Search Results
Results 701 - 750 of 1425
< 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 >
Meyers A F A - - 2002
The inhibitory effects of alcohol on hepatic growth in adults raises the possibility that the liver may be involved in fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in infants. To test this hypothesis, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were fed liquid diets containing either ethanol as 36% of the total calories, or were allowed ad ...
Fink Rikke - - 2002
Eighteen lactating mink raising litters of 6 to 7 kits were fed ad libitum from parturition on diets with 32% of ME derived from protein and decreasing fat:carbohydrate ratios [high fat:low carbohydrate (HFLC): 67:1, medium fat:medium carbohydrate (MFMC): 52:16, low fat:high carbohydrate (LFHC): 37:31]. Four weeks post partum the dams ...
Young James B - - 2002
Rearing animals in small litters induces a permanent increase in body weight and body fat. To determine whether changes in sympathoadrenal activity contribute to this effect, litter size was adjusted the day after birth and maintained until weaning at 21 days. Sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity was measured in adult ...
Elton C W - - 2002
Maternal diet during pregnancy has been reported to alter the offspring's ability to respond to a glucose challenge. The current studies report changes in basal and insulin-stimulated, in vitro glucose uptake in red (soleus) and white (extensor digitorum longus) muscle fiber types, as well as whole body insulin responsiveness of ...
Tarín J J - - 2002
This study aims to ascertain whether oral administration of pharmacological doses of Vitamins C and E has any detrimental effect on reproductive fitness of female mice. We fed hybrid female mice from the first day of weaning a standard diet supplemented or not supplemented with pharmacological doses of Vitamins C ...
Fresiello A - - 2002
The involvement of epigenetic factors in the phenotypic expression of the neural systems underlying activity and attentive processes has been investigated in an animal model of hyperactivity and attention-deficit, the Naples High-Excitability rat (NHE). To this aim, male NHE pups have been reared in small (four) or normal litter size ...
Zhou Tong - - 2002
The objective of the current study was to characterize the effects of DE-71 (a commercial polybrominated diphenyl ether mixture containing mostly tetra- and penta-bromodiphenyl ethers) on thyroid hormones and hepatic enzyme activity in offspring, following perinatal maternal exposure. Primiparous Long-Evans rats were orally administered DE-71 (0, 1, 10, and 30 ...
Daenzer Maren - - 2002
Epidemiologic results suggest that protein intake in infancy and later adiposity might be related. We examined whether high dietary protein exposure in utero and/or during postnatal life affects body fatness. Two groups of female rats were mated and pair-fed isocaloric high (40% protein; HP) or adequate protein (20% protein; AP) ...
Ohta Mitsuhiro - - 2002
The general public widely consumes caffeine which is contained in various foods, beverages, and over-the-counter medications. The relationships between caffeine intake and bone fractures is controversial. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to determine what effects, if any, caffeine intake in early life exerts on mechanical properties and ...
Antinuchi C Daniel - - 2002
We evaluated in pups of Akodon azarae both the growth pattern from birth to 48 days of age and the effect of litter size on growth pattern and homeothermy acquisition from birth to weaning age. Individual pups gained weight as expected by a Gompertz growth pattern. Until weaning, litter size ...
Passos M C - - 2002
Some studies have shown that the mother's nutritional condition may influence offspring's endocrine function through metabolic imprinting. Recently, we showed that the kind of maternal malnutrition during lactation affects adult body weight of the offspring and it is related to milk composition. We studied lactating rats fed an 8 % ...
Alippi Rosa M - - 2002
Morphological and biomechanical features of the mandible are negatively affected by protein-energy malnutrition, whose effects are apparently dependent on the time of life of application. The aim here was to investigate, in neonatal rats nursed by dams put on a protein-free diet to depress milk production and thus create a ...
Corpas Isabel - - 2002
The effects of lead (Pb) intoxication during pregnancy and lactation were studied in the hepatic system of pups and young Wistar rats to test the hypothesis that gestational and lactational lead exposure alters the normal function of the liver in neonates. Lead acetate (300 mg/L) dissolved in distilled water was ...
