Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 682
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Goff Sarah L - - 2006
Diet books dominate the New York Times Advice Best Seller list and consumers cite such books as an important source of nutrition information. However, the scientific support for nutrition claims presented as fact (nutrition facts) in diet books is not known. We assessed the quality of nutrition facts in the ...
Akoma, O; Department of ...
Kunun-zaki, a traditional fermented cereal beverage was produced in this study using various combinations of malted cereals (millet, sorghum singularly or in combination with rice) and, were evaluated for its nutritional composition using chemical, organoleptic and growth studies and as well as the analysis of blood samples of the sacrificed ...
Nishimura Masuhiro - - 2006
Long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is known to be associated with cholestasis and hepatic steatosis, which can be lethal in infants who cannot be fed orally. The present review focuses on the metabolic complications in the liver that may occur due to the excessive administration of fat-free TPN. We have ...
Hawk Alan - - 2006
Although Japanese military officials had discovered that an improved diet could prevent beriberi by the late 19th century, their soldiers in the army suffered from beriberi during the Russo-Japanese War and World War II. A change in diet at the end of the Russo-Japanese War solved the problem and the ...
Afman Lydia - - 2006
Until recently, nutrition research concentrated on nutrient deficiencies and impairment of health. The advent of genomics-interpreted broadly as a suite of high throughput technologies for the generation, processing, and application of scientific information about the composition and functions of genomes-has created unprecedented opportunities for increasing our understanding of how nutrients ...
Grimaud P - - 2006
The basic diet of ruminants in Mauritius comprises mainly tropical forages, whose productivity is highly dependent on the season. Dry matter concentrations and nutritive value of the three most important grasses (Bothriochloa pertusa, Cynodon plectostachyus and Ischaemum aristatum) on Mauritius were measured on three occasions during the year. They showed ...
Odo, MO; ;
A preliminary step to investigating the nutritional importance of <i>Chrysophyllum albidum</i> seed was carried out on the raw seed. In order to achieve this, some analyses like proximate composition, minerals as well as identification of some antinutrient contents of the seed were done. The seed was found to be moderately ...
H. Ersin Samli
In poultry feed industry, wheat ranks as the second most important grain after maize. The inclusion level of wheat in poultry diets depends upon its nutritional composition as well as on the content of anti-nutritional factors. The importance of these factors may vary not only depending on variety of wheat ...
Manios Yannis - - 2006
In the middle of the previous century the Seven Countries Study first revealed the health benefits of the traditional Cretan diet. The Cretan diet was subsequently used as a basis to form the worldwide known 'Mediterranean diet'. This dietary scheme was visualized as a food pyramid, aimed to constitute a ...
Stanner Sara - - 2006
The UK has one of the highest CVD rates in Western Europe, with over one-third of deaths attributable to this condition. This article looks at how several of the risk factors for CVD, including some newly-identified ones, may be reduced by dietary interventions. It considers the part played by dietary ...
Cook Stephanie L - - 2006
PURPOSE: Demonstrating the effectiveness of nutrition counselling is imperative, not only to promote successful patient outcomes but also to secure funding. This study therefore assessed the value and effectiveness of nutrition counselling. METHODS: To measure clients' perceptions of the value of inpatient counselling, the Clients' Perceptions about Nutrition Counselling (CPNC) ...
Aldana Steven G - - 2006
Chronic diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and diabetes are responsible for most deaths in the United States. Lifestyle factors--poor nutrition, sedentary living, and tobacco use--appear to play a prominent role in the development of many chronic diseases. This study determined the behavioral and clinical impact of a therapeutic ...
Kaput Jim - - 2005
Nutritional genomics, or nutrigenomics, seeks to understand the effects of diet on an individual's genes and health. Nutrigenomics is a systems-biological science that can be explained by five principal tenets: (1) improper diets in some individuals and under some conditions are risk factors for chronic diseases; (2) common dietary chemicals ...
Oste M - - 2005
In term neonates, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) induces mucosal atrophy, whereas the first intake of milk is followed by intestinal growth. This may be explained in part by an NO-mediated increased blood flow. We hypothesized that the immature gut has an altered response to TPN and enteral nutrition. In Expt. ...
Will K - - 2005
The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical and metabolic effects of combined parenteral and oral nutrition compared with parenteral nutrition in young dogs with haemorrhagic gastroenteritis in a prospective clinical study. Dogs with acute gastroenteritis received either parenteral nutrition (group PN, n = 9) or combined parenteral and ...
Popkin Barry M - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To focus on factors that play a major role in our rapid, global nutritional changes. DESIGN: A range of studies are summarised: these show how an understanding of social, economic and technological change at the global, national and community levels affects diet, activity, and body composition patterns and trends. ...
Stratton Rebecca J - - 2005
BACKGROUND: This systematic review aims to determine the potential benefits of enteral multinutrient support (oral or tube) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) receiving maintenance dialysis. METHODS: Studies of multinutrient oral supplements and enteral tube feeding that involved comparisons of nutritional support versus routine care (ie, usual diet), disease-specific ...
