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Gattiker Cristina C Clinic for Zoo Animals, Exotic Pets and Wildlife, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, - - 2014
Although diet-related disorders have received much attention in the zoo literature, evidence-based results on relationships between diet and disease are still rare, often due to a lack of quantitative dietary information that can be linked to clinical or necropsy reports. We investigated 24 species of captive ruminants from one facility ...
Paramasiva Inakarla - - 2014
The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera is one of the most important crop pests worldwide. It has developed high levels of resistance to synthetic insecticides, and hence, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) formulations are used as a safer pesticide and the Bt genes have been deployed in transgenic crops for controlling this pest. ...
Neff Margaret R MR Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Sport Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program, Environmental Monitoring and Reporting Branch, 125 Resources Road, Toronto, ON, Canada M9P 3V6. Electronic address: - - 2014
Consumption of fish is promoted as a healthy way to obtain essential fatty acids (EFA) in the diet, yet the risk of ingesting harmful contaminants remains a concern. A recent study concluded that the risk-benefit of consuming fish from the North American Laurentian Great Lakes, which sustain important commercial and ...
Müller J J Clinic for Zoo Animals, Exotic Pets and Wildlife, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, - - 2014
Dental diseases are among the most important reasons for presenting guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and other rodents to veterinary clinics, but the aetiopathology of this disease complex is unclear. Clinicians tend to believe that the ever-growing teeth of rabbits and rodents have a constant growth that needs to be worn ...
Karamanlidis Alexandros A AA a MOm/Hellenic Society for the Study and Protection of the Monk seal , Athens , - - 2014
Understanding the ecology and behaviour of endangered species is essential for developing effective management and conservation strategies. We used stable isotope analysis to investigate the foraging behaviour of critically endangered Mediterranean monk seals (Monachus monachus) in Greece. We measured carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (expressed as δ(13)C and δ(15)N values, ...
Kholif S M SM Dairy Science Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, - - 2014
This study aimed at determining the variations in milk constituents which could be varied by feed and animal species. To achieve this goal, two groups of homoparity Baladi cows and Egyptian buffaloes (n = 20 per species) were used. Each group was divided into two subgroups (n = 10): subgroup I received legume forage ...
Srivathsan Amrita A Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, 117543, Singapore; Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, SL5 7PY, Ascot, - - 2014
Fecal samples are of great value as a non-invasive means to gather information on the genetics, distribution, demography, diet, and parasite infestation of endangered species. Direct shotgun sequencing of fecal DNA could give information on these simultaneously, but this approach is largely untested. Here we used two fecal samples to ...
Bricker Gregory V GV The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, - - 2014
Broccoli sprouts are a rich source of glucosinolates, a group of phytochemicals that when hydrolyzed, are associated with cancer prevention. Our objectives were to investigate the metabolism, distribution, and interconversion of isothiocyanates in mice fed thermally processed broccoli sprout powders (BSPs) or the purified isothiocyanate sulforaphane. For one week, mice ...
Martínez-Chávez C C CC Laboratorio de Acuicultura y Nutrición, Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias y Forestales, UMSNH, Av. San Juanito Itzícuaro, S/N Morelia, Michoacán, C.P. 58330, - - 2014
The effect of photoperiod on growth and survival in early life was determined in the tropical batch spawning atherinopsid, pike silverside Chirostoma estor. The results demonstrate high sensitivity of newly hatched C. estor to photoperiod treatments up to 90 days post hatch shown by improved growth in mass (43%) under ...
Maradonna Francesca F Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell'Ambiente, Università Politecnica delle Marche, 60131 Ancona, - - 2014
Previous studies in rats have indicated that a diet enriched with Bisphenol A adversely effects metabolism and reproductive success. In rats exposed to BPA by maternal gavage, alteration in the developmental programming, higher obesity rates and reproductive anomalies were induced. Starting with this evidence, the aim of this study was ...
Ullah Shahid A K M SA Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6E - - 2014
It is well known that female ixodid ticks undergo salivary gland degeneration and the greater part of ovarian development following engorgement. The process has been particularly well studied in Amblyomma hebraeum, including the hormonal control of these processes. The purpose of this study, and the second one in this series, ...
