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Results 301 - 350 of 1432
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Del Rio-Zaragoza O B - - 2011
The present study investigated the effect of β-1,3/1,6-glucan on growth, haematology, innate immunity and resistance against dactylogyrids on the spotted rose snapper (Lutjanus guttatus). Fish were fed during five weeks with commercial diet (control group) and same diet supplemented with three levels of β-glucans (0.05%, 0.1% y 0.5%/kg feed). The ...
Sutherland Kate - - 2011
Background Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is commonly associated with obesity and can be improved by weight loss. Changes in upper airway size related to regional fat loss may mediate the improvement in OSA. This study aimed to assess changes in upper airway size and regional facial and abdominal fat with ...
Varraso R - - 2012
The decrease in the number of children living on traditional farms in France during early childhood and changes in diet could both play a role in the increase in asthma prevalence over the last decades. This study aimed to assess 1) the association of farming lifestyle in childhood and asthma, ...
Johnson Blair D - - 2011
Habitually active adults (ACT) typically exhibit lower postprandial lipemia, a condition that may attenuate oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction following a high-fat meal (HFM), compared with inactive adults (INA). Our objective was to compare triglycerides (TAG), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), oxidative stress (thiobarbituric reactive substances; TBARS), and brachial artery flow-mediated ...
Ryan Karen K KK Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, - - 2011
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) is a nuclear receptor that is activated by lipids to induce the expression of genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism, thereby converting nutritional signals into metabolic consequences. PPAR-γ is the target of the thiazolidinedione (TZD) class of insulin-sensitizing drugs, which have been widely prescribed ...
Olin Jill A - - 2011
Stable isotopes of neonatal vertebrates reflect those of their mother's diet and foraging location. Evaluating feeding strategies and habitat use of neonates is consequently complicated by the maternal isotopic signal and its subsequent elimination with growth. Thus, methods that measure the loss of the maternal signal, i.e. when the isotopic ...
Huang Bo - - 2011
Cinnamaldehyde (CA), one of the active components of cinnamon, has been known to exert several pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-tumor and anti-diabetic activities. However, its anti-obesity effect has not been reported yet. We investigated the anti-differentiation effect of CA on 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, and anti-obese activity of CA was ...
Izuchi Ryoichi - - 2011
Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) is a very popular fruit in East Asian countries, but its peels are not consumed despite the fact that they contain many antioxidants such as carotenoids and polyphenols. We prepared a fat-soluble extract from persimmon peel (PP) and fed type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats an AIN-93G ...
Barroso Emma - - 2011
Metabolic syndrome-associated dyslipidemia is mainly initiated by hepatic overproduction of the plasma lipoproteins carrying triglycerides. Here we examined the effects of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)-β/δ activator GW501516 on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic fatty acid oxidation. Exposure to the HFD caused hypertriglyceridemia that was accompanied by reduced hepatic ...
Ramadori Giorgio - - 2011
In virtually all organisms, life expectancy is profoundly affected by caloric intake. For example, dietary restriction (DR; a feeding regimen of fewer calories compared to the ad libitum level without causing malnutrition) has been shown to lengthen, whereas hypercaloric (HC) diet feeding to shorten, lifespan. Recent findings in invertebrates indicate ...
McDaniel Sharon S SS Department of Neurology and the Hope Center for Neurological Disorders, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, Missouri 63110, - - 2011
The ketogenic diet (KD) is an effective treatment for epilepsy, but its mechanisms of action are poorly understood. We investigated the hypothesis that the KD inhibits mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway signaling. The expression of pS6 and pAkt, markers of mTOR pathway activation, was reduced in hippocampus and liver ...
Seiliez Iban - - 2011
Most teleost fish are known to require high levels of dietary proteins. Such high protein intake could have significant effects, particularly on insulin-regulated gene expression. We therefore analyzed the effects of an increase in the ratio of dietary carbohydrates/proteins on the refeeding activation of the Akt-TOR signaling pathways in rainbow ...
Sakakibara Yuko - - 2011
The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effects of the recovery from dietary zinc-deficiency on the number of total white blood cells (WBCs), neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils, and plasma zinc and corticosterone concentrations in weanling male Sprague Dawley rats. Rats (n=34) of the zinc-deficient diet (0.6 mg zinc/kg ...
