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Schwarcz Henry P HP School of Geography and Earth Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada, L8S - - 2014
In 1982, Chisholm et al. used δ(13) C data for human burials from shell midden sites widely distributed on the coast of British Columbia (BC) to show the extreme dependence of these individuals on high trophic level marine consumers, principally salmon and marine mammals. Here, we present previously unpublished analyses ...
Ramos J A A JA Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia da Paraíba (IFPB)-Campus Cabedelo, Rua Santa Rita de Cássia, s/n, Jardim Jericó, Cabedelo, Paraíba, CEP 58310-000, Brazil; Laboratório de Ecologia e Gerenciamento de Ecossistemas Costeiros e Estuarinos, Departamento de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitária, Recife, Pernambuco, CEP 50740-550, Brazil; Instituto de Ecologia e Gerenciamento de Ecossistemas Costeiros e Estuarinos (IEGEA), P. O. Box 8132, Recife, Pernambuco, CEP 51020-970, - - 2014
The diet and mouth growth rates of three Gerreidae species (Eugerres brasilianus, Eucinostomus melanopterus and Diapterus rhombeus) were assessed at different ontogenetic phases (juveniles, sub-adults and adults) in order to detect allometric growth, and whether they are related to habitat and seasonal changes in the Goiana Estuary, north-east Brazil. The ...
Malenke Jael R - - 2014
Nearly 40 years ago, Freeland and Janzen predicted that liver biotransformation enzymes dictated diet selection by herbivores. Despite decades of research on model species and humans, little is known about the biotransformation mechanisms used by mammalian herbivores to metabolize plant secondary compounds (PSCs). We investigated the independent evolution of PSC ...
Beck Michelle L ML Department of Fish and Wildlife Conservation, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA, 24061-0321, - - 2014
Emerging aquatic insects play a key role in transporting aquatic nutrients and contaminants to riparian consumers. However, little is known about how within and between year variation in the diet or patterns of element bioaccumulation in emerging insect taxa may influence the risk of exposure to wildlife. During two breeding ...
Toledo-Lima Guilherme S GS Laboratório de Ornitologia e Taxidermia, Museu de História Natural, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Maceió, AL, - - 2014
In northeastern Brazil, the reduction of the natural forest cover to a series of small, isolated fragments has had negative consequences for the local avian fauna, in particular, a loss of the more specialized species, while the populations of some generalists have tended to increase. The present study focuses on ...
Sado Ricardo Y RY Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, Campus de Dois Vizinhos, Dois Vizinhos, PR, - - 2014
Intensification of aquaculture production systems exposes fish to numerous stressors, which may negatively affect their growth and limit profitability of aquaculture systems. This study determined effects of increasing levels of dietary mannanoligosaccharides on growth and intestine morphology of pacu. Fish (44.04 g) were randomly distributed into 32 tanks (500 L; ...
Murphy Mary M MM Exponent, Inc.,1150 Connecticut Avenue, Northwest, Suite - - 2014
Despite dietary recommendations that have repeatedly underscored the importance of increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables, intakes worldwide are lower than recommended levels. Consequently, the diets of many individuals may be lacking in nutrients and phytonutrients typical of a diet rich in a variety of fruits and vegetables. In the ...
Tapia-Paniagua Silvana S Departamento de Microbiología, Universidad de Málaga, Campus de Teatinos s/n, 29071, Málaga, - - 2014
Ingestion of bacteria at early stages results in establishment of a primary intestinal microbiota which likely undergoes several stages along fish life. The role of this intestinal microbiota regulating body functions is crucial for larval development. Probiotics have been proved to modulate this microbiota and exert antagonistic effects against fish ...
Brito S V SV Departamento de Química Biológica, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Regional do Cariri-URCA, Campus do Pimenta, Crato, CE, 63105-000, Brazil, - - 2014
Trophic networks can have architectonic configurations influenced by historical and ecological factors. The objective of this study was to analyze the architecture of networks between lizards, their endoparasites, diet, and micro-habitat, aiming to understand which factors exert an influence on the composition of the species of parasites. All networks showed ...