Jing Xiangfeng X Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, TAMU2475, College Station, TX, 77843; Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850. Electronic address: - - 2014
Insects lack the ability to synthesize sterols de novo so they acquire this essential nutrient from their food. Cholesterol is the dominant sterol found in most insects, but in plant vegetative tissue it makes up only a small fraction of the total sterol profile. Instead, plants mostly contain phytosterols; plant-feeding ...
Smith Matthew T MT Department of Biological Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas, 72701; Department of Biological Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota, - - 2014
Gape-limited predators are restricted in the shape and size of prey items they can ingest by their trophic morphology. Evolutionary theory predicts that gape-limited predators, such as rattlesnakes, should possess plasticity in their trophic morphology to allow them to respond to environmental cues about their prey base. This study examined ...
Donnelly-Greenan Erica L EL Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, 8272 Moss Landing Road, Moss Landing, CA 95039, USA; California Department of Fish and Wildlife Office of Spill Prevention and Response, Marine Wildlife Veterinary Care and Research Center, 1451 Shaffer Road, Santa Cruz, CA 95060, USA; Oikonos Ecosystem Knowledge, PO Box 2570, Santa Cruz, CA 95060, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Marine plastic pollution affects seabirds, including Pacific Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis rodgersii), that feed at the surface and mistake plastic for prey or incidentally ingest it. Direct and indirect health issues can result, including satiety and possibly leading to inefficient foraging. Our objective was to examine fulmar body condition, identify ...
Yun Ji-Hyun JH Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences and Department of Biology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, South - - 2014
Insects are the most abundant animals on Earth, and the microbiota within their guts play an important role by engaging in beneficial and pathological interactions with their host. Here, we comprehensively characterized insect-associated gut bacteria of 305 individuals belonging to 218 species in 21 taxonomic orders, using 454 pyrosequencing of ...
Ren Xiang-Liang XL Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests, College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu Province, - - 2014
Aminopeptidase N (APN) isoforms in insects have been documented to be involved in the mode of action of insecticidal crystal proteins (Cry) from Bacillus thuringiensis. Here we cloned two novel Seapns from the larval midgut of Spodoptera exigua, a major pest of many crops of economic importance in China. According ...
Bornatowski H H Universidade Federal do Paraná, Caixa Postal 19020, CEP 81531-980 Curitiba, PR, Brazil; GPIc - Grupo de Pesquisas em Ictiofauna, Museu de História Natural Capão da Imbuia, Rua Prof. Benedito Conceição, 407, 82810-080, Curitiba, PR, - - 2014
The diets of six shark species, Sphyrna lewini, Sphyrna zygaena, Carcharhinus obscurus, Carcharhinus limbatus, Rhizoprionodon lalandii and Galeocerdo cuvier, were investigated in a subtropical coastal ecosystem of southern Brazil. Stomach content data were obtained to assess foraging niche segregation and ontogenetic shifts in the diets of these sharks. Five of ...
D'Aguillo M C MC Grice Marine Laboratory, College of Charleston, 205 Fort Johnson, Charleston, SC 29412, - - 2014
The feeding ecology of the small-bodied benthic naked goby Gobiosoma bosc, a western Atlantic species that occurs in estuaries and other inshore habitats from Connecticut to Texas U.S.A., was investigated in a total of four estuaries spanning South Carolina, North Carolina, Maryland and New Jersey. Gut content analysis of 391 ...
Walker Alesia A Research Unit Analytical BioGeoChemistry, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, - - 2014
A combinatory approach using metabolomics and gut microbiome analysis techniques was performed to unravel the nature and specificity of metabolic profiles related to gut ecology in obesity. This study focused on gut and liver metabolomics of two different mouse strains, the C57BL/6J (C57J) and the C57BL/6N (C57N) fed with high-fat ...
Perez-Velazquez M M Departamento de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas, Universidad de Sonora, Sonora, México. - - 2014
The effects of environmental salinity on physiological responses, growth, and survival of the Gulf corvina, C. othonopterus, were evaluated in a 6-week completely randomized design experiment. Corvina (17.2 +/- 2.3 g mean initial body weight) were subjected to salinities of 5, 15, 25, and 35 ‰ and fed a commercial ...