Petry C J - - 2001
Studies of animal models were carried out to explore mechanisms that might underlie epidemiological findings linking indices of poor early (fetal and early postnatal) growth to an increased risk of developing poor glucose tolerance, including the metabolic syndrome, in adult life. Adult obesity was also seen to play an important ...
Ward W E - - 2001
Based on the reported health benefits of flaxseed, many Canadians are choosing to consume flaxseed or flaxseed-containing foods. However, the safety of exposure to flaxseed during early life such as the suckling period has not been studied, despite the fact that components in flaxseed with potential hormone-like effects can be ...
McGuire B - - 2001
Prairie vole pups (Microtus ochrogaster) in laboratory cages prefer hind nipples. In this research, the author observed 8 litters of prairie voles in a seminatural environment to confirm the preference for hind nipples and to determine if young on hind nipples were groomed more frequently or dislodged less frequently than ...
Crews H M - - 2001
The feasibility of using metabolites specific to caffeine as urinary biomarkers to be employed in the estimation of dietary caffeine intake is reported. The influence of inter-individual differences in the metabolism of caffeine and the effect of volunteer phenotype on the interpretation of potential biomarkers has been investigated using urinary ...
Palinski W - - 2001
Maternal hypercholesterolemia during pregnancy is associated with enhanced fatty streak formation in human fetuses and faster progression of atherosclerosis during childhood even under normocholesterolemic conditions. A causal role of maternal hypercholesterolemia in lesion formation during fetal development has previously been established in rabbits. The same experimental model is now used ...
Ward W E - - 2001
Due to the potential oestrogenic effects of secoisolariciresinol diglycoside (SDG), the mammalian lignan precursor in flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum), we hypothesized that exposure to purified SDG during early life would have a positive effect on developing bone. This present study determined whether exposure to SDG purified from flaxseed during suckling via ...
Baldrick P - - 2001
Shea oleine is an oil fraction derived from the nut of the tree Butyrospermum parkii, which grows in central and western Africa. There are several uses of shea oleine including its use as a frying oil and, after hardening, in margarine and toffee fat. This investigation was performed to examine ...
Vickers M H - - 2001
The discovery of a link between in utero experience and later metabolic and cardiovascular disease is one of the most important advances in epidemiology research of recent years. There is increasing evidence that alterations in the fetal environment may have long-term consequences on cardiovascular, metabolic, and endocrine pathophysiology in adult ...
Zhou G D - - 2001
Bulky endogenous oxidative lesions (type II I-compounds) reflect DNA damage associated with oxidative stress. As shown by 32P-postlabeling, their levels are enhanced by pro-oxidant genotoxins and also shortly after normal birth in several rat tissues as a function of time and the maternal diet. In order to elucidate which dietary ...
Buschmann J - - 2001
A study was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats (Crl:CD BR) to differentiate between effects of hydrofluorocarbon 123 (HCFC-123) on the lactating dam or on the fetus using fostering and cross-fostering of the offspring. Pregnant and/or lactating dams without the pups present were exposed to the test substance (1000 ppm) or clean ...
Soto-Blanco B - - 2001
Monocrotaline (MCT), a pyrrolizidine alkaloid present in Crotalaria species, has hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, pneumotoxic and fetotoxic effects. However, the toxic effects of exposure to MCT in adult rats can be prevented by cysteine. Thus, the present study was conducted to evaluate the possible prevention by cysteine of the toxic effects of ...
Latendresse J R - - 2001
para-Nonylphenol (NP; CAS #84852-15-3), an alkylphenol with a 9-carbon olefin side chain, is widely used in the manufacture of nonionic surfactants, lubricant additives, polymer stabilizers, and antioxidants. Due to its wide commercial use and putative endocrine activity in humans and wildlife, the NTP elected to assess its effects on reproduction ...