Basilious Alfred - - 2011
Eosinophilic gastroenteropathies, such as eosinophilic esophagitis and eosinophilic colitis, have classically been treated with swallowed inhaled corticosteroids or oral corticosteroids. More recent studies have found elimination and elemental diets to be effective treatment alternatives to steroids. In this case series we describe the treatment of three children using nutritional management ...
Gómez-Ruiz Ana - - 2011
The effect of food intake on caveolin expression in relation to insulin signalling was studied in skeletal muscle and adipocytes from retroperitoneal (RP) and subcutaneous (SC) adipose tissue, comparing fasted (F) to not fasted (NF) rats that had been fed a control or high-fat (HF) diet for 72 days. Serum ...
Bidad Katayoon - - 2011
Dietary factors are suggested to be involved in recent increases in the prevalence of asthma. The differences in dietary intake of 23 asthmatic and 317 non-asthmatic students were investigated, who were chosen by multistage stratified cluster sampling. The dietary data were assessed by food frequency questionnaire and a 24-h recall ...
Zhao Jinping - - 2011
Maternal diabetes may compromise infant arachidonic acid (AA) status and development. This study tested if maternal AA supplementation improves neurodevelopment in adult offspring. Rat dams were randomized into 6 groups: Saline-Placebo, streptozotocin-induced diabetes with glucose controlled at <13mmol/L, or poorly controlled at 13-20mmol/L using insulin; and fed either a Control ...
Tatar Marc - - 2011
It has been almost two decades since dietary restriction was first shown to increase Drosophila lifespan. Since then, understanding this phenomenon advanced as groups worked to identify what quality of restricted diet matters: calories or a specific nutrient. The problem is complex because is it difficult to measure what a ...
Holen E - - 2011
Head kidney leukocytes isolated from Atlantic salmon fed either a diet based on fish oil (FO) or soy bean oil (VO) were used in order to evaluate if different lipid sources could contribute to cellular activation of the salmon innate immune system. A specific inhibitor of p38 MAPK, SB202190, was ...
Reyes-Castro L A LA Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City, 14000, - - 2011
Suboptimal developmental environments program offspring to lifelong health complications including affective and cognitive disorders. Little is known about the effects of suboptimal intra-uterine environments on associative learning and motivational behavior. We hypothesized that maternal isocaloric low protein diet during pregnancy and lactation would impair offspring associative learning and motivation as ...
Burne Thomas H J - - 2011
Evidence from animal experiments now demonstrates that prenatal vitamin D levels influence brain development. The aims of this study were to examine isolation-induced pup ultrasonic vocalizations and maternal-infant interactions using a pup-retrieval test in developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficient and control rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a vitamin D deficient ...
Hood Wendy R - - 2011
Patterns of offspring development reflect the availability of energy and nutrients, limitations on an individual's capacity to use available resources, and tradeoffs between the use of nutrients to support current metabolic demands and tissue growth. To determine if the long period of offspring dependency in bats is associated with the ...
Macrae A M - - 2010
Hundreds of stranded harbor seals pups (Phoca vitulina) are brought to wildlife rescue centers every year. Typical hand-rearing diets include artificial milk-replacers and diets based on macerated fish fed via gavage, but weight gains are often low and mortality rates can be high. This study compared survival and weight gain ...
Picone O - - 2011
Maternal hypercholesterolemia has been shown to lead to fetal intra-uterine growth retardation (IUGR) in rabbits. The effects of a long term maternal hyperlipidemic and hypercholesterolemic diet on embryo, fetal and post-natal development, have not been addressed so far. Rabbit does were fed either a hypercholesterolemic (0.2%) hyperlipidic (8%) (HH) or ...
de Aguiar Márlison José Lima - - 2011
Caffeine, like malnutrition, can produce behavioral and electrophysiological alterations. However, the interaction of both factors remains unclear. Here this interaction has been studied in male Wistar rats previously malnourished during the lactation period by feeding their dams the "regional basic diet" of Northeast Brazil, containing about 8% protein, predominantly from ...