Méndez Lucero L Laboratory "C" of Natural Products, Research Institute, Faculty of Pharmacy and Bioanalysis, University of Los Andes, Mérida, - - 2014
Jatropha curcas is a perennial herb, belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae, found in countries such as India, Mexico and Venezuela. In the present study, proximate composition and mineral content on the leaves of J. curcas was analysed and compared to spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) using a ICP-AES. The bromatologic test ...
Muchlinski Magdalena N MN Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Kentucky, College of Medicine, Lexington, - - 2014
The infraorbital foramen (IOF) is located below the orbit and transmits the sensory infraorbital nerve (ION) to mechanoreceptors located throughout the maxillary region. The size of the IOF correlates with the size of the ION; thus, the IOF appears to indicate relative touch sensitivity of maxillary region. In primates, IOF ...
Burkett-Cadena Nathan D ND Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, AL 36849; Department of Global Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, U.S.A.; Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, FL 32611, U.S.A.. - - 2014
The amplification of mosquito-borne pathogens is driven by patterns of host use by vectors. While each mosquito species is innately adapted to feed upon a particular group of hosts, this "preference" is difficult to assess in field-based studies, because factors such as host defenses and spatial and temporal overlap of ...
Su Jianya - - 2014
Mold contamination is an important issue in insect mass rearing. Frequently used antifungal agents such as sorbic acid and methylparaben have negative impact on many lepidopteran larvae, which might be one of the reasons for the difficulty in rearing rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Güenée). In this study, 19 antifungal agents, ...
Graham Robert I RI School of Biological Sciences, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia; Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia; Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
There is growing evidence to suggest that hosts can alter their dietary intake to recoup the specific resources involved in mounting effective resistance against parasites and pathogens. We examined macronutrient ingestion and disease-resistance in the Australian plague locust (Chortoicetes terminifera), challenged with a fungal pathogen (Metarhizium acridum) under dietary regimes ...
Bolnick Daniel I DI Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Section of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, 78712, - - 2014
Vertebrates' diets profoundly influence the composition of symbiotic gut microbial communities. Studies documenting diet-microbiota associations typically focus on univariate or categorical diet variables. However, in nature individuals often consume diverse combinations of foods. If diet components act independently, each providing distinct microbial colonists or nutrients, we expect a positive relationship ...
Roy Chowdhury Priyanka P Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, - - 2014
Understanding how the genome interacts with the environment to produce a diversity of phenotypes is a central challenge in biology. However, we know little about how traits involved in nutrient processing interact with key ecological parameters, such as the supply of mineral nutrients, particularly in animals. The framework of ecological ...
Sezmis Aysha Laila AL The Environmental Geology Group, The University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Over the past few decades, there has been considerable interest in hydrophobic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and their accumulative properties in aquatic organisms. Several factors, such as environmental concentrations (i.e. in sediment) and physiological characteristics of organisms determine species-specific accumulation patterns of POPs in marine animal tissue. The present study ...
Soininen Eeva M EM a Department of Arctic and Marine Biology , UiT The Arctic University of Norway , Tromsø , - - 2014
Intraspecific competition for food is expected to increase the trophic niche width of consumers, defined here as their diet diversity, but this process has been little studied in herbivores. Population densities of small rodents fluctuate greatly, providing a good study model to evaluate effects of competition on trophic niche. We ...
Akbar N N Vascular and Inflammatory Diseases Research Unit, Division of Cardiovascular and Diabetes Medicine, Medical Research Institute, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee, - - 2014
The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). High dietary cholesterol can significantly alter the delicate balance between pro-oxidation and antioxidant defences leading to reactive oxygen species formation in the vasculature, without significant structural changes in tissue composition. We aimed to establish a methodology for ...
Weekley Claire M CM School of Chemistry and Physics, The University of Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia. - - 2014
Dietary selenium has been implicated in the prevention of cancer and other diseases, but its safety and efficacy is dependent on the supplemented form and its metabolites. In this study, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) have been used to investigate the speciation and distribution of Se ...
