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Brandsch C - - 2003
It has been shown previously that supplementation of sows with l-carnitine increases their reproduction performance. The current study was carried out to investigate if feeding of l-carnitine also affects the reproduction performance of rats. Thirty female rats at 4 weeks of age were divided into two groups. The rats were ...
Hernandes A S - - 2003
Protein malnutrition induces structural, neurochemical and functional alterations in the central nervous system, leading to alterations in behavioral function. In order to study the effects of early protein malnutrition on inhibitory avoidance and escape behaviors we used the elevated T-maze (ETM), while the risk assessment behaviors were evaluated by the ...
Lisle S J M - - 2003
In rats, maternal anaemia during pregnancy causes hypertension in the adult offspring, although the mechanism is unknown. The present study investigated the renal morphology of adult rats born to mothers who were Fe-deficient during pregnancy. Rats were fed either a control (153 mg Fe/kg diet, n 7) or low-Fe (3 ...
Vickers M H - - 2003
The discovery of a link between in utero experience and later metabolic and cardiovascular disease is one of the most important advances in epidemiology research of recent years. There is now increasing evidence that alterations in the fetal environment have long-term consequences on metabolic and endocrine pathophysiology in adult life. ...
Ferguson Sherry A - - 2003
Exogenous estrogen exposure during development often results in behavioral masculinization and/or defeminization of genetic females. Genetic males may be defeminized, hypermasculinized or even demasculinized after similar treatment. Here, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats consumed phytoestrogen-free diets containing 0, 1, 5 or 200 ppb EE(2) beginning on gestational day (GD) 7. Offspring were ...
Muelbert M M C - - 2003
In phocid seals, the transition to nutritional independence is abrupt, with females abandoning their offspring after weaning and returning to sea. We hypothesized that body size at weaning may play an important role in the nature of this transition. We studied the changes in body composition and water flux of ...
Lisboa P C - - 2003
We have shown that protein restriction during lactation is associated with higher levels of serum and milk tri-iodothyronine (T(3)) with lower serum thyroxine (T(4)), suggesting an increased T(4) to T(3) conversion. To investigate this hypothesis, the activity of type 1 (D1) and/or type 2 (D2) iodothyronine deiodinases was evaluated on ...
Deschamps S - - 2003
Blunted neuroendocrine responses to stress are reported in lactating females after exposure to various stressors. However, many of the stimuli used in these studies have little ethological relevance for maternal protection of the litter in a threatening environment. The question that arises is whether the relevance of the stressor to ...
Taylor P D - - 2003
We hypothesised that maternal uterine artery vascular dysfunction could contribute to cardiovascular dysfunction in offspring of rats fed a diet rich in fat. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 10 days prior to pregnancy and throughout gestation either: (a) a control breeding diet, or (b) the same diet supplemented with 20 ...
Rosenfeld Cheryl S - - 2003
In female mammals, it remains controversial whether maternal diet and particularly the source and availability of energy can influence sex of offspring born. Outbred female mice were fed ad libitum from 30 days to approximately 45 wk of age on defined, complete diets that differed only in their relative content ...
Rauw W M - - 2003
The present study investigated differences in the allocation patterns of body stores in lactating female mice from a line selected for high litter size at birth (S-line, average litter size of 20) and dams from a nonselected control line (C-line, average litter size of 10). Body weight, litter size, litter ...
Davis Richard J - - 2003
In adult rats, the rate of gastric emptying is modulated by properties of the diet, including its caloric content and osmotic properties. In developing pups, there is little known about the modulation of gastric emptying, despite evidence that volume of gastric contents may play a significant role in modulating intake ...
Perez-Torrero Esther - - 2003
Perinatal undernutrition as a deficiency of nutrient availability, affects body and brain developmental processes and promotes recurrent health problems. Thus, altered mother-litter bonds and deficient environmental interactions may interfere with the brain pluripotential capabilities of the newborn. To gather information concerning the mechanisms underlying perinatal undernutrition we designed a paradigm ...