Schlotz Nina N Limnological Institute, University of Konstanz, Mainaustrasse 252, 78464, Konstanz, Germany; Institute for Environmental Health Sciences and Hospital Infection Control, Medical Center, University of Freiburg, Breisacher Strasse 115b, 79106, Freiburg, - - 2014
A dietary deficiency in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and/or sterols can severely constrain growth and reproduction of invertebrate consumers. Single nutrients are potentially assigned to different physiological processes, e.g. to support defense mechanisms; therefore, lipid requirements of healthy and pathogen-challenged consumers might differ. In an oral exposure experiment we explored ...
Pekár Stano S Department of Botany & Zoology, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37, Brno, Czech - - 2014
Predators appear to be less frequently specialised (i.e. adapted to restricted diet) on their prey than herbivores, parasites or parasitoids. Here, we critically evaluate contemporary evolutionary hypotheses that might be used to explain the evolution of specialised foraging in predators. We propose a unifying concept within which we define four ...
Roggenbuck Michael M University of Copenhagen, Department of Biology, Microbiology, Universitetsparken 15, DK-2100, Copenhagen O, - - 2014
Recent studies have shown that wild ruminants are sources of previously un-described microorganisms, knowledge of which can improve our understanding of the complex microbial interactions in the foregut. Here we investigated the microbial community of 7 wild-caught giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis), 3 of which were fed natural browse and 4 were ...
McCartney C A CA Organic Geochemistry Unit, School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock's Close, Bristol, BS8 1TS, UK Teagasc, Animal and Grassland Research and Innovation Centre, Grange, Dunsany, Co. Meath, Ireland - - 2014
The distinctive membrane lipids of the archaea can contain a wide range of chemical structures. The membrane lipid composition of ruminal methanogenic archaea has not yet been characterized. In this study, we analyzed proportions of the core archaeal membrane lipids dialkyl glycerol diethers (DGDG) and glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT). ...
Kambashi Bienvenu B Université de Kinshasa, Mont-Amba, Lemba, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the - - 2014
The effects of four tropical forage legume hays (Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis) on voluntary feed intake (VFI) and their nutritive value were studied in growing pigs using a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing varying proportions of forage legume hays (0, 10, 20 and 40 % or 0, ...
Montemurno Eustacchio E DETO, Nephrology Unit - University of Bari Aldo Moro, Bari, - - 2014
In this review we elucidate the role of gut microbiota as the plausible missing link between food and health, focusing on chronic kidney disease (CKD). Microbiota, the microbial community harboured in the large intestine, is considered a symbiotic "supplementary organ". It contributes to digestion, mainly through two catabolic pathways: saccharolytic ...
Pecoraro Valentina V Clinical Epidemiology Unit, IRCCS Orthopedic Institute Galeazzi, Via Riccardo Galeazzi 4, 20161, Milan, - - 2014
In animal models and clinical trials, statins are reported as effective in reducing cholesterol levels and lowering the risk of cardiovascular diseases. We have aggregated the findings in animal models - mice, rats and rabbits - using the technique of systematic review and meta-analysis to highlight differences in the efficacy ...
Gattiker Cristina C Clinic for Zoo Animals, Exotic Pets and Wildlife, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, - - 2014
Although diet-related disorders have received much attention in the zoo literature, evidence-based results on relationships between diet and disease are still rare, often due to a lack of quantitative dietary information that can be linked to clinical or necropsy reports. We investigated 24 species of captive ruminants from one facility ...
Paramasiva Inakarla - - 2014
The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera is one of the most important crop pests worldwide. It has developed high levels of resistance to synthetic insecticides, and hence, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) formulations are used as a safer pesticide and the Bt genes have been deployed in transgenic crops for controlling this pest. ...
Casazza Michael L ML U.S. Geological Survey, Western Ecological Research Center, Dixon Field Station, 800 Business Park Drive, Suite D, Dixon, CA 95620, United States. Electronic address: - - 2014
California Clapper Rails (Rallus longirostris obsoletus) are an endangered waterbird that forage in tidal-marsh habitats that pose risks from mercury exposure. We analyzed total mercury (Hg) in six macro-invertebrate and one fish species representing Clapper Rail diets from four tidal-marshes in San Francisco Bay, California. Mercury concentrations among individual taxa ...
