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Marval-León Jean Rafael JR Dpto, Bromatología y Tecnología de Alimentos, Universidad de Córdoba, Campus de Rabanales s/n , Edificio Darwin C1, Córdoba , - - 2014
Abstract Twenty samples of fish and seafood products were selected for determination of total and bioaccessible Se (i.e. soluble and dialyzable). The Se contents ranged between 0.638-0.052 µg/g. The samples of fatty fish such as mackerel and tuna showed higher contents than the species of lean fish, and mainly the fresh ...
Paciullo D S C DS 1 Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária Dairy Cattle, Rua Eugênio do Nascimento, 610, Dom Bosco, 36038330, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, - - 2014
The silvopastoral system (SPS) has been suggested to ensure sustainability in animal production systems in tropical ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate pasture characteristics, herbage intake, grazing activity and milk yield of Holstein×Zebu cows managed in two grazing systems (treatments): SPS dominated by a graminaceous forage (Brachiaria ...
Oudman Thomas T Department of Marine Ecology, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), Texel, The - - 2014
Abstract Among energy-maximizing animals, preferences for different prey can be explained by ranking the prey according to their energetic content. However, diet choice also depends on characteristics of the predator, such as the need to ingest necessary nutrients and the constraints imposed by digestion and toxins in food. In combination, ...
Sullivan Melissa M Department of Biology, McGuire Life Sciences Building, Amherst College, Amherst, MA, 01002, - - 2014
Carotenoids may act as antioxidants under many circumstances. We examined the importance of carotenoids as antioxidants in the gonads of male convict cichlids (Amatitlania nigrofasciata), a species in which males lack the carotenoid-based breeding coloration that characterizes females. Male fish were fed one of four diets that included different combinations ...
Larson Hannah K HK Department of Biology, California State University Dominguez Hills, 1000 E. Victoria St., Carson, CA, 90947, - - 2014
We document a facultative Bartonella-like Rhizobiales bacterium in the giant tropical ant, Paraponera clavata. In a lowland tropical rainforest in Costa Rica, 59 colonies were assayed for the prevalence of the Bartonella-like bacterium (BLB), 14 of which were positive. We addressed three questions: First, how does the prevalence of BLB ...
Dewar M L ML School of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, - - 2014
Despite the enormous amount of data available on the importance of gut microbiota in vertebrates (especially mammals), there is no information available on the microbiota of seabirds. Procellariiformes are long-lived seabirds that consume a diet high in lipids and are characterised by their ability to produce and store large amount ...
de Oliveira S G SG Curso de Pós-Graduação de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Pará/Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Pará, - - 2014
The Ka'apor capuchin, Cebus kaapori, is perhaps the most endangered primate of the Brazilian Amazon. Endemic to a region with extreme intensification of habitat-degrading activities, it survives in remnant populations in a completely fragmented landscape. Before now, the only data available were isolated observations of feeding, locality records, and information ...
Waterhouse Benjamin R BR Bio-Protection Research Centre, Lincoln University, P.O. Box 85084, Lincoln, 7647, New Zealand, - - 2014
Identifying and understanding predator diets is of high importance in biological conservation. This is particularly true for the introduction, establishment and maintenance of predator populations in newly created or modified ecological communities, such as translocation sites or restored habitats. Conservation status of predators may not permit captive feeding trials or ...
Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau A A MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Animal Production Research, FI-31600 Jokioinen, Finland; University of Helsinki, Department of Agricultural Sciences, PO Box 28, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, - - 2014
Diets based on red clover silage (RCS) typically increase the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in ruminant meat and milk and lower the efficiency of N utilization compared with grass silages (GS). Four multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows (108 d postpartum) fitted with rumen cannulas were used in a 4 ...
Sedlock Jodi L JL Biology Department, Lawrence University, 711 E. Boldt Way, Appleton, WI, 54911, - - 2014
Differences in body size, echolocation call frequency, and location may result in diet partitioning among bat species. Comparisons among island populations are one way to evaluate these competing hypotheses. We conducted a species-level diet analysis of three Rhinolophus and one Hipposideros species on the Philippine islands of Cebu, Bohol, and ...