De Assis Sônia Maria Alves - - 2003
The effect of maternal hypercholesterolemia on the course of pregnancy and the development of offspring was investigated. Rats were fed either an enriched-cholesterol diet (HC) or a standard diet (control) from 1 week before mating until weaning of offspring. Compared with the control group, HC dams showed a fourfold increase ...
Maloney Chris A - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Intrauterine growth restriction is associated with increased prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in adult life, including increased adiposity. The aim of this study was to investigate if maternal protein energy malnutrition is associated with changes in expression of genes involved in fat partitioning in weanling rats. RESEARCH METHODS AND ...
Soto-Blanco Benito - - 2003
The present work was aimed at evaluating the effects of maternal exposure to potassium cyanide (KCN) during lactation in goats. Twenty-seven lactating female goats were orally dosed with 0 (control), 1.0, 2.0, or 3.0 mg KCN/kg body weight/day from lactation days 0 to 90. After this period, all male kids ...
Rogers Peter J - - 2003
RATIONALE: The extent to which the measured (and felt) psychostimulant effects of caffeine represent a real benefit of caffeine consumption or merely withdrawal reversal is unclear. Results showing positive psychostimulant effects of acute caffeine administration in habitual non-consumers of caffeine would provide evidence for a net benefit of caffeine unconfounded ...
Chen Li - - 2003
High-fat diet and intrauterine growth retardation may predispose to obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Because prenatal ethanol (ETOH) exposure causes intrauterine growth retardation, we investigated its interactions with postnatal high-fat diet on glucose tolerance and adipocyte-derived hormones in the rat offspring. High-fat-fed offspring had increased adiposity, serum leptin, ...
Da Silva P - - 2003
The aim was to determine whether nutritionally mediated restriction of placental growth alters foetal body growth, pituitary gonadotrophin gene expression and gonadal development at Day 103 of gestation. Embryos recovered from adult ewes inseminated by a single sire were transferred, singly, into the uteri of adolescent recipients. After transfer, adolescent ...
Orozco-Suárez Sandra - - 2003
Serotonin (5-HT) plays a trophic role during brain development; chronic changes in cerebral concentration of this neurotransmitter during the critical stage of development can produce severe damage in the formation of the neural circuits. For the present work a hypoproteic (HYP) diet based on corn (CORN) meal which is deficient ...
Wainwright Patricia E - - 2003
Previous research in rats and mice has suggested that gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) derived from borage oil (BO: 23% GLA) may be an appropriate source for increasing levels of long-chain n-6 FA in the developing brain. Recently, transgenic technology has made available a highly enriched GLA seed oil from the canola ...
Khan Imran Y - - 2003
Epidemiological studies suggest an association between maternal nutrition and offspring cardiovascular disease. We previously demonstrated endothelial dysfunction and abnormal aortic fatty acid composition in adult female offspring of rats fed animal lard during pregnancy. We have now further investigated this model. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a control breeding diet ...
Stark Aliza H - - 2003
This study examined the effects of variety and quantity of dietary fat consumed by rats during pregnancy and lactation on female offspring's response to chemically induced mammary cancer. Groups of six female rats were fed diets containing 7% corn oil (7-CO), 15% CO (15-CO), 7% olive oil (7-OO), or 15% ...
Guimarey L M - - 2003
The aim of this work was to analyze the action of growth hormone (GH) on postnatal body weight recovery in intrauterine growth-retarded (IUGR) rats. Wistar rats were assigned to three groups: 1) control; 2) IUGR and 3) sham-operated. Uterine vessels of dams in the IUGR group were partially bent on ...
Ozdemir Himet - - 2003
The aim of this study was to compare in vivo effects of single and repetitive doses of betamethasone (BETA) and dexamethasone (DEX) administered to pregnant mice on lung maturation and lung, liver, and body weights (LLBW) of their pups. One hundred and eighty gravid Swiss albino mice were randomly assigned ...