Arnould J P - - 2001
The metabolism of 52-73-day old Antarctic fur seal pups from Bird Island, South Georgia, was investigated during fasting periods of normal duration while their mothers were at sea foraging. Body mass decreased exponentially with pups losing 3.5-3.8% of body mass per day. Resting metabolic rate also decreased exponentially from 172-197 ...
Ghosh P - - 2001
1. Disturbances of the in utero environment are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. In this study we have determined whether abnormal vascular function in the adult offspring of rats fed a high saturated fat diet in pregnancy is associated with altered plasma lipids or vascular ...
Odum J - - 2001
Five rodent diets have been evaluated for their possible effect on the sexual development of the rat. Groups of 12 pregnant Alpk rats were fed one of the following combinations of diets during pregnancy and postnatally: RM3/RM1, AIN-76A/AIN-76A, RM3/AIN-76A, Teklad Global 2016 (Global)/Global and Purina 5001/Purina 5001. AIN-76A is phytoestrogen-free ...
Manning J - - 2001
Epidemiological surveys have suggested that intrauterine growth retardation is a risk factor for the development of hypertension in later life. A rat model of intrauterine growth retardation, induced by maternal low-protein diet during the second half of pregnancy, was used to study the relationship between birth weight and adult hypertension. ...
Passos M C.F. - - 2001
Iodine supply is important to avoid neonatal hypothyroidism. This study evaluated whether protein restriction during lactation affects iodine transfer to the pups through the milk. We studied lactating rats fed an 8% protein-restricted diet (PR), a control 23% protein diet (C), and an energy-restricted diet group (ER). On days 4, ...
Chisari A N - - 2001
Malnutrition induces profound deleterious effects on several metabolic and neuroendocrine functions. In the present study, we examined the impact of maternal food restriction, during gestation and lactation, on the metabolic-neuroendocrine function of their male offspring at 21 and 60 d of age. Well-nourished (WN) and undernourished (UN) pregnant rats were ...
Emanuele N V - - 2001
Fetal alcohol syndrome usually implies effects on the offspring of maternal EtOH consumption during gestation, with fewer reports addressing the impact of paternal exposure on the progeny. One previous report has dealt with the impact of EtOH exposure on peripubertal male rats as a model of teenage drinking and the ...
Cokelaere M - - 2001
To look for possible developmental effects in the offspring of jojoba meal-treated Wistar rats, and to distinguish between the effects of reduced food intake and the specific developmental effects of jojoba meal itself, mated female rats were divided into three groups of 20 rats. They received during gestation: (a) normal ...
Flynn K M - - 2001
Vinclozolin is a fungicide used on food crops with human exposure estimated at approximately 2 microg/kg/day from ingestion; occupational exposure, however, may be greater. The metabolites of vinclozolin have been reported to act as antiandrogens and have adverse effects on reproductive physiology and behavior in animals. Here, pregnant rats were ...
Swithers S E - - 2001
In rat pups, blockade of fatty acid oxidation by administration of 2-mercaptoacetate (MA) produces an increase in independent ingestion by 12 days of age. In contrast, administration of methyl palmoxirate (MP) fails to increase intake or to alter oxidation of fatty acids in young rats due to the high proportion ...
Chisari A N - - 2001
The present study was designed to assess the effect of maternal undernutrition, during gestation and lactation, on the neuroendocrine [hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)]-immune axis response to endotoxin (LPS) administration. For this purpose, 21-day-old male rats from both well-nourished (WN) and undernourished (UN) mothers were examined 2 h after injection (i.p.) of vehicle ...
Paixão A D - - 2001
Number of nephrons, renal hemodynamics, and glomerular morphometry were assessed in rats submitted to a multideficient diet which was developed from a basic regional diet consumed in a Brazilian region of sugarcane cultivation. We evaluated three groups of male Wistar rat offspring: (1) from dams fed a standard diet throughout ...