Schmidt Justin O JO Southwestern Biological Institute, 1961 W. Brichta Dr., Tucson, AZ 85745, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Insects provide an important part of the diet of primates, including hominins. Investigations of insectivory in primates has focused primarily on the value of insects in the diet, and on the means of obtaining the insects, with little attention devoted to the predator-prey relationship itself and less to evolutionary aspects ...
Lees John J JJ Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PT, - - 2014
Fat storage is essential to the survival of many bird species, providing energy reserves, but can have an effect on locomotor performance with an associated potential increase in predation risk. In particular, the ability to initiate flight through jumping is critical to predator avoidance and may be influenced by changes ...
Ashworth E C EC Centre for Fish, Fisheries and Aquatic Ecosystem Research, School of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology Murdoch University, 90 South St., Murdoch, WA 6150, Australia; Marine Science Program, Department of Parks and Wildlife, 17 Dick Perry Ave, Kensington, WA 6151, - - 2014
The diets of four common mesopredator fishes were examined in the back-reef habitat of a subtropical fringing reef system during the summer months. Quantitative gut content analyses revealed that crustaceans, represented >60% of ingested prey (% mass) by the latticed sand-perch Parapercis clathrata, brown dottyback Pseudochromis fuscus and half-moon grouper ...
Borg J P G JP Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, P. O. Box 65, 00014, Helsinki, Finland; Tvärminne Zoological Station, University of Helsinki, J. A. Palméns väg 260, 10900 Hangö, - - 2014
This study examined the relationship of seascape structure, prey availability and sex on the post-spawning distribution and diet of European flounder Platichthys flesus in the northern Baltic Sea. The objectives were to determine whether: (1) wave exposure and substratum affect abundance and distribution of P. flesus, (2) diet reflects the ...
Soto-Navarro S A SA Department of Animal and Range Sciences, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces - - 2014
The objective was to determine the effect of forage quality on apparent total tract digestibility and ruminal fermentation in cattle versus sheep. Five yearling English crossbred (Hereford × Angus) steers (440.4 ± 35.6 kg of initial BW) and 5 yearling whiteface (Rambouillet × Columbia × Debouillet) wethers (44.4 ± 4.6 ...
Hayden B B Kilpisjärvi Biological Station, University of Helsinki, Käsivarrentie 14622, FI-99490, Kilpisjärvi, Finland; Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, P. O. Box 65, FIN-00014, Helsinki, Finland; School of Biological Sciences, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, - - 2014
Stable isotope and gut content analyses, in conjunction with backcalculated length-at-age estimates of growth, were employed to examine the relationship between trophic ecology and growth rate of a successful invader, Rutilus rutilus, in eight lakes in Ireland. The data revealed that R. rutilus was a trophic generalist in Irish lakes. ...
Kelly Megan A MA Metabolic Research Centre, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW 2522, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
The membrane pacemaker theory of ageing proposes that the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) composition of membrane lipids of a species is an important determinant of its maximum lifespan. We report three experiments using the blowfly Calliphora stygia, where this theory was tested by manipulation of dietary fat profile. Although the ...
Lesnik Julie J JJ Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois-Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Termite foraging by chimpanzees and present-day modern humans is a well-documented phenomenon, making it a plausible hypothesis that early hominins were also utilizing this resource. Hominin termite foraging has been credited by some to be the explanation for the unexpected carbon isotope signatures present in South African hominin teeth, which ...
Hervías Sandra S Animal Health Department, Veterinary Faculty, Regional Campus of International Excellence "Campus Mare Nostrum", University of Murcia, 30100 Espinardo, Murcia, Spain; Island Ecology and Evolution Research Group (IPNA-CSIC), Astrofísico Francisco Sánchez 3, 38206 La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain; Portuguese Society for the Study of Birds, Avenida João Crisóstomo, 18-4°Dto, 1000-179 Lisboa, Portugal. Electronic address: - - 2014
This study assessed the impact of introduced black rats (Rattus rattus) on Cory's shearwater (Calonectris diomedea borealis) in a multi-invaded insular ecosystem where rats are mesopredators. We hypothesized that black rats should have little impact on Cory's shearwaters in the presence of cats as superpredators. Stomach contents and stable isotope ...
