Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 703
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Olson K C - - 2007
Wasting diseases, hair loss, depigmented hair, skin disorders, noninfectious abortion, diarrhea, loss of appetite, bone abnormalities, tetany, low fertility, and pica have all been attributed to dietary mineral deficiencies or excesses in beef cattle diets. When discussing the mineral nutrition of beef cattle, it is common to focus on readily ...
Isenring Elisabeth A - - 2007
BACKGROUND: A randomized controlled trial previously conducted in radiation oncology patients demonstrated that nutrition intervention had a beneficial impact on body weight, nutritional status, and quality of life compared with standard practice, but it did not report on dietary intake data. OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of nutrition intervention compared ...
Donini L M - - 2007
It is possible to identify risks or protective factors against dementia. Increased levels of homocysteine (HCY) and vitamin B deficiency, obesity and central adiposity in midlife are independent risk factors for the development of dementia. High dietary intake of antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids lower the risk of Alzheimer disease ...
Laitinen Kirsi - - 2007
The complex nature of allergic disease exposes infants to an increased risk of nutritional inadequacies. Allergic inflammation requiring extensive dietary regimens may underlie the poor growth frequently reported. Nutritional management is directed towards the prevention of explicitly diet-related deficiencies, the mainstay of treatment of food allergy being strict avoidance of ...
Aydogan Akin - - 2007
Bacterial translocation is the passage of bacteria or endotoxins from the gastrointestinal tract to extraintestinal sites, such as mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, spleen, and bloodstream. In this study, the investigators examined the effects of various enteral nutrients on bacterial translocation and intestinal morphology during the postoperative period. Sixty rats were ...
Baldwin C - - 2007
Illness-related malnutrition has been reported in 10% to 55% of ill people in hospital and the community in areas of food sufficiency. Dietary advice encouraging the use of energy- and nutrient-rich foods rather than oral nutritional supplements has been suggested for managing illness-related malnutrition. To examine evidence that dietary advice ...
Wu Jiang - - 2007
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of parenteral alanyl-glutamine dipeptide (Ala-Gln) on TPN-associated liver injury. Forty-three New Zealand rabbits (6-8 days old) were divided into three groups: 12 in the control group (maternal fed); 18 in the TPN group (TPN for 10 days); 13 in the ...
VILLANUEVA, Roger
During the present study, we aimed at providing a first look at the elemental composition of the early stages of cephalopods as an approach to their elemental requirements in culture. Essential and non-essential elemental profiles of the European cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, the European squid Loligo vulgaris and the common octopus ...
Elliott Denise A - - 2006
Chronic renal disease is a leading cause of death in dogs and cats. Recent clinical studies show that nutrition plays a key role in improving quality of life and life expectancy of these patients. Typical nutritional interventions include modifying the protein, phosphorus, and lipid concentrations. Nutritional therapy, however, does not ...
Sun Xiaoyi X Department of Surgery, Section of Pediatric Surgery, University of Michigan, Mott Children's Hospital, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, - - 2006
Parenteral nutrition (PN) is known to induce villus atrophy, epithelial cell (EC) apoptosis, and increase mucosal permeability. The study hypothesized that increasing amounts of energy delivery to mice would result in the best outcome, with the least effects on the mucosa. Mice were randomized to enteral controls (saline infusion with ...
O'Brien G - - 2007
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between nutrition knowledge and body mass index (BMI). The General Nutrition Questionnaire was distributed to 500 individuals on the database of a large general practice. Results demonstrated that there was no significant correlation between levels of nutrition knowledge and BMI; ...
MacKenzie Susan A - - 2007
Maize line 1507, containing event DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 (1507), is a genetically modified (GM) maize plant that expresses the cry1F gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) sbsp. aizawai and the phosphinothricin-N-acetyltransferase (pat) gene from Streptomyces viridochromogenes throughout the plant including in the grain expression of the Cry1F protein confers in planta resistance to ...
Cai Wei - - 2006
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of oxidative injury and apoptosis on total parenteral nutrition (TPN)-associated hepatic dysfunction. METHODS: Fifty-nine New Zealand rabbits (6-8 days old) were divided into 4 groups: 12 in the control group (maternal fed), 15 in the PN-3 group (TPN for ...
Mount David R - - 2006
The oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus, has several characteristics that make it desirable as a prey organism for conducting dietary exposure studies with fish. We conducted 21- and 30-d experiments with young fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), respectively, to determine whether a diet consisting solely of L. variegatus ...
Cronjé, MC; ;
A study was conducted to test whether supplementation of trace elements would have any beneficial effect on year-old ewes receiving a submaintenance level of nutrition. The ewes were fed a poor quality hay. The control group received no supplementation (Treatment 1). A solution containing copper (Cu, 5 mg/d), selenium (Se, ...
Wootan Margo G - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Given the link between eating out, poor diets, and obesity, we assessed the availability of point-of-purchase nutrition information at the largest fast-food restaurant in the U.S., McDonald's. METHOD: In August 2004, we visited 29 of 33 (88%) of the McDonald's outlets in Washington, DC and visually inspected the premises, ...
Annongu, Azor A.