Stepánková Renata - - 2003
BACKGROUND: A protective effect of breast-feeding against the development of celiac disease has been described, but the nature and effects of the actual milk components have not been established. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), a milk cytokine affecting the proliferation and differentiation of mucosal epithelial cells, was studied as to its ...
Jackson Alan A - - 2002
When rat dams consume a diet low in protein during pregnancy, their offspring develop high blood pressure. On a low-protein diet, the endogenous formation of the amino acid glycine is thought to become constrained. Glycine may become conditionally essential, as its rate of endogenous formation is inadequate to meet metabolic ...
King R S - - 2002
The effect of prenatal protein deprivation on timing of neurogenesis and on number of neurons generated in the serotonergic dorsal (DR) and median raphe (MR) nuclei of the rat was studied. These neurons are of interest because their neurogenesis occurs during the period of malnutrition and their axonal projections participate ...
Lamireau Delphine - - 2002
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Reduced endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation partly due to loss of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability occurs in most cases of chronic hypertension. Intrauterine nutritional deprivation has been associated with increased risk for hypertension and stroke, associated with relaxant dysfunction and decreased vascular compliance, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. ...
Reber Kristina M - - 2002
Developmental changes in the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) within the mesenteric artery of swine were studied in fetal (110 days postconception/117 days total gestation) and on postnatal days 1, 3, 10, and 30. Subjects in the 1-day-old group were subdivided into fed and nonfed. Transcription of eNOS ...
Swithers Susan E - - 2002
Previous work has demonstrated that mercaptoacetate (MA), which interferes with oxidation of fatty acids, can produce increases in intake in both adult and preweanling rats between 12 and 15 days of age. In both pups and adults, the increased intake is related to a decrease in the latency to initiate ...
Florek E - - 2002
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the toxicological influence of different concentrations of tobacco smoke and low-protein diet on fertility, reproduction, and survival of offspring of Wistar female rats. We studied three generations, two litters in each. There were 192 animals in parent generation. Animals were exposed ...
Bowen Raffick A R - - 2002
The objective of this study was to investigate if maternal dietary 20:4n-6 arachidonic acid (AA) and 22:6n-3 compared with adequate or low levels of 18:3n-3 linolenic acid (LNA) increases synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) cholesterol and phospholipid content, phospholipid 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 content, and Na,K-ATPase kinetics in rat pups at two ...
Burdge Graham C - - 2002
During pregnancy, the accumulation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) in fetal tissues places a substantial demand upon maternal lipid metabolism. As lipid metabolism is intimately linked to aspects of protein metabolism, a reduced protein intake in pregnancy may impair activities of enzymes and transport proteins responsible for supplying LCPUFA ...
Franco Maria do Carmo P Mdo - - 2002
Maternal undernutrition during critical periods of organ development is known to impair fetal growth and predispose to the development of adulthood diseases, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease and type II diabetes that are linked to low birth weight and are characterized by endothelial dysfunction. Increased oxidative stress, in rats ...
Sakamoto Mineshi - - 2002
Methylmercury (MeHg) can be transferred to the fetus through the placenta and to newborn offspring through breast milk. The higher mercury (Hg) accumulation and susceptibility to toxicity in the fetus than in the mother during the gestation period is well known. However, the contribution of MeHg exposure through breast milk ...
Taylor Anna N - - 2002
Fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) has been shown to blunt the febrile component of the primary host-defense response to infection induced experimentally by systemic administration of interleukin (IL)-1beta. Given that maternal adrenalectomy (ADX) can prevent various postnatal effects of FAE, the present experiments were designed to determine whether maternal ADX would ...
Zenuto Roxana R - - 2002
The objective of this study was to evaluate the maternal costs of reproduction and pup development in the subterranean rodent Ctenomys talarum (Thomas 1898). Statistical differences were detected in whole-animal metabolic rates between nonreproductive and pregnant or lactating females. Whole-animal metabolic rates during pregnancy and lactation were 128% and 151% ...