Neff Margaret R MR Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Sport Fish Contaminant Monitoring Program, Environmental Monitoring and Reporting Branch, 125 Resources Road, Toronto, ON, Canada M9P 3V6. Electronic address: - - 2014
Consumption of fish is promoted as a healthy way to obtain essential fatty acids (EFA) in the diet, yet the risk of ingesting harmful contaminants remains a concern. A recent study concluded that the risk-benefit of consuming fish from the North American Laurentian Great Lakes, which sustain important commercial and ...
Müller J J Clinic for Zoo Animals, Exotic Pets and Wildlife, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Zurich, - - 2014
Dental diseases are among the most important reasons for presenting guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) and other rodents to veterinary clinics, but the aetiopathology of this disease complex is unclear. Clinicians tend to believe that the ever-growing teeth of rabbits and rodents have a constant growth that needs to be worn ...
Karamanlidis Alexandros A AA a MOm/Hellenic Society for the Study and Protection of the Monk seal , Athens , - - 2014
Understanding the ecology and behaviour of endangered species is essential for developing effective management and conservation strategies. We used stable isotope analysis to investigate the foraging behaviour of critically endangered Mediterranean monk seals (Monachus monachus) in Greece. We measured carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (expressed as δ(13)C and δ(15)N values, ...
Kholif S M SM Dairy Science Department, National Research Centre, Dokki, Giza, - - 2014
This study aimed at determining the variations in milk constituents which could be varied by feed and animal species. To achieve this goal, two groups of homoparity Baladi cows and Egyptian buffaloes (n = 20 per species) were used. Each group was divided into two subgroups (n = 10): subgroup I received legume forage ...
Srivathsan Amrita A Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 14 Science Drive 4, 117543, Singapore; Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, Silwood Park Campus, SL5 7PY, Ascot, - - 2014
Fecal samples are of great value as a non-invasive means to gather information on the genetics, distribution, demography, diet, and parasite infestation of endangered species. Direct shotgun sequencing of fecal DNA could give information on these simultaneously, but this approach is largely untested. Here we used two fecal samples to ...
Bricker Gregory V GV The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, - - 2014
Broccoli sprouts are a rich source of glucosinolates, a group of phytochemicals that when hydrolyzed, are associated with cancer prevention. Our objectives were to investigate the metabolism, distribution, and interconversion of isothiocyanates in mice fed thermally processed broccoli sprout powders (BSPs) or the purified isothiocyanate sulforaphane. For one week, mice ...
Martínez-Chávez C C CC Laboratorio de Acuicultura y Nutrición, Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias y Forestales, UMSNH, Av. San Juanito Itzícuaro, S/N Morelia, Michoacán, C.P. 58330, - - 2014
The effect of photoperiod on growth and survival in early life was determined in the tropical batch spawning atherinopsid, pike silverside Chirostoma estor. The results demonstrate high sensitivity of newly hatched C. estor to photoperiod treatments up to 90 days post hatch shown by improved growth in mass (43%) under ...
Maradonna Francesca F Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita e dell'Ambiente, Università Politecnica delle Marche, 60131 Ancona, - - 2014
Previous studies in rats have indicated that a diet enriched with Bisphenol A adversely effects metabolism and reproductive success. In rats exposed to BPA by maternal gavage, alteration in the developmental programming, higher obesity rates and reproductive anomalies were induced. Starting with this evidence, the aim of this study was ...
Ullah Shahid A K M SA Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6E - - 2014
It is well known that female ixodid ticks undergo salivary gland degeneration and the greater part of ovarian development following engorgement. The process has been particularly well studied in Amblyomma hebraeum, including the hormonal control of these processes. The purpose of this study, and the second one in this series, ...
Jing Xiangfeng X Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, TAMU2475, College Station, TX, 77843; Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850. Electronic address: - - 2014
Insects lack the ability to synthesize sterols de novo so they acquire this essential nutrient from their food. Cholesterol is the dominant sterol found in most insects, but in plant vegetative tissue it makes up only a small fraction of the total sterol profile. Instead, plants mostly contain phytosterols; plant-feeding ...
Smith Matthew T MT Department of Biological Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas, 72701; Department of Biological Sciences, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota, - - 2014
Gape-limited predators are restricted in the shape and size of prey items they can ingest by their trophic morphology. Evolutionary theory predicts that gape-limited predators, such as rattlesnakes, should possess plasticity in their trophic morphology to allow them to respond to environmental cues about their prey base. This study examined ...