Changes in chemical composition upon processing and bioassay assessment of nutritional potentials of almond fruit waste as an alternative feedstuff were conducted using day-old-cockerels. Proximate analyses revealed that AFW contained valuable nutrients, carbohydrate/dry matter, protein, fat, fiber, mineral matter (ash). The concentration of some of these nutrients increased as the ...
Moinard Christophe - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: Injury is associated with a depletion in glutamine (GLN) pools, which may contribute to impairment of immune and nutritional statuses. Total parenteral nutrition enriched with arginine (ARG) is able to generate GLN in surgical patients. We hypothesized that this same concept may be applicable to enteral administration and could ...
Ledoux Séverine - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) is more efficient than adjustable gastric banding (AGB) in weight loss and relieving co-morbidities, but nutritional complications of each surgical procedure have been poorly evaluated. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed to compare nutritional parameters in 201 consecutive obese patients, who had been treated either ...
Garg Aashima - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To assess the nutritional status and dietary practices among underprivileged pregnant women, identify the lacune, outline implement and assess the effect of nutritional counseling on their dietary intake, anthropometric status and anemia status. METHODS: Hundred pregnant women belonging to low socio-economic status were interviewed. Based on lacune, nutrition education ...
Burton Scot - - 2006
OBJECTIVES: Requiring restaurants to present nutrition information on menus is under consideration as a potential way to slow the increasing prevalence of obesity. Using a survey methodology, we examined how accurately consumers estimate the nutrient content of typical restaurant meals. Based on these results, we then conducted an experiment to ...
Goff Sarah L - - 2006
Diet books dominate the New York Times Advice Best Seller list and consumers cite such books as an important source of nutrition information. However, the scientific support for nutrition claims presented as fact (nutrition facts) in diet books is not known. We assessed the quality of nutrition facts in the ...
Akoma, O; Department of ...
Kunun-zaki, a traditional fermented cereal beverage was produced in this study using various combinations of malted cereals (millet, sorghum singularly or in combination with rice) and, were evaluated for its nutritional composition using chemical, organoleptic and growth studies and as well as the analysis of blood samples of the sacrificed ...
Nishimura Masuhiro - - 2006
Long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is known to be associated with cholestasis and hepatic steatosis, which can be lethal in infants who cannot be fed orally. The present review focuses on the metabolic complications in the liver that may occur due to the excessive administration of fat-free TPN. We have ...
Hawk Alan - - 2006
Although Japanese military officials had discovered that an improved diet could prevent beriberi by the late 19th century, their soldiers in the army suffered from beriberi during the Russo-Japanese War and World War II. A change in diet at the end of the Russo-Japanese War solved the problem and the ...
Afman Lydia - - 2006
Until recently, nutrition research concentrated on nutrient deficiencies and impairment of health. The advent of genomics-interpreted broadly as a suite of high throughput technologies for the generation, processing, and application of scientific information about the composition and functions of genomes-has created unprecedented opportunities for increasing our understanding of how nutrients ...
Grimaud P - - 2006
The basic diet of ruminants in Mauritius comprises mainly tropical forages, whose productivity is highly dependent on the season. Dry matter concentrations and nutritive value of the three most important grasses (Bothriochloa pertusa, Cynodon plectostachyus and Ischaemum aristatum) on Mauritius were measured on three occasions during the year. They showed ...
Odo, MO; ;
A preliminary step to investigating the nutritional importance of <i>Chrysophyllum albidum</i> seed was carried out on the raw seed. In order to achieve this, some analyses like proximate composition, minerals as well as identification of some antinutrient contents of the seed were done. The seed was found to be moderately ...
H. Ersin Samli
In poultry feed industry, wheat ranks as the second most important grain after maize. The inclusion level of wheat in poultry diets depends upon its nutritional composition as well as on the content of anti-nutritional factors. The importance of these factors may vary not only depending on variety of wheat ...
Manios Yannis - - 2006
In the middle of the previous century the Seven Countries Study first revealed the health benefits of the traditional Cretan diet. The Cretan diet was subsequently used as a basis to form the worldwide known 'Mediterranean diet'. This dietary scheme was visualized as a food pyramid, aimed to constitute a ...
Stanner Sara - - 2006
The UK has one of the highest CVD rates in Western Europe, with over one-third of deaths attributable to this condition. This article looks at how several of the risk factors for CVD, including some newly-identified ones, may be reduced by dietary interventions. It considers the part played by dietary ...
Cook Stephanie L - - 2006
PURPOSE: Demonstrating the effectiveness of nutrition counselling is imperative, not only to promote successful patient outcomes but also to secure funding. This study therefore assessed the value and effectiveness of nutrition counselling. METHODS: To measure clients' perceptions of the value of inpatient counselling, the Clients' Perceptions about Nutrition Counselling (CPNC) ...
Aldana Steven G - - 2006
Chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and diabetes are responsible for most deaths in the United States. Lifestyle factors--poor nutrition, sedentary living, and tobacco use--appear to play a prominent role in the development of many chronic diseases. This study determined the behavioral and clinical impact of a therapeutic ...