Gonçalves Dias M C - - 2005
Malnutrition is commonly associated with head and neck cancer, due especially to anorexia, which is aggravated by radiotherapy. The objective of this study was to evaluate modifications to nutritional ingestion following three types of nutritional intervention. Sixty-four male out-patients (62.1 +/- 1.5 years) were divided into three groups: oral group, ...
Aoyagi Kunihiko - - 2005
Intestinal lymphangiectasia (IL) is a rare disease requiring oral fat restriction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of enteral nutrition compared to that of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). We retrospectively reviewed nine patients with IL presenting with protein-losing enteropathy. Of these, seven patients not responding to ...
Nishimura Masuhiro - - 2005
Changes in the levels of CYP4A1, PPARalpha, and RXRalpha mRNA expression in the liver following overdose of fat-free or fat-containing total parenteral nutrition (TPN) were studied in 3-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were divided into three groups: group 1, oral diet; group 2, fat-free TPN; and group 3, TPN ...
Broekhuizen Roelinka - - 2005
Nutritional support is indicated in some patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to restore nutritional status and improve functional capacity. However, the efficacy of nutritional supplements is sometimes disappointing, partly owing to a compensatory drop in habitual food intake. We retrospectively studied the effect of nutritional drink supplements, differing in ...
Ray Sidhartha - - 2005
Although conventional biomedical research has largely focused on mechanisms of weight loss and genetic aspects of obesity, most medical solutions are plagued by side-effects and fraught with complex questions. As a consequence, consumers are seriously considering herbal products, nutraceuticals and functional foods as alternatives to conventional medications. This is evidently ...
Yeh Sung-Ling - - 2005
AIM: To investigate the effects of glutamine (GLN)-enriched diets before and GLN-containing total parenteral nutrition (TPN) after sepsis or both on the secretion of cytokines and their mRNA expression levels in splenocytes of rats with septic peritonitis. METHODS: Rats were assigned to a control group and 4 experimental groups. The ...
Schafer Daniel - - 2005
BACKGROUND: The link between longevity and diet is of great interest to biological and gerontological research. The fact that relevant knowledge has generally been available for many centuries is often not remarked upon. OBJECTIVE: This article examines three aspects of early modern Western medicine which thematize the following links between ...
DiMaria-Ghalili Rose Ann - - 2005
Both physiologic and psychosocial changes affect the nutritional status of adults over the age of 65. Malnutrition is, in fact, a greater threat to this population than obesity. This article reviews the intake requirements of older adults and discusses the risk factors that can lead to malnutrition, including diet, limited ...
Wood Lisa G - - 2005
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most commonly occurring lethal autosomal recessive disorder. The gene defect causes defective sodium and chloride transport across epithelial cells of the respiratory, hepatobiliary, gastrointestinal and reproductive tracts, resulting in thick mucus secretions. In the respiratory tract, mucus traps bacteria, causing repeated lung infections, progressive bronchiectasis ...
Tseng Ying Lung - - 2005
Nandrolone is one of the synthetic anabolic steroids banned in sports and has been a popular substance abused by athletes in recent years. One of its major metabolites, 19-norandrosterone (19-NA), has been used as a determinant for drug violations in sports. Current reports regarding nandrolone-positive cases have been related to ...
Nishimura Masuhiro - - 2005
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is associated with cholestasis and hepatic steatosis in human infants. The present study focused on the changes in hepatic xenobiotic transporters associated with overdose of fat-free or fat-containing TPN in infant rats. Three-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: group 1 received an oral ...
E.O. Akpanyung
Three commercial brands of bouillon cubes were analyzed for proximate and elemental composition. The moisture content of the samples was found to range between 2.25 and 2.92%. Crude protein, crude fat and ash contents were: 10.50-17.50; 5.50-5.70 and 48.15-63.20% dry matter (DM) respectively. Mineral element analysis showed that the bouillon ...
Juśkiewicz Jerzy - - 2005
The potential effect of genetic modification on nutritional properties of potatoes transformed to improve resistance to a necrotic strain of Potato virus Y was determined in a rat experiment. Autoclaved tubers from four transgenic lines were included to a diet in the amount of 40% and compared with the conventional ...
Shiraishi Takeshi - - 2005
We investigated the feasibility of early postoperative enteral diet after esophagectomy. Sixteen patients who underwent esophagectomy followed by reconstruction using gastrictube were divided into two groups based on nutritional protocol after surgery: either total parenteral nutrition (TPN) or enteral diet (ENT). TPN patients were nutritionally maintained with only intravenous hyperalimentation. ...
Yamaguchi Mari - - 2005
Changes in the mRNA expression of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes associated with overdose of fat-free or fat-containing total parenteral nutrition (TPN) were investigated in infant rats. Three-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: group 1 received an oral diet, group 2 received TPN without fat, and group ...
Walczak A - - 2005
PURPOSE: The purpose of the above work is description and assessment of nutritional habits of the patient group operated because of CHD in relation to their income sources. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Among 100 patients hospitalized in The Cardiosurgery Clinic of Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, (72 M and 28 F) ...
