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Ross Lynda J - - 2011
Dietary trials may link macronutrient intakes to health outcomes, but adherence to dietary targets requires advice based on an understanding of food composition and consumption patterns. Using data from a weight loss trial, we hypothesized that structured advice would be required for significant fat modification to occur. We compared participants' ...
Martins Gustavo Ferreira - - 2011
The insect fat body plays major roles in the intermediary metabolism, in the storage and transport of haemolymph compounds and in the innate immunity. Here, the overall structure of the fat body of five species of mosquitoes (Aedes albopictus, Aedes fluviatilis, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles aquasalis and Anopheles darlingi) was compared ...
Minot Samuel - - 2011
Immense populations of viruses are present in the human gut and other body sites. Understanding the role of these populations (the human "virome") in health and disease requires a much deeper understanding of their composition and dynamics in the face of environmental perturbation. Here, we investigate viromes from human subjects ...
Ahn Seung-Joon - - 2011
Capsaicin β-glucoside was isolated from the feces of Helicoverpa armigera, Helicoverpa assulta, and Helicoverpa zea that fed on capsaicin-supplemented artificial diet. The chemical structure was identified by NMR spectroscopic analysis as well as by enzymatic hydrolysis. The excretion rates of the glucoside were different among the three species; those in ...
Barros F C - - 2011
Habitat usage comprises interactions between ecological parameters and organismal capacities, and the selective pressures that ultimately determine the outcome of such processes in an evolutionary scale may be conflicting when the same morphological structure is recruited for different activities. Here, we investigate the roles of diet and locomotion in the ...
Camont Laurent - - 2011
The concept of raising high-density lipoprotein (HDL) has been the focus of increasing attention as a strategy to reduce cardiovascular disease. HDL particles are, however, highly heterogeneous in structure, intravascular metabolism and biological activity. In this review, we describe major HDL subpopulations and discuss new findings on the antiatherogenic properties ...
Salakhutdinov N F - - 2011
This review is the first attempt at systematization and analysis of the literature data (covering the last decade) on the chemical structures and specific activities of cholesterol-regulating agents. Six of thirty currently known biological targets for treating hyperlipidemia were selected and considered. All of the chemical structures under study are ...
Hall Justin - - 2011
CETP (cholesteryl ester-transfer protein) is essential for neutral lipid transfer between HDL (high-density lipoprotein) and LDL (low-density lipoprotein) and plays a critical role in the reverse cholesterol transfer pathway. In clinical trials, CETP inhibitors increase HDL levels and reduce LDL levels, and therefore may be used as a potential treatment ...
Suo Tao - - 2011
By investigating the identities, amounts, and distributions of the major components of human gallstones, the formation mechanism of calculi may be elucidated. Using FT-IR specular reflection spectroscopy, the compositions of five common types of gallstones, including cholesterol calculus, bile pigment calculus, cholesterol-bilirubin calculus, mixed calculus, and black stones, were positionally, ...
Corrigan A - - 2011
This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with a prebiotic mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) on broiler performance, bacterial community structure, and phylogenetic populations of cecal contents. Bird performance data were collected, and cecal samples were extracted from randomly caught poults from each treatment group every 7 days from hatching to ...
Nasir Mehmet Nail - - 2011
Mycosubtilin is a natural antimicrobial lipopeptide produced by Bacillus subtilis strains. It is characterized by its hemolytic and strong antifungal activities. Mycosubtilin interacts with the plasma membranes of sensitive cells. However, the molecular mechanisms of its biological activities have not been completely elucidated. Our purpose was therefore to analyze the ...
Wanders A J - - 2011
Dietary fibres are believed to reduce subjective appetite, energy intake and body weight. However, different types of dietary fibre may affect these outcomes differently. The aim of this review was to systematically investigate the available literature on the relationship between dietary fibre types, appetite, acute and long-term energy intake, and ...
El-Kirsh Amal Ashmawy Ahmed - - 2011
The aim of the present study is to investigate the potential role of L-arginine or L-citrulline in rats fed high-fat and high-cholesterol (HFC) diet. HFC feeding increased significantly serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities, urea and all lipid profiles and decreased significantly serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) and ...