Alonso Hany H Eco-Ethology Research Unit, ISPA, Rua Jardim do Tabaco 34, 1149-041, Lisboa, Portugal; Institute of Marine Research (IMAR/CMA), Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3004-517, Coimbra, Portugal; Museu Nacional História Natural e da Ciência, Universidade de Lisboa, Rua da Escola Politécnica 58, 1250-102, Lisboa, - - 2014
Knowledge of the dietary choices and trophic niches of organisms is the key to understanding their roles in ecosystems. In seabird diet studies, prey identification is a difficult challenge, often yielding results with technique-specific biases. Additionally, sampling efforts are often not extensive enough to reveal intra-populational variation. Immature animals, which ...
Alexandre Daniel D Departamento de Bioquímica, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianópolis, SC, - - 2014
The effect of dietary protein concentration on the spatial distribution of digestive proteinases in the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei indicates the existence of endo-ectoperitrophic enzyme circulation in this species. Samples recovered from the midgut gland tissues, stomach contents, three different portions of the midgut and feces were used for quantitative and ...
Hauerlandová Iva I Department of Fat, Tenside and Cosmetics Technology, Faculty of Technology, Tomas Bata University in Zlín, nám. T. G. Masaryka 275, 76272 Zlín, Czech - - 2014
Highly undesirable microbial contaminants of processed cheese are endospore-forming bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium. Survival of Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Clostridium butyricum and C. sporogenes was examined in model processed cheese samples supplemented with monoacylglycerols. In processed cheese samples, monoacylglycerols of undecanoic, undecenoic, lauric and adamantane-1-carboxylic acid at ...
Higgins B A BA Department of Biological Science, California State University, Fullerton, CA, 92831, - - 2014
Jaw mechanics and dietary breadth in California grunion Leuresthes tenuis and Gulf grunion Leuresthes sardina were compared with three other members of the tribe Atherinopsini to test whether these two species have evolved a novel jaw protrusion that might be associated with feeding narrowly on abundant prey near spawning beaches. ...
Stiner Mary C MC Department of Geosciences, School of Anthropology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ - - 2014
Aşıklı Höyük is the earliest known preceramic Neolithic mound site in Central Anatolia. The oldest Levels, 4 and 5, spanning 8,200 to approximately 9,000 cal B.C., associate with round-house architecture and arguably represent the birth of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic in the region. Results from upper Level 4, reported here, indicate ...
Mason Charles J - - 2014
Insects are associated with a diversity of bacteria that colonize their midguts. The extent to which these communities reflect maternal transmission, environmental acquisition, and subsequent structuring by the extreme conditions within the insect gut are poorly understood in many species. We used gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar L.) as a model ...
De León L F LF Centro de Biodiversidad y Descubrimiento de Drogas, Instituto de Investigaciones Científicas y Servicios de Alta Tecnología (INDICASAT-AIP), Panamá 5, Panamá; Redpath Museum & Department of Biology, McGill University, Montréal, QC, - - 2014
Adaptive radiation can be strongly influenced by interspecific competition for resources, which can lead to diverse outcomes ranging from competitive exclusion to character displacement. In each case, sympatric species are expected to evolve into distinct ecological niches, such as different food types, yet this expectation is not always met when ...
Marval-León Jean Rafael JR Dpto, Bromatología y Tecnología de Alimentos, Universidad de Córdoba, Campus de Rabanales s/n , Edificio Darwin C1, Córdoba , - - 2014
Abstract Twenty samples of fish and seafood products were selected for determination of total and bioaccessible Se (i.e. soluble and dialyzable). The Se contents ranged between 0.638-0.052 µg/g. The samples of fatty fish such as mackerel and tuna showed higher contents than the species of lean fish, and mainly the fresh ...
Li Li L School of Public Health, Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterised by many comorbidities related to aberrant mucosa and chronic inflammation in the respiratory and digestive systems. The intestinal mucosa serves as the primary interface between the gut microbiota and endocrine, neural and immune systems. There is emerging evidence that aberrant intestinal mucosa in CF may ...