Strakovsky Rita S - - 2010
Placental efficiency is a predictor of fetal growth and development, which is also controlled by maternal gestational health and diet. The present study investigated the effects of a gestational low-protein diet on offspring growth capacity as well as the diet's contribution to altered expression of placental genes associated with the ...
Foot V L - - 2010
Offspring of rats fed high-fat diets during pregnancy and lactation develop glucose intolerance and islet dysfunction in adulthood. Because other models of developmental programming of glucose intolerance are associated with defective islet development, we investigated whether high-fat exposure during fetal or neonatal life impairs islet development and function, thereby contributing ...
Rhodes Erinn T ET Division of Endocrinology, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, MA, - - 2010
The optimal diet for pregnancy that is complicated by excessive weight is unknown. We aimed to examine the effects of a low-glycemic load (low-GL) diet in overweight and obese pregnant women. We randomly assigned 46 overweight or obese pregnant women to receive a low-GL or a low-fat diet. Participants received ...
Carmody Jill S JS Division of Molecular Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, Columbia University, New York, New York, - - 2011
Maternal obesity can influence susceptibility to obesity and type 2 diabetes in progeny. We examined the relationship of maternal insulin resistance (IR), a metabolically important consequence of increased adiposity, to adverse consequences of obesity for fetal development. We used mice heterozygous for a null allele of the insulin receptor (Insr) ...
Gong Li - - 2010
Biological responses to environmental stress, including nutrient limitation are mediated in part by epigenetic modifications including DNA methylation. Insulin-like growth factor II (Igf2) and H19 are subject to epigenetic modifications leading to genomic imprinting. The present study was designed to test the effect of maternal low protein diet on the ...
Fordjour Lawrence - - 2010
Supplementation with probiotics has been shown to prevent gastrointestinal damage possibly through preservation of growth factors. We tested the hypothesis that probiotics, prebiotics, or synbiotics supplementation preserves intestinal insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and epidermal growth factors (EGFs) in formula-fed neonatal rats. At birth (postnatal day 0 [P0]), neonatal rat pups ...
Ellis-Hutchings Robert G - - 2010
Birth weight in humans has been inversely associated with adult disease risk. Results of animal studies have varied depending on species, strain, and treatment. We compared birth weight and adult health in offspring following 50% maternal undernutrition on gestation days (GD) 1-15 (UN1-15) or GD 10-21 (UN10-21) in Sprague Dawley ...
Franco Juliana Gastão - - 2010
Resveratrol (Res) has been associated with protective effects against oxidative stress. This study evaluated the effect of Res over lipid peroxidation, antioxidant defense, hepatic sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), which up-regulates antioxidant enzymes, and copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) in adult offspring whose mothers were protein restricted during lactation. Lactating Wistar rats ...
Sen Sarbattama - - 2010
Obesity in pregnancy significantly increases the risk of the offspring developing obesity after birth. The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that maternal obesity increases oxidative stress during fetal development, and to determine whether administration of an antioxidant supplement to pregnant Western diet-fed rats would prevent the ...
Cox Kimberly H KH Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22908, - - 2010
Bisphenol-A (BPA) is a component of polycarbonate resins, and, lately, concern has been raised about its potential negative effects on human health. BPA is an estrogen analog and, in addition, it can act as a DNA hypomethylator. We examined the effects of gestational exposure to BPA on several behaviors in ...
Ainge H H Discipline of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, - - 2011
The mechanistic link between obese parents and obese offspring and the relative role of genes, and a shared environment is not completely understood. Animal models help us to differentiate between genetic and environmental factors, and the interaction between the two. However, the willingness of researchers to blend results from multiple ...
Shalev Uri U Department of Psychology, Center for Studies in Behavioral Neurobiology/Groupe de Recherche en Neurobiologie Comportementale, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. - - 2010
Environmental conditions promote weight gain in children and adults, with early nutritional states and the availability of energy condensed/high-fat palatable diets appearing to facilitate the development of obesity. Little is known about the extent to which prenatal and postnatal dietary manipulations alter the response of the adult offspring to high-fat, ...