Donnelly-Greenan Erica L EL Moss Landing Marine Laboratories, 8272 Moss Landing Road, Moss Landing, CA 95039, USA; California Department of Fish and Wildlife Office of Spill Prevention and Response, Marine Wildlife Veterinary Care and Research Center, 1451 Shaffer Road, Santa Cruz, CA 95060, USA; Oikonos Ecosystem Knowledge, PO Box 2570, Santa Cruz, CA 95060, USA. Electronic address: - - 2014
Marine plastic pollution affects seabirds, including Pacific Northern Fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis rodgersii), that feed at the surface and mistake plastic for prey or incidentally ingest it. Direct and indirect health issues can result, including satiety and possibly leading to inefficient foraging. Our objective was to examine fulmar body condition, identify ...
Bougaham Abdelazize Franck AF Laboratoire de zoologie appliquée et d'écophysiologie animale, Faculté des sciences de la nature et de la vie, Université de Bejaia, 06000 Bejaia, Algeria. Electronic address: - - 2014
The diet composition of the Grey Wagtail Motacilla cinerea of the Babor Range is followed by analysis of faecal samples (90 faeces) before and during the breeding season 2010. The Grey Wagtail's diet varies depending on the stage of the breeding cycle at the southern edge of their breeding area ...
Yun Ji-Hyun JH Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences and Department of Biology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, South - - 2014
Insects are the most abundant animals on Earth, and the microbiota within their guts play an important role by engaging in beneficial and pathological interactions with their host. Here, we comprehensively characterized insect-associated gut bacteria of 305 individuals belonging to 218 species in 21 taxonomic orders, using 454 pyrosequencing of ...
Ren Xiang-Liang XL Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Crop Diseases and Pests, College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, Jiangsu Province, - - 2014
Aminopeptidase N (APN) isoforms in insects have been documented to be involved in the mode of action of insecticidal crystal proteins (Cry) from Bacillus thuringiensis. Here we cloned two novel Seapns from the larval midgut of Spodoptera exigua, a major pest of many crops of economic importance in China. According ...
Bornatowski H H Universidade Federal do Paraná, Caixa Postal 19020, CEP 81531-980 Curitiba, PR, Brazil; GPIc - Grupo de Pesquisas em Ictiofauna, Museu de História Natural Capão da Imbuia, Rua Prof. Benedito Conceição, 407, 82810-080, Curitiba, PR, - - 2014
The diets of six shark species, Sphyrna lewini, Sphyrna zygaena, Carcharhinus obscurus, Carcharhinus limbatus, Rhizoprionodon lalandii and Galeocerdo cuvier, were investigated in a subtropical coastal ecosystem of southern Brazil. Stomach content data were obtained to assess foraging niche segregation and ontogenetic shifts in the diets of these sharks. Five of ...
D'Aguillo M C MC Grice Marine Laboratory, College of Charleston, 205 Fort Johnson, Charleston, SC 29412, - - 2014
The feeding ecology of the small-bodied benthic naked goby Gobiosoma bosc, a western Atlantic species that occurs in estuaries and other inshore habitats from Connecticut to Texas U.S.A., was investigated in a total of four estuaries spanning South Carolina, North Carolina, Maryland and New Jersey. Gut content analysis of 391 ...
Walker Alesia A Research Unit Analytical BioGeoChemistry, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Neuherberg, - - 2014
A combinatory approach using metabolomics and gut microbiome analysis techniques was performed to unravel the nature and specificity of metabolic profiles related to gut ecology in obesity. This study focused on gut and liver metabolomics of two different mouse strains, the C57BL/6J (C57J) and the C57BL/6N (C57N) fed with high-fat ...
Perez-Velazquez M M Departamento de Investigaciones Científicas y Tecnológicas, Universidad de Sonora, Sonora, México. - - 2014
The effects of environmental salinity on physiological responses, growth, and survival of the Gulf corvina, C. othonopterus, were evaluated in a 6-week completely randomized design experiment. Corvina (17.2 +/- 2.3 g mean initial body weight) were subjected to salinities of 5, 15, 25, and 35 ‰ and fed a commercial ...
Méndez Lucero L Laboratory "C" of Natural Products, Research Institute, Faculty of Pharmacy and Bioanalysis, University of Los Andes, Mérida, - - 2014
Jatropha curcas is a perennial herb, belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae, found in countries such as India, Mexico and Venezuela. In the present study, proximate composition and mineral content on the leaves of J. curcas was analysed and compared to spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) using a ICP-AES. The bromatologic test ...
