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Results 601 - 650 of 1425
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Bâ Abdoulaye - - 2005
To understand the implication of thiamine deficiency in the neuronal atrophy and cell death we undertook to induce thiamine (B1 vitamine) deficiency during three essential periods of the ontogenesis of rat central nervous system (CNS). Female rats were fed with a thiamine deprived diet during the gestation and lactation, and ...
Zambrano E - - 2005
Nutrient restriction during pregnancy and lactation impairs growth and development. Recent studies demonstrate long-term programming of function of specific organ systems resulting from suboptimal environments during fetal life and development up to weaning. We determined effects of maternal protein restriction (50% control protein intake) during fetal development and/or lactation in ...
Hemmings Denise G - - 2005
Results of epidemiological and animal studies suggest a link between poor in utero growth and cardiovascular disease in adult offspring. Few studies, however, have examined the effects of maternal undernutrition on the vasculature of pregnant female offspring, and to our knowledge, no studies have examined myogenic responses, which are essential ...
Ichihara Toshio - - 2004
Humans may be exposed to 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f ]quinoxaline (MeIQx) at low doses during the period of gestation and lactation, and thereafter throughout life. The current study was designed to examine the possibility that early exposure may increase the risk of liver tumor development and related genetic changes. Male and female F344 ...
Salazar Veronica V Laboratory of Experimental Endocrinology, Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Complutense University of Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid, - - 2004
To investigate the influence of dibutyl phtalate (DBP) given in a soy-free rat chow on pre-pubertal development, 46 Long Evans female rats 2-month-old were divided into three experimental groups and fed three different chows: (1) control; (2) DP 0.61 g/kg chow (12 mg/kgrat/day); (3) DP 2.5 g/kg chow (50 mg/kg ...
Elmes Matthew - - 2004
Linoleic acid (18:2n-6) is metabolised to arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), the precursor for 2-series prostaglandins (PGs). Increased consumption of 18:2n-6 during pregnancy may thus modify PG synthesis during labour. We have investigated whether increased 18:2n-6 composition during gestation altered the fatty acid consumption and PG synthesis of maternal and fetal tissues ...
Abdel-Wahhab Mosaad A - - 2004
In earlier work we have reported that garlic and cabbage extracts can protect laboratory animals from the toxic effects of different mycotoxins. Previous research demonstrated that fumonisin (FB) induced developmental effects in mice, rats and hamsters. The objectives of the present study were to utilize the pregnant rat as an ...
Carter M J - - 2004
Maternal effects, the environment that mothers provide to their offspring, their provision of nutrients and the environment that offspring of the same clutch share, have come to be recognized as an important influence on offspring fitness. In addition, in invertebrates, maternal effects and common environment may change according to a ...
Bohr Iwo - - 2004
There is accumulating data suggesting a neuroprotective activity of cholesterol, especially in stroke and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, a protective activity of this lipid in simulated neonatal anoxia was investigated. Rats were subjected to high cholesterol by feeding their dams with a diet enriched with cholesterol. Half ...
Gorman Helen E - - 2004
Maternal effects, in which differences in parental state cause differences in offspring fitness, are important in trade-offs influencing an individual's optimal reproductive strategy. In zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) we manipulated the nutritional state for four weeks before the start of breeding through protein supplementation. Zebra finches were kept on identical ...
Doerflinger Alicia - - 2004
The present study examined the effects of dietary manipulation on the age of onset of weaning in rat pups. In Experiment 1, female rats were placed on a standard chow (SC) or high-fat (HF) diet 1 week following mating. Pups were weighed daily from birth to Day 12, then animals ...
McPherson R L - - 2004
Three hundred twenty fetuses were obtained from 33 pregnant gilts (Camborough-22, Pig Improvement Co.) to determine rates of nutrient deposition in fetal tissues and to estimate nutrient requirements for fetal growth. Pregnant gilts were fed an equal amount of a gestation diet (2.0 kg/d; as-fed basis), and were slaughtered at ...
Venu L - - 2004
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Epidemiological evidence suggests that some adult diseases like insulin resistance syndrome and diseases associated with it originate in fetal life. The role of maternal macronutrient malnutrition but not of micronutrients in the fetal origin of adult disease is well studied. We hypothesise that chronic maternal vitamin restriction predisposes the ...
Bellinger Leanne - - 2004
Nutrient restriction in pregnancy has been shown to programme adult obesity. Modulation of feeding behaviour may provide a mechanism through which obesity may be programmed. Pregnant Wistar rats were fed either a control diet or a low-protein (LP) diet throughout gestation. Their offspring were allocated to a self-selected-diet protocol to ...
Suto Jun-ichi - - 2004
Females of the inbred mouse RR strain have a limited ability to nurture their offspring, and frequently the young die during rearing. We previously identified a significant quantitative trait locus (QTL) responsible for the inferior nurturing ability on chromosome 5 (Naq1), on the basis of litter weight of six pups ...
Zhang Junlong - - 2005
Whether a high-unsaturated-fat, high-protein (HFP), and low-carbohydrate (CHO) diet during gestation has long-lasting beneficial effects on lipid metabolism in the offspring was investigated using a mouse model. Female mice were fed either a standard (CHO rich) chow diet or a CHO HFP diet, before and during gestation and lactation. All ...
Carney E W - - 2004
This study determined the effects of feed restriction (FR) during in utero and postnatal life on standard reproductive toxicity and developmental immunotoxicity end points. Groups of 26 time-mated CD rats were fed various amounts of Purina 5002 diet from gestation day 7 through lactation. Control rats were fed once per ...
Khan I Y - - 2005
Epidemiological and animal studies suggest that diet-induced epigenetic modifications in early life can contribute to development of the metabolic syndrome in adulthood. We previously reported features of the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring of rats fed a diet rich in animal fat during pregnancy and suckling. We now report a ...
Desai Mina - - 2005
The degree of nutrient enhancement during the newborn period may modulate programming of appetite-regulating hormones, body composition, and propensity to adult obesity in intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) newborns. Pregnant rats received, from day 10 to term gestation and throughout lactation, ad libitum food (AdLib) or 50% food restriction (FR) to produce ...
Brandsch Corinna - - 2004
The present study was performed to investigate whether lipid peroxidation products in thermoxidised dietary