Paciullo D S C DS 1 Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária Dairy Cattle, Rua Eugênio do Nascimento, 610, Dom Bosco, 36038330, Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, - - 2014
The silvopastoral system (SPS) has been suggested to ensure sustainability in animal production systems in tropical ecosystems. The objective of this study was to evaluate pasture characteristics, herbage intake, grazing activity and milk yield of Holstein×Zebu cows managed in two grazing systems (treatments): SPS dominated by a graminaceous forage (Brachiaria ...
Oudman Thomas T Department of Marine Ecology, Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ), Texel, The - - 2014
Abstract Among energy-maximizing animals, preferences for different prey can be explained by ranking the prey according to their energetic content. However, diet choice also depends on characteristics of the predator, such as the need to ingest necessary nutrients and the constraints imposed by digestion and toxins in food. In combination, ...
Sullivan Melissa M Department of Biology, McGuire Life Sciences Building, Amherst College, Amherst, MA, 01002, - - 2014
Carotenoids may act as antioxidants under many circumstances. We examined the importance of carotenoids as antioxidants in the gonads of male convict cichlids (Amatitlania nigrofasciata), a species in which males lack the carotenoid-based breeding coloration that characterizes females. Male fish were fed one of four diets that included different combinations ...
Larson Hannah K HK Department of Biology, California State University Dominguez Hills, 1000 E. Victoria St., Carson, CA, 90947, - - 2014
We document a facultative Bartonella-like Rhizobiales bacterium in the giant tropical ant, Paraponera clavata. In a lowland tropical rainforest in Costa Rica, 59 colonies were assayed for the prevalence of the Bartonella-like bacterium (BLB), 14 of which were positive. We addressed three questions: First, how does the prevalence of BLB ...
Dewar M L ML School of Exercise and Nutritional Sciences, Deakin University, Burwood, - - 2014
Despite the enormous amount of data available on the importance of gut microbiota in vertebrates (especially mammals), there is no information available on the microbiota of seabirds. Procellariiformes are long-lived seabirds that consume a diet high in lipids and are characterised by their ability to produce and store large amount ...
de Oliveira S G SG Curso de Pós-Graduação de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Pará/Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Pará, - - 2014
The Ka'apor capuchin, Cebus kaapori, is perhaps the most endangered primate of the Brazilian Amazon. Endemic to a region with extreme intensification of habitat-degrading activities, it survives in remnant populations in a completely fragmented landscape. Before now, the only data available were isolated observations of feeding, locality records, and information ...
Waterhouse Benjamin R BR Bio-Protection Research Centre, Lincoln University, P.O. Box 85084, Lincoln, 7647, New Zealand, - - 2014
Identifying and understanding predator diets is of high importance in biological conservation. This is particularly true for the introduction, establishment and maintenance of predator populations in newly created or modified ecological communities, such as translocation sites or restored habitats. Conservation status of predators may not permit captive feeding trials or ...
Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau A A MTT Agrifood Research Finland, Animal Production Research, FI-31600 Jokioinen, Finland; University of Helsinki, Department of Agricultural Sciences, PO Box 28, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, - - 2014
Diets based on red clover silage (RCS) typically increase the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in ruminant meat and milk and lower the efficiency of N utilization compared with grass silages (GS). Four multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows (108 d postpartum) fitted with rumen cannulas were used in a 4 ...
Sedlock Jodi L JL Biology Department, Lawrence University, 711 E. Boldt Way, Appleton, WI, 54911, - - 2014
Differences in body size, echolocation call frequency, and location may result in diet partitioning among bat species. Comparisons among island populations are one way to evaluate these competing hypotheses. We conducted a species-level diet analysis of three Rhinolophus and one Hipposideros species on the Philippine islands of Cebu, Bohol, and ...
Schmidt Justin O JO Southwestern Biological Institute, 1961 W. Brichta Dr., Tucson, AZ 85745, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Insects provide an important part of the diet of primates, including hominins. Investigations of insectivory in primates has focused primarily on the value of insects in the diet, and on the means of obtaining the insects, with little attention devoted to the predator-prey relationship itself and less to evolutionary aspects ...
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