Kaput Jim - - 2005
Nutritional genomics, or nutrigenomics, seeks to understand the effects of diet on an individual's genes and health. Nutrigenomics is a systems-biological science that can be explained by five principal tenets: (1) improper diets in some individuals and under some conditions are risk factors for chronic diseases; (2) common dietary chemicals ...
Oste M - - 2005
In term neonates, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) induces mucosal atrophy, whereas the first intake of milk is followed by intestinal growth. This may be explained in part by an NO-mediated increased blood flow. We hypothesized that the immature gut has an altered response to TPN and enteral nutrition. In Expt. ...
Will K - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical and metabolic effects of combined parenteral and oral nutrition compared with parenteral nutrition in young dogs with haemorrhagic gastroenteritis in a prospective clinical study. Dogs with acute gastroenteritis received either parenteral nutrition (group PN, n = 9) or combined parenteral and ...
Popkin Barry M - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To focus on factors that play a major role in our rapid, global nutritional changes. DESIGN: A range of studies are summarised: these show how an understanding of social, economic and technological change at the global, national and community levels affects diet, activity, and body composition patterns and trends. ...
Stratton Rebecca J - - 2005
BACKGROUND: This systematic review aims to determine the potential benefits of enteral multinutrient support (oral or tube) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) receiving maintenance dialysis. METHODS: Studies of multinutrient oral supplements and enteral tube feeding that involved comparisons of nutritional support versus routine care (ie, usual diet), disease-specific ...
Gonçalves Dias M C - - 2005
Malnutrition is commonly associated with head and neck cancer, due especially to anorexia, which is aggravated by radiotherapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate modifications to nutritional ingestion following three types of nutritional intervention. Sixty-four male out-patients (62.1 +/- 1.5 years) were divided into three groups: oral group, ...
Aoyagi Kunihiko - - 2005
Intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL) is a rare disease requiring oral fat restriction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of enteral nutrition compared to that of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). We retrospectively reviewed nine patients with IL presenting with protein-losing enteropathy. Of these, seven patients not responding to ...
Nishimura Masuhiro - - 2005
Changes in the levels of CYP4A1, PPARalpha, and RXRalpha mRNA expression in the liver following overdose of fat-free or fat-containing total parenteral nutrition (TPN) were studied in 3-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were divided into three groups: group 1, oral diet; group 2, fat-free TPN; and group 3, TPN ...
Broekhuizen Roelinka - - 2005
Nutritional support is indicated in some patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to restore nutritional status and improve functional capacity. However, the efficacy of nutritional supplements is sometimes disappointing, partly owing to a compensatory drop in habitual food intake. We retrospectively studied the effect of nutritional drink supplements, differing in ...
Ray Sidhartha - - 2005
Although conventional biomedical research has largely focused on mechanisms of weight loss and genetic aspects of obesity, most medical solutions are plagued by side-effects and fraught with complex questions. As a consequence, consumers are seriously considering herbal products, nutraceuticals and functional foods as alternatives to conventional medications. This is evidently ...
Yeh Sung-Ling - - 2005
AIM: To investigate the effects of glutamine (GLN)-enriched diets before and GLN-containing total parenteral nutrition (TPN) after sepsis or both on the secretion of cytokines and their mRNA expression levels in splenocytes of rats with septic peritonitis. METHODS: Rats were assigned to a control group and 4 experimental groups. The ...
Schafer Daniel - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The link between longevity and diet is of great interest to biological and gerontological research. The fact that relevant knowledge has generally been available for many centuries is often not remarked upon. OBJECTIVE: This article examines three aspects of early modern Western medicine which thematize the following links between ...
DiMaria-Ghalili Rose Ann - - 2005
Both physiologic and psychosocial changes affect the nutritional status of adults over the age of 65. Malnutrition is, in fact, a greater threat to this population than obesity. This article reviews the intake requirements of older adults and discusses the risk factors that can lead to malnutrition, including diet, limited ...
Wood Lisa G - - 2005
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most commonly occurring lethal autosomal recessive disorder. The gene defect causes defective sodium and chloride transport across epithelial cells of the respiratory, hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal and reproductive tracts, resulting in thick mucus secretions. In the respiratory tract, mucus traps bacteria, causing repeated lung infections, progressive bronchiectasis ...
Tseng Ying Lung - - 2005
Nandrolone is one of the synthetic anabolic steroids banned in sports and has been a popular substance abused by athletes in recent years. One of its major metabolites, 19-norandrosterone (19-NA), has been used as a determinant for drug violations in sports. Current reports regarding nandrolone-positive cases have been related to ...
Nishimura Masuhiro - - 2005
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is associated with cholestasis and hepatic steatosis in human infants. The present study focused on the changes in hepatic xenobiotic transporters associated with overdose of fat-free or fat-containing TPN in infant rats. Three-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: group 1 received an oral ...
E.O. Akpanyung
Three commercial brands of bouillon cubes were analyzed for proximate and elemental composition. The moisture content of the samples was found to range between 2.25 and 2.92%. Crude protein, crude fat and ash contents were: 10.50-17.50; 5.50-5.70 and 48.15-63.20% dry matter (DM) respectively. Mineral element analysis showed that the bouillon ...
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