Kreider Richard B - - 2011
A number of diet and exercise programs purport to help promote and maintain weight loss. However, few studies have compared the efficacy of different methods. To determine whether adherence to a meal-replacement-based diet program (MRP) with encouragement to increase physical activity is as effective as following a more structured meal-plan-based ...
Smith T M - - 2011
Diets of the pipefish Stigmatopora nigra were analysed to determine if food availability was causing S. nigra to distribute according to habitat edge effects. Gut analysis found little difference in the diets of S. nigra at the edge and interior of seagrass patches, regardless of time of day or season. ...
Sengupta Avery - - 2011
OBJECTIVE: The hypolipidemic effect of two structured lipids prepared from mustard oil was studied: one was medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) rich mustard oil and the other was polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) rich mustard oil. METHODS: Thirty-six rats were involved in the study with six rats in each group. Three ...
Jumpertz Reiner - - 2011
Studies in mice indicate that the gut microbiome influences both sides of the energy-balance equation by contributing to nutrient absorption and regulating host genes that affect adiposity. However, it remains uncertain as to what extent gut microbiota are an important regulator of nutrient absorption in humans. With the use of ...
Lin Xiaobo X Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Lipid Research, Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, Campus Box 8127, 660 South Euclid Ave., St. Louis, MO 63110, - - 2011
Phytosteryl glycosides occur in natural foods but little is known about their metabolism and bioactivity. Purified acylated steryl glycosides (ASG) were compared with phytosteryl esters (PSE) in mice. Animals on a phytosterol-free diet received ASG or PSE by gavage in purified soybean oil along with tracers cholesterol-d(7) and sitostanol-d(4). In ...
Kugler Christiane - - 2011
Background: Adherence to diet and fluid restrictions by adults on hemodialysis treatment is challenging. This study compared non-adherence (NA) to diet and fluid restrictions between adult US and German hemodialysis patients, and assessed potential predictors for NA. Methods: A cross-sectional multicenter comparative study of 456 adult hemodialysis patients was conducted ...
Pritchett Carolyn E CE Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, The Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Department of Neural and Behavioral Sciences, Hershey, PA 17033, United - - 2011
Chronic overeating of obesogenic diets can lead to obesity, reduced dopamine signaling, and increased consumption of added sugars to compensate for blunted reward. However, the specific role of diet composition yet remains unknown. To study this, Sprague-Dawley male rats were fed a high-energy diet with high fat and low carbohydrate ...
Fasina Y O - - 2011
The intestine of the newly hatched chick is immature at hatch. Yeast contains nucleotides and β-glucans that enhance intestinal development and chick growth. Accordingly, a 14-d experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a novel yeast product and bacitracin methylene disalicylate in enhancing early growth and intestinal maturation in ...
Fu Jin J Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California 92697-4625, - - 2011
Ingestion of dietary fat stimulates production of the small-intestinal satiety factors oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and N-palmitoyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (NPPE), which reduce food intake through a combination of local (OEA) and systemic (NPPE) actions. Previous studies have shown that sympathetic innervation of the gut is necessary for duodenal infusions of fat to induce satiety, ...
Ferreira Eduardo Antonio - - 2011
This study evaluated the hypolipidemic and antiobesity effects of phloroacetophenone (2',4',6'-trihydroxyacetophenone, THA) isolated from MYRCIA MULTIFLORA and their relationship with triglyceride (TG) intestinal absorption and pancreatic lipase activity inhibition. The hypolipidemic effect of THA was evaluated by acute (Triton WR-1339 treatment) and chronic assay (high-fat diet treatment), the antiobesity effect ...
Pérez-Berezo Teresa - - 2011
Scope: Previous studies have shown that a highly enriched cocoa diet affects both intestinal and systemic immune function in young rats. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether diets containing lower amounts of cocoa could also influence the systemic and intestinal humoral immune response. Methods and results: Fecal ...