Duncan C J - - 2004
The early hominids and their successors, the nomadic hunter-gatherers, were evolutionarily adapted to an omnivorous diet. Their food was well balanced nutritionally and they acquired adequate supplies with relatively little expenditure of energy. The complete change to a fixed agricultural lifestyle (the Neolithic revolution) took place only some 12 000 ...
Baldwin Christine - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This review investigated whether dietary advice to improve nutritional intake in adults with illness-related malnutrition improved mortality, morbidity, weight and energy intake, and whether oral nutritional supplements gave additional benefit, when given in combination with dietary advice. METHODS: Systematic review of randomised controlled trials comparing dietary advice ...
Hogg Ruth - - 2004
Age-related maculopathy (ARM) is a common clinical entity. The late-stage manifestations of ARM, which are known as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), have devastating consequences for vision. Various risk factors have been identified in the development of the condition, which are consistent with the premise that oxidative stress plays an important ...
Huang Terry T-K - - 2004
We studied the relationship between reading nutrition labels and percent calorie intake from fat. In adolescent boys, reading nutrition labels was associated with higher fat intake. In girls, fat intake did not differ by frequency of nutrition label reading. Nutrition label reading does not translate into healthier diet in adolescents.
Desport J C - - 2004
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Microbial safety is essential during enteral nutrition (EN) as it can be the origin of gastrointestinal symptoms, but can also lead to systemic infections. The use of large-volume diet reservoirs could limit the risk of contamination and reduce nursing time, due to fewer repeated manipulations. The aim ...
Oshita M - - 2004
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is associated with cholestasis and hepatic steatosis, which can be lethal in infants who cannot be fed orally. The present animal study focused on the metabolic complications in the liver that may occur due to the excessive administration of fat-free TPN. Thirty infant (3-week-old) male SD ...
Dressler William W - - 2004
Much has been written about the socioeconomic distribution of nutritional status, both in more economically developed, and in developing nations. In general, persons of lower socioeconomic status suffer adverse consequences of poor nutritional status, although these consequences can vary depending on the level of development, i.e. in more developed countries ...
Paton Nicholas I - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Nutritional support is often recommended as part of the treatment of tuberculosis, but it has never been properly tested. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effects of early nutritional intervention on lean mass and physical function in patients with tuberculosis and wasting. DESIGN: Patients who started antituberculous therapy within the previous ...
Matarese Laura E - - 2004
Many patients who undergo extensive resection of the gastrointestinal tract develop intestinal failure from short-bowel syndrome that results in significant malabsorption of fluid, electrolytes, and other nutrients. This may result in dependence on long-term parenteral nutrition. It has been almost a decade since Byrne and colleagues published their research demonstrating ...
Iizuka M - - 2004
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Tube feeding is regarded as a risk factor for Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea. Recently, we reported that C. difficile toxin was frequently found in patients receiving an elemental diet. The present study was conducted to clarify whether elemental diets are associated with the growth of C. difficile in ...
Topp Robert - - 2004
Successful aging includes the ability to perform functional tasks. This ability to perform functional tasks, or functional ability, is influenced by musculoskeletal and cardiovascular functioning and the presence and severity of symptoms of chronic disease. Empirical evidence indicates that musculoskleletal and cardiovascular functioning and symptoms of chronic disease in later ...
Gervasio Jane - - 2004
Anabolic agents as adjuncts to nutrition support therapy have been used to improve malnutrition and establish anabolism. Growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor, and anabolic steroids have been studied for their potential to reverse the catabolic process and promote anabolism. This paper reviews several anabolic agents and their possible role in ...
Uluutku Ahmet Haldun - - 2004
Short bowel syndrome comprises the sequel of nutrient, fluid, and weight loss that occurs subsequent to greatly reduced functional surface area of the small intestine. The aim of this study is to investigate the trophic and functional effects of bombesin on remaining gut in rats with experimentally induced short bowel ...
Briet Francoise - - 2004
BACKGROUND: We showed previously that the activity of complex I (the first enzyme of the electron transport chain) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells decreases with malnutrition and increases to a subnormal value after 1 wk of refeeding, but the traditional markers of nutritional status do not do so. OBJECTIVE: The ...
Yeh Sung-Ling - - 2004
The present study examined the effect of glutamine (Gln)-enriched diets before sepsis or Gln-containing total parenteral nutrition (TPN) after sepsis, or both, on the phagocytic activity and blood lymphocyte subpopulation in rats with gut-derived sepsis. Rats were assigned to a control group or one of four experimental groups. The control ...
Manninen Anssi H - - 2004
Results of several recent studies show that high-protein, low-carbohydrate weight loss diets indeed have their benefits. However, there are always some concerns about high-protein diets. According to the American Heart Association (AHA) Nutrition Committee, highprotein diets may possess significant health risks. The purpose of this review is to evaluate the ...
Pimentel Mark - - 2004
Treatment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is frustrated by the low efficacy of antibiotics. Elemental diets have been shown to reduce enteric flora. In this study, we evaluate the ability of an elemental diet to normalize the lactulose breath test (LBT) in IBS subjects with abnormal breath test findings. Consecutive ...
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