Coco Livia L Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Ecologia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, - - 2014
Haddadus binotatus is an endemic anuran of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest and currently, there is no information about the diet of this species. We analyzed the diet of two populations of this anuran in two states in southeast Brazil. Samplings were carried out in 2004 in the state of Rio ...
Dahimi Omar O Institute of Halal Research and Management (IHRAM), Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, 71800 Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, - - 2014
The adulteration of edible fats is a kind of fraud that impairs the physical and chemical features of the original lipid materials. It has been detected in various food, pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical products. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is the robust thermo-analytical machine that permits to fingerprint the primary crystallisation of ...
Patterson Elaine E Alimentary Pharmabiotic Centre, Biosciences Institute, Cork, Republic of - - 2014
Different dietary fat and energy subtypes have an impact on both the metabolic health and the intestinal microbiota population of the host. The present study assessed the impact of dietary fat quality, with a focus on dietary fatty acid compositions of varying saturation, on the metabolic health status and the ...
Costopoulos Kelly - - 2014
Non-essential facultative endosymbionts can provide their hosts with protection from parasites, pathogens, and predators. For example, two facultative bacterial symbionts of the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), Serratia symbiotica and Hamiltonella defensa, protect their hosts from parasitism by two species of parasitoid wasp. Previous studies have not explored whether facultative symbionts ...
Gorbi S S Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell'Ambiente, Università Politecnica delle Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60131 Ancona, Italy. Electronic address: - - 2014
The green alga Caulerpa racemosa is a non-native, invasive species in the Mediterranean, and an important stressor for several native organisms. The algal capacity to produce secondary metabolites has been suggested to modulate success of the C. racemosa invasion, although many of potentially involved biological pathways still remain unexplored. In this ...
Ménard Nelly N UMR 6553, ECOBIO: Ecosystems, Biodiversity, Evolution, CNRS/University of Rennes 1, Biological Station of Paimpont, Paimpont, - - 2014
Barbary macaques live in extreme temperate environments characterized by strongly seasonal resource availability. They are mainly terrestrial while foraging, harvesting food from the herbaceous layer. These monkeys are threatened mainly because of anthropogenic habitat degradation. We studied the adaptive capacities of wild groups of Barbary macaques that lived in different ...
Fishelson Lev L Department of Zoology, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, - - 2014
The present study compares dental morphology and taste bud distribution in the oral cavity of four species of the teleost family Kyphosidae, five species of Girellidae and one species of Sparidae. Some of these species are predominantly herbivorous, while others are omnivorous with a high portion of invertebrates in their ...
Dáttilo Wesley W Instituto de Neuroetología, Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa, Veracruz, - - 2014
Recently several studies have focused on the structure of ecological networks to provide insights into ecological and coevolutionary dynamics of interacting species. However, rarely have the tools of ecological networks been used to understand how feeding relationships vary among individuals of the same population. Here we use 7 years of ...
Romero María Alejandra MA Instituto de Biología Marina y Pesquera Almirante Storni (IBMPAS), Güemes 1030, 8520 San Antonio Oeste, Río Negro, - - 2014
We surveyed the gastrointestinal tracts of 6 bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus from Patagonia to check for helminth parasites and characterize dolphin diet. All dolphins harbored parasites (6477 helminths). We recorded 7 species, including nematodes Anisakis simplex s.l., Pseudoterranova decipiens, acanthocephalans Corynosoma cetaceum, C. australe, and digeneans Braunina cordiformis, Pholeter gastrophilus ...
Conley Justin M - - 2014
Selenium (Se) trafficking in oviparous species remains understudied and a major source of uncertainty in developing sound Se regulations. Here, we utilized 75Se to follow Se through a simulated natural food chain (water, periphyton, mayflies (Centroptilum triangulifer), fish (Japanese medaka)). We specifically examined Se assimilation efficiency, tissue distribution, efflux rate, ...