Pirgozliev V - - 2011
1. A total of 40 female BUT9 turkeys were used in a precision-feeding assay to investigate the effect of dietary phytase on true metabolisable energy corrected for N retention (TME(N)), coefficients of true dry matter (TDMD), mineral, amino acid and nitrogen (TND) digestibilities and the excretion of endogenous mucin, measured ...
Susenbeth Andreas - - 2011
In cereal-based diets, non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) lower precaecal nutrient absorption and increase endogenous protein and amino acid (AA) losses. Adding exogenous NSP-degrading enzymes aims amongst others to reduce these negative effects and to thereby improve protein and AA supply. However, biased results exist in the literature on their efficacy in ...
Woyengo T A - - 2011
An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary phytic acid (PA) and phytase supplementation on small intestinal histomorphology and sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1) gene expression in piglets. Twenty-four piglets with an average initial BW of 7.60 ± 0.73 kg were randomly assigned to 3 experimental diets to ...
Vahjen W - - 2011
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of high level of dietary ZnO on the bacterial core and enterobacterial composition in the small intestine of piglets, and they were fed diets containing a total of 124 or 3,042 mg Zn per kg diet, respectively. Zinc was supplemented to the ...
Viveros A - - 2011
Grapes have high amounts of phenolic compounds, which can modulate the gut activity as well as modify the structure and function of the gastrointestinal tract. The microbiological activity of avoparcin, grape pomace concentrate, and grape seed extract was evaluated in an in vitro study. An in vivo experiment was also ...
Lu J - - 2011
The objective of the current study was to investigate the influence of including whole corn (WC) in goose diets on the performance, digestive tract development, and nutrient retention. A total of 112 Yangzhou geese, 7 d old and with similar BW, were distributed into 8 pens of 14 birds/pen (7 ...
Kohl Kevin D - - 2011
Abstract Evolutionary shifts in diet composition are presumably accompanied by simultaneous changes in digestive physiology. The adaptive modulation hypothesis predicts that activities of digestive enzymes should match the relative levels of their substrates in an animal's diet so that available membrane space and synthetic energy are not wasted on enzymes ...
Atia Antwan A Department of Internal Medicine, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee, - - 2011
Diet may play an important role in the management of patients with short bowel syndrome who have colon in continuity. However, macronutrient absorption has not been well characterized, and the most appropriate dietary constituents have not been well defined. To define carbohydrate absorption characteristics in patients with short bowel syndrome ...
Piskorski Rafal - - 2011
Besides apple, its primary host, the codling moth (Cydia pomonella) uses walnut as a secondary host. Abundance of toxic naphthoquinones, among which juglone prevails, does not restrain this economically important pest insect from infesting walnut, but processes underlying the suitability of this host were yet unknown. Larvae feeding on an ...
Hou Yongqing - - 2011
The present study determined whether α-ketoglutarate (AKG) might affect the expression of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and energy status in the intestinal mucosa of piglets challenged with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A total of eighteen piglets (weaned at 21 d of age) were allocated to one of three treatments: (1) non-challenged ...
de Romaña Daniel López - - 2011
Copper is an essential micronutrient involved in a variety of biological processes indispensable to sustain life. At the same time, it can be toxic when present in excess, the most noticeable chronic effect being liver damage. Potent, efficient regulatory mechanisms control copper absorption in the digestive tract and copper biliary ...
Averina E S - - 2011
Marine foods represent a unique source of poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of the omega-3 (n-3) family. Today it is generally accepted that fish oil is important in a healthy and balanced omnivorous human diet. This favorable health perception of fish oil is however troubled by the high level of PUFA ...
Rideout Todd C - - 2011
There is substantial interindividual variation in the response of blood lipids to dietary therapies. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent developments in identifying patient-specific factors that contribute to the significant heterogeneity of responsiveness in lipids to dietary changes and consumption of dietary bioactive compounds. Recent findings suggest ...
Kalmendal R - - 2011
1. An experiment was conducted to evaluate high-fibre sunflower cake (HF-SFC); a feed ingredient distinguished by large amounts of crude fibre and insoluble non-starch polysaccharides (i-NSP). 2. Broiler chickens (n = 160) were fed on pelleted maize-based diets free from coccidiostats and antibiotic growth promoters between 15 and 31 d ...