Muchlinski Magdalena N MN Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Kentucky, College of Medicine, Lexington, - - 2014
The infraorbital foramen (IOF) is located below the orbit and transmits the sensory infraorbital nerve (ION) to mechanoreceptors located throughout the maxillary region. The size of the IOF correlates with the size of the ION; thus, the IOF appears to indicate relative touch sensitivity of maxillary region. In primates, IOF ...
Burkett-Cadena Nathan D ND Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology, Auburn University, AL 36849; Department of Global Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33612, U.S.A.; Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, FL 32611, U.S.A.. - - 2014
The amplification of mosquito-borne pathogens is driven by patterns of host use by vectors. While each mosquito species is innately adapted to feed upon a particular group of hosts, this "preference" is difficult to assess in field-based studies, because factors such as host defenses and spatial and temporal overlap of ...
Su Jianya - - 2014
Mold contamination is an important issue in insect mass rearing. Frequently used antifungal agents such as sorbic acid and methylparaben have negative impact on many lepidopteran larvae, which might be one of the reasons for the difficulty in rearing rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Güenée). In this study, 19 antifungal agents, ...
Reynaga María Celina - - 2014
The trophic ecology of the aquatic insect fauna has been widely studied for the Northern temperate zone. However, the taxa originally classified within a given particular trophic group in temperate ecosystems, do not necessarily exhibit the same dietary profile beyond its geographic limits. Since, the trophic ecology of caddisfly larvae ...
Graham Robert I RI School of Biological Sciences, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia; Charles Perkins Centre, University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia; Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster University, Lancaster, LA1 4YQ, UK. Electronic address: - - 2014
There is growing evidence to suggest that hosts can alter their dietary intake to recoup the specific resources involved in mounting effective resistance against parasites and pathogens. We examined macronutrient ingestion and disease-resistance in the Australian plague locust (Chortoicetes terminifera), challenged with a fungal pathogen (Metarhizium acridum) under dietary regimes ...
Bolnick Daniel I DI Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Section of Integrative Biology, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, 78712, - - 2014
Vertebrates' diets profoundly influence the composition of symbiotic gut microbial communities. Studies documenting diet-microbiota associations typically focus on univariate or categorical diet variables. However, in nature individuals often consume diverse combinations of foods. If diet components act independently, each providing distinct microbial colonists or nutrients, we expect a positive relationship ...
Roy Chowdhury Priyanka P Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, - - 2014
Understanding how the genome interacts with the environment to produce a diversity of phenotypes is a central challenge in biology. However, we know little about how traits involved in nutrient processing interact with key ecological parameters, such as the supply of mineral nutrients, particularly in animals. The framework of ecological ...
Sezmis Aysha Laila AL The Environmental Geology Group, The University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia. Electronic address: - - 2014
Over the past few decades, there has been considerable interest in hydrophobic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and their accumulative properties in aquatic organisms. Several factors, such as environmental concentrations (i.e. in sediment) and physiological characteristics of organisms determine species-specific accumulation patterns of POPs in marine animal tissue. The present study ...
Soininen Eeva M EM a Department of Arctic and Marine Biology , UiT The Arctic University of Norway , Tromsø , - - 2014
Intraspecific competition for food is expected to increase the trophic niche width of consumers, defined here as their diet diversity, but this process has been little studied in herbivores. Population densities of small rodents fluctuate greatly, providing a good study model to evaluate effects of competition on trophic niche. We ...
Akbar N N Vascular and Inflammatory Diseases Research Unit, Division of Cardiovascular and Diabetes Medicine, Medical Research Institute, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, University of Dundee, Dundee, - - 2014
The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). High dietary cholesterol can significantly alter the delicate balance between pro-oxidation and antioxidant defences leading to reactive oxygen species formation in the vasculature, without significant structural changes in tissue composition. We aimed to establish a methodology for ...
Weekley Claire M CM School of Chemistry and Physics, The University of Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia. - - 2014
Dietary selenium has been implicated in the prevention of cancer and other diseases, but its safety and efficacy is dependent on the supplemented form and its metabolites. In this study, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) have been used to investigate the speciation and distribution of Se ...
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