Albenberg Lindsey G - - 2014
The mutual relationship between the intestinal microbiota and its mammalian host is influenced by diet. Consumption of various nutrients affects the structure of the microbial community and provides substrates for microbial metabolism. The microbiota can produce small molecules that are absorbed by the host and affect many important physiological processes. ...
Sadhu Narasimhulu N Karwar Research Centre, Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (Indian Council of Agricultural Research), Karwar, 581301, - - 2014
Stocking density is an important factor in cage aquaculture of finfish. Effects of high stocking density (35 fish cubic m(-1)) on a range of biochemical and immunological parameters in Asian seabass reared in open sea floating net cages were compared to fish held in relatively low density (15 fish cubic m(-1)). The results revealed ...
Tannock Gerald W GW Department of Microbiology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New - - 2014
Knowledge of the trophisms that underpin bowel microbiota composition is required in order to understand its complex phylogeny and function. Stable-isotope ((13)C) inulin was added to the diet of rats on a single occasion in order to detect utilization of inulin-derived substrates by particular members of the cecal microbiota. Cecal ...
Jiang J F JF Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou, - - 2014
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of alfalfa meal diets on the intestinal microbial diversity and immunity of growing egg-type ducks. A total of 128 healthy 7-week-old female egg-type Shaoxing ducks were selected and randomly assigned into four dietary treatments: 0%, 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal for ...
Omoniyi Lukman A LA Department of Animal Nutrition, Federal University of Agriculture, P. M. B. 2240, Abeokuta, Ogun State, - - 2014
To measure the impact of supplementing a forage diet with tree-based browse on the ruminal bacterial communities of Nigerian West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep. Fifteen WAD sheep were fed a control diet of forage (Panicum maximum), with 12 animals shifted in groups of three to one of four browse-supplemented diets ...
Behrmann-Godel J J Limnological Institute, University of Konstanz, Mainaustrasse 252, D-78464, Konstanz, - - 2014
Previous studies of dietary isotope discrimination have led to the general expectation that a consumer will exhibit enriched stable isotope levels relative to its diet. Parasite-host systems are specific consumer-diet pairs in which the consumer (parasite) feeds exclusively on one dietary source: host tissue. However, the small numbers of studies ...
Gámez-Méndez Ana María AM CINVESTAV Monterrey, Apodaca, Nuevo León, - - 2014
Obesity is a serious health problem associated with the pathogenesis of various metabolic diseases. Nitric Oxide (NO) plays an important role in kidney function and altered NO levels have been associated with the pathogenesis of obesity. Therefore, we aimed to study whether an early stage of obesity contributes with progression ...
Nash William J WJ School of Biological Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich, Norfolk, United - - 2014
The ability to respond to heterogenous nutritional resources is an important factor in the adaptive radiation of insects such as the highly polyphagous Medfly. Here we examined the breadth of the Medfly's capacity to respond to different developmental conditions, by experimentally altering diet components as a proxy for host quality ...
Abril Sílvia S Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Girona, Montilivi Campus s/n, 17071 Girona, Spain. Electronic address: - - 2014
Polydomy associated with unicoloniality is a common trait of invasive species. In the invasive Argentine ant, colonies are seasonally polydomous. Most follow a seasonal fission-fussion pattern: they disperse in the spring and summer and aggregate in the fall and winter. However, a small proportion of colonies do not migrate; instead, ...
Sugiura Shinji S Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe, 657-8501, Japan, - - 2014
The decomposition of vertebrate carcasses is an important ecosystem function. Soft tissues of dead vertebrates are rapidly decomposed by diverse animals. However, decomposition of hard tissues such as hairs and feathers is much slower because only a few animals can digest keratin, a protein that is concentrated in hairs and ...
Cisneros Laura M LM Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, 75 North Eagleville Road, Storrs, Connecticut, 06269-3043, USA; Center for Environmental Sciences and Engineering, University of Connecticut, 3107 Horsebarn Hill Road, Storrs, Connecticut, 06269-4210, - - 2014
Research concerning spatial dynamics of biodiversity generally has been limited to considerations of the taxonomic dimension, which is insensitive to interspecific variation in ecological or evolutionary characteristics that play important roles in species assembly and provide linkages to ecosystem services. Consequently, the assumption that the taxonomic dimension is a good ...