Mitra A - - 2011
Stress in combination with genetic susceptibility is a factor in the development of hypertension. We used borderline hypertensive rats to investigate whether exposure to high-fat and/or junk-food diet at different stages of ontogeny has programing consequences on stress responses. Wistar dams were fed a high- or low-fat diet for 6 ...
Odiere Maurice R - - 2010
Using a 2 x 2 factorial design, we investigated the combined impact of protein deficiency (PD) and gastrointestinal nematode infection during late pregnancy and lactation on resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition and bone mineralization, neonatal growth, and the regulatory hormones [corticosterone, leptin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)] and proinflammatory ...
Cerf Marlon E - - 2010
Adverse maternal nutrition induces developmental programming in progeny thereby predisposing them to metabolic disease. The aim of the study was to determine whether maternal diets, with varying fat percentages as energy, alter the expression of factors associated with brain glucose sensing (glucose transporter 2 and glucokinase) and the feeding response ...
van Meer Hester - - 2010
Intrauterine malnutrition is associated with increased susceptibility to chronic diseases in adulthood. Growth-restricted infants display a less favorable lipid profile already shortly postnatal. Maternal low protein diet (LPD) during gestation is a well-defined model of fetal programming in rodents and affects lipid metabolism of the offspring. Effects of LPD throughout ...
Cox Aaron R - - 2010
Beta cells are partially replaced in neonatal rodents after deletion with streptozotocin (STZ). Exposure of pregnant rats to a low protein (LP) diet impairs endocrine pancreas development in the offspring, leading to glucose intolerance in adulthood. Our objective was to determine whether protein restriction has a similar effect on the ...
Jungheim Emily S ES Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, - - 2010
Associations between maternal obesity and adverse fetal outcomes are well documented, but the mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Most previous work has focused on postconceptional events, however, our laboratory has shown pre- and periconceptional aberrations in maternal glucose metabolism have adverse effects on oocytes and embryos that carry on to ...
Bentham Jamie - - 2010
Deficiency of the transcription factor Cited2 in mice results in cardiac malformation, adrenal agenesis, neural tube, placental defects and partially penetrant cardiopulmonary laterality defects resulting from an abnormal Nodal->Pitx2c pathway. Here we show that a maternal high-fat diet more than doubles the penetrance of laterality defects and, surprisingly, induces palatal ...
Chechi Kanta - - 2010
We investigated the effects of maternal dietary fat intake during gestation and lactation on the tissue fatty acid composition of the adult offspring. Female C57Bl/6 mice were fed high fat diets enriched with lard or safflower oil or chow during mating, gestation and lactation. The offspring obtained from each group ...
Mortensen E L K - - 2010
Maternal nutrition during pregnancy or lactation may affect the chance of offspring becoming obese as adults, but little is known regarding the possible role of maternal nutrition before conception. In this study, we investigate how variable protein and carbohydrate content of the diet consumed before pregnancy affects fat deposition and ...
Tozuka Yusuke - - 2010
Maternal obesity may affect the child's long-term development and health, increasing the risk of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In addition to the metabolic and endocrine systems, recent reports have indicated that maternal obesity also modulates neural circuit formation in the offspring. However, this not yet been fully investigated. Here, we ...
Qasem Rani J - - 2010
Maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and lactation reduces whole body lipid stores and alters lipid homeostasis in the adult offspring. Lipid homeostasis in the body is regulated, in part, by the liver via the metabolic processes of synthesis and utilization of lipids. The present study tested the hypothesis that maternal ...
Borba Juliana Maria Carrazzone - - 2010
Cortical spreading depression (CSD) propagation was investigated in rats under dietary essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency over two generations (F1 and F2). Wistar rat dams received diets containing 5% fat either from coconut-oil (EFA-deficient) or soybean-oil (control). F1-pups received their dams' diets until the day of CSD recording (30-40 days ...
Kobayashi Kenichi - - 2010
The present study was conducted to examine the effects of low-dose exposure to bisphenol A on reproduction and development in two generations of mice. Pregnant female C57BL/6J mice (F(0)) were fed a diet containing low doses of bisphenol A (0, 0.33, 3.3, or 33 ppm) from gestational day 6 through ...
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