Mowafy A R - - 2001
This work aimed to investigate the effect of food preservatives (sodium benzoate and sodium nitrite) on biochemical aspects of mother rats and survival of their offspring. Fifty pregnant albino rats (Sprague Dauley strain) were divided into 5 groups (10 rats each) and kept individually in wire cages. The first group ...
Bellet E M - - 2001
The reproductive effects of the administration of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) to rats were evaluated through two generations, from prior to mating, throughout mating, to gestation and lactation. MCPA was administered in the diet at doses of 0, 50, 150, or 450 ppm to 25 male and female immature rats (F0 ...
Oberbauer A M - - 2001
Exposing growing oMtla-oGH transgenic mice with the regulatable metallothionein promotor to elevated growth hormone (GH) for three weeks after weaning enhances bone length and adipocyte differentiation. The objective of the present study was to investigate the consequences of highly elevated GH exposure during fetal and early postnatal growth periods on ...
Katakura Y - - 2001
Maternal reproductive effects in Wistar rats exposed to 0, 50, or 300 ppm styrene for 6 h/day during gestational days 6 to 20 were evaluated. Their offspring were observed postnatally for neurochemical changes, growth, and physical landmarks of development. Mothers exposed to styrene were compared with pair-fed and ad-lib-fed controls ...
Petry C J - - 2000
AIMS: Low birthweight in humans has been shown to lead to increased resting pulse rate in adult life, suggesting possible increased sympathoadrenal activity. The hypothesis that early growth restriction is associated with permanent alterations in catecholamine metabolism was tested. METHODS: Circulating catecholamine concentrations (by radioimmunoassay) and adipocyte adrenoceptor expression from ...
Amusquivar E - - 2000
This study was designed to compare in rats the effects of dietary fish oil and olive oil during pregnancy and lactation on offspring development, fatty acid profile and vitamin E concentration. From d 0 of pregnancy, female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups that were fed purified diets that ...
Kwong W Y - - 2000
Epidemiological studies have indicated that susceptibility of human adults to hypertension and cardiovascular disease may result from intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight induced by maternal undernutrition. Although the 'foetal origins of adult disease' hypothesis has significant relevance to preventative healthcare, the origin and biological mechanisms of foetal programming ...
Green L R - - 2000
Intermittent umbilical cord compression with resultant fetal hypoxia can have a negative impact on fetal growth and development. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (IGFBPs) are the most important regulators of fetal growth. In preterm (107-108 days of gestation) and near-term (128-131 days of gestation) ovine fetuses, we ...
Ramos C F - - 2000
Lactating rats were fed with free access to an 8% protein-restricted diet (PR); the control group was fed a 23% protein diet (C). An energy-restricted (pair-fed) group was given the same food as the animals in the control group, but the amounts of food consumed by both PF and PR ...
Stockard J E - - 2000
Previous studies of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) effects on neurodevelopment have focused mainly on effects on the visual system; these studies may be confounded by effects on the retina rather than on neural pathways. Auditory brainstem conduction times (ABCTs) provide an alternate measure of central neural development. We conducted ...
Willoughby C R - - 2000
Di-(C(7)-C(9) alkyl) phthalate (D79P) and di-(C(9)-C(11) alkyl) phthalate (D911P), based on high-normality linear oxo-alcohols, have been assessed for their impact upon reproductive performance in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were continuously exposed to either D79P or D911P at dietary levels of 0%, 0.1%, 0.5%, or 1.0% over two generations. Selected F(0) offspring ...
Arnold D L - - 2000
The choice of a dosing route for in vivo toxicological tests is often dictated by practical constraints. Reproduction studies are particularly challenging in this regard since the determination of no-effect levels and allowable daily intakes from reproduction data encompasses exposure of the dam to the test xenobiotic prior to pregnancy, ...
Gammie S C - - 2000
Lactating female rodents are aggressive against intruders when they are rearing and protecting pups. In prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster, females exhibit a dramatic increase in citrulline immunoreactivity (citrulline-IR) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), but not in control regions of the brain, in association with maternal aggression. Citrulline is an indirect ...
< 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 >