Castelucci Patrícia - - 2002
We investigated the effect of protein deprivation and refeeding on weight gain, the size of the colon, and the numbers and sizes of enteric neurons. Neurons were located by reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) diaphorase staining. Protein deprivation of the mother throughout pregnancy, and the mother and unweaned rat pups ...
Pocock Victoria J - - 2002
A rodent diet containing paraffin wax was designed to administer the environmental estrogen octylphenol (OP) to nonpregnant, pregnant and lactating rats. The estrogenic activity of OP via this diet was first confirmed in ovariectomized adult animals: 20 mg OP/kg/day increased the mitoses in the vaginal epithelium, and 60 mg OP/kg/day ...
Teixeira Ci;ntia - - 2002
We had shown that adult animals, whose mothers were submitted to protein or energy restriction during lactation, differ from controls in their body weight and thyroid function. The aim of this study was to evaluate, from birth through six months of age, leptin serum concentration, body weight and food intake ...
Fukuda Marisa Tomoe Hebihara - - 2002
Learning and memory of early postnatal protein malnourished rats were investigated in the Morris water maze. During the lactation period (21 days) each litter (mother plus six male and two female pups) was provided with 16% (well-nourished) or 6% (malnourished) protein diets. After weaning, rats remained on the same diet ...
Pavelka S - - 2002
A significant impact of high bromide levels in the organism of the mother on iodine transfer to the sucklings was established in experiments with female Wistar rats. The observed decrease in iodine transfer to the young through mothers' milk and/or an increase in the bromide concentration in the milk, caused ...
Pennington J S - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The consumption of significant amounts of alcohol (ethanol, EtOH) may markedly increase serum triglyceride levels. This study describes a significant increase in fasting serum triglyceride (TG) levels in adult male rats whose mothers consumed EtOH. The hypertriglyceridemia occurred although the offspring never directly consumed EtOH and had consumed only ...
Barreto Medeiros J M - - 2002
The effect of early postnatal malnutrition upon food intake and its modulation by the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram, was investigated in adult rats. Sixty four Wistar rats were allocated to two groups, according to their mother's diet during lactation. Mothers receiving a 23% protein diet fed the well-nourished ...
Palanza Paola L - - 2002
Maternal behavior in mammals is the result of a complex interaction between the lactating dam and her developing offspring. Slight perturbations of any of the components of the mother-infant interaction may result in alterations of the behavior of the mother and/or of the offspring. We studied the effects of exposure ...
Spear L P - - 2002
Neurobehavioral alterations evident in offspring of Sprague-Dawley rat dams exposed to 40 mg/kg/day cocaine subcutaneously from gestational days 8-20 are reviewed. Consequences for offspring are often age dependent: for instance, reliable deficits in classical conditioning are evident during the early postnatal period, whereas cognitive effects are less pervasive in adulthood, ...
Haubner Laura Y - - 2002
Previous studies of the effects of dietary docosahexanoic acid (DHA), 22:6n3, on neurodevelopment have focused mainly on visual-evoked potentials and indices of visual activity, measures that may be confounded by effects on the retina rather than on neural pathways. We investigated the effect of pre- and postnatal maternal dietary DHA ...
Chan Edmond Y W - - 2002
HAP-1 is a huntingtin-associated protein that is enriched in the brain. To gain insight into the normal physiological role of HAP-1, mice were generated with homozygous disruption at the Hap1 locus. Loss of HAP-1 expression did not alter the gross brain expression levels of its interacting partners, huntingtin and p150glued. ...
Welham Simon J M - - 2002
BACKGROUND: In rats, offspring born to mothers supplied low protein diets during pregnancy have fewer glomeruli than normal. We hypothesized that such nephron deficits are associated with altered cell turnover in the metanephros, the embryonic precursor of the adult kidney. METHODS: Wistar rats were supplied with one of three isocaloric ...
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