique survival for patients with end-stage kidney disease. Anuria leads to increases in PD prescriptions designed to maintain small solute clearances and ultrafiltration volumes, resulting in greater exposure to hypertonic glucose dialysates. We reviewed the ...
Wycherley Thomas P TP a Sansom Institute for Health Research, Division of Health Sciences , University of South Australia (T.P.W., J.D.B., P.M.C.), and Preventative Health Flagship, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation-Animal, Food and Health Sciences (M.N., G.D.B.), Adelaide , - - 2014
Aim: Compare the long-term effects of an energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC) diet with an isocaloric high-carbohydrate, low-fat (HC) diet on exercise tolerance and capacity in overweight and obese adults. Methods: Seventy-six adults (25 males; age 49.2 ± 1.1 years; BMI 33.6 ± 0.5 kg/m(2)) were randomized to either a hypocaloric (6-7 ...
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