Raggi Patricia P Laboratorio de Biotecnología, INTA, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, - - 2014
This is the first study using molecular and culture-based methods aimed at investigating the composition of the intestinal yeast microbiota of wild and reared carnivorous salmonids, croaker and yellowtail, to characterize their cores and to evaluate the enzymatic activities of the cultivated yeast. Among 103 samples from salmonids, croaker and ...
Milich Krista M KM Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL, - - 2014
Behavioral flexibility allows primates to cope with environmental variability. Quantifying primate responses to human habitat modifications allows an effective means of assessing coping mechanisms. Within Kibale National Park, Uganda, logging led to reduced primate food availability that still exists almost 50 years after the harvest. Following the predictions of the ...
McPherson Nicole O NO Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, School of Paediatrics and Reproductive Health, Robinson Institute, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia; Freemasons Foundation Centre for Men's Health, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
To determine whether dietary and exercise regimes in obese males can provide a novel intervention window for improving the reproductive health of the next generation. Experimental animal study. University research facilities. C57BL6 male and female mice. Mice were fed a control diet (6% fat) or high-fat diet (21% fat) for ...
Walters Andrea A Institute for Marine and Antarctic Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia ; Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre, Hobart, Tasmania, - - 2014
Development in foraging behaviour and dietary intake of many vertebrates are age-structured. Differences in feeding ecology may correlate with ontogenetic shifts in dispersal patterns, and therefore affect foraging habitat and resource utilization. Such life-history traits have important implications in interpreting tropho-dynamic linkages. Stable isotope ratios in the whiskers of sub-yearling ...
De Riu Nicola N Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sassari, Via Vienna 2, 07100 Sassari, - - 2014
A comparative examination of potential differences in selenium (Se) sensitivity was conducted on two sturgeon species indigenous to the San Francisco Bay-Delta. Juvenile green (Acipenser medirostris), recently given a federally threatened status, and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were exposed to one of four nominal concentrations of dietary l-selenomethionine (SeMet) (0 ...
Yokoyama Shinji S Nutritional Health Science Research Center, Chubu University, Matsumoto-cho 1200, Kasugai 487-8501, Japan. Electronic address: - - 2014
Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP)-deficiency manifests a unique plasma lipoprotein profile without other apparent symptoms. It is highly common in East Asia while rather rare anywhere else. A potential environmental screening factor(s) may therefore contribute to this eccentric distribution, such as its selective advantage against a regional illness, most likely ...
Terao Junji J Institute of Health Biosciences, University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima, 770-8503, Japan, - - 2014
Cholesterol is one of the oxidizable lipids constituting biomembranes and plasma lipoproteins. Cholesterol hydroperoxides (Chol-OOH) are the primary products if cholesterol is subjected to attack by reactive oxygen species. In particular, singlet molecular oxygen reacts with cholesterol to yield cholesterol 5α-hydroperoxide as the major hydroperoxide species. Chol-OOH may accumulate in ...
Zhang Xiaojie X College of Life Science, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, China ; State Key Laboratory for Biology of Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, - - 2014
A rape seed pollen-based diet was developed and found to be suitable for use in a dietary exposure assay for Propylea japonica. Using the diet, we established and validated a dietary exposure assay by using the protease inhibitor E-64 as positive control. Dose-dependent responses were documented for all observed life-table ...
Antwis Rachael E RE Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester, United - - 2014
Amphibians support symbiotic bacterial communities on their skin that protect against a range of infectious pathogens, including the amphibian chytrid fungus. The conditions under which amphibians are maintained in captivity (e.g. diet, substrate, enrichment) in ex situ conservation programmes may affect the composition of the bacterial community. In addition, ex ...
Chiappe Luis M LM Dinosaur Institute, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County , Los Angeles, CA , - - 2014
The discovery of Hongshanornis longicresta, a small ornithuromorph bird with unusually long hindlimb proportions, was followed by the discovery of two closely related species, Longicrusavis houi and Parahongshanornis chaoyangensis. Together forming the Hongshanornithidae, these species reveal important information about the early diversity and morphological specialization of ornithuromorphs, the clade that ...
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