Miralles-Arnau Silvia - - 2011
BACKGROUND: To investigate the absorption and relative bioavailability of leucine administered orally as part of an enteral diet in well and malnourished animals. METHODS: Two groups - RN (regular nutrition) and PCR (protein-calorie restricted) - were fed with different diets for 23-25 days. Rats from each group were assigned randomly ...
Shirazi-Beechey S P - - 2011
The Na(+/)glucose cotransporter, SGLT1, is the major route for the transport of dietary sugars from the lumen of the intestine into enterocytes. Regulation of this protein is essential for the provision of glucose to the body and avoidance of intestinal malabsorption. This has important nutritional implications in particular for young ...
Choi J Y - - 2011
In this study, the effect of a potential multi-microbe probiotic subjected to high temperature drying was investigated. Potential multi-microbe probiotics produced by solid substrate fermentation were dried at low (LT, 40(o)C for 72 h) or high (HT, 70(o)C for 36 h) temperature. In Exp. 1, 288 weaned pigs (BW, 6.43 ...
Veda Supriya - - 2011
Animal studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of dietary spice compounds, piperine, capsaicin and ginger, on the absorption of orally administered β-carotene and its conversion to vitamin A. In rats maintained on these spice-containing diets for 8 weeks, concentrations of β-carotene and retinol were determined in the serum, liver ...
Ozdo─čan M - - 2011
Summary In the present study, the effect of varied gossypol (GOSS) amounts was investigated on blood parameters, the digesta pH, villus height, villus width, and crypta depth, width of duodenum, jejunum and ileum. A total of one hundred eight Ross 308 male broilers were fed with four diet groups as ...
Pak Charles Y C - - 2011
PURPOSE:: We retrospectively analyzed the validity of a simple method of detecting absorptive hypercalciuria type I, a common stone forming condition with hypercalciuria that is believed to be due to high intestinal calcium absorption. The method is based on urinary calcium derived from 24-hour urine collections while on random and ...
Yao Kang - - 2011
Oral administration of l-arginine has been reported to prevent gut disease in human infants. However, little is known about the effects of dietary arginine supplementation on intestinal development of weaned piglets. In the present study, twenty 21-d-old castrated piglets with 5·3 (sem 0·13) kg body weight (BW) were weaned from sows, ...
Jendza J A - - 2011
A study was conducted with pigs to determine the sites of and the influence of dietary wheat middlings (WM) as a fiber source on the absorption of DL-Met (DLM) and DL-2-hydroxy-4-methylthio butanoic acid (HMTBA). Twelve 25-kg barrows were used in a replicated 6 × 4 incomplete Latin-square design with 6 ...
Chopra Atul R AR Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, - - 2011
All organisms have devised strategies to counteract energy depletion and promote fitness for survival. We show here that cellular energy depletion puts into play a surprising strategy that leads to absorption of exogenous fuel for energy repletion. The energy-depletion-sensing kinase AMPK binds, phosphorylates, and activates the transcriptional coactivator SRC-2, which ...
Jeckel Kimberly M KM Department of Biomedical Sciences, Campus delivery #1680, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, - - 2011
Obesity increases the risk for development of cardiomyopathy in the absence of hypertension, diabetes or myocardial ischemia. Not all obese individuals, however, progress to heart failure. Indeed, obesity may provide protection from cardiovascular mortality in some populations. The fatty acid milieu, modulated by diet, may modify obesity-induced myocardial structure and ...
Dunn Matthew R - - 2011
We evaluate hypotheses for meso-scale spatial structure in an orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus) stock using samples collected during research trawl surveys off the east coast of New Zealand. Distance-based linear models and generalised additive models were used to identify the most significant biological, environmental, and temporal predictors of variability in ...
Boutry Claire - - 2011
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a worldwide used flavor enhancer. Supplemental glutamate may impact physiological functions. The aim of this study was to document the metabolic and physiological consequences of supplementation with 2% MSG (w/w) in rats. After 15 days-supplementation and following the ingestion of a test meal containing 2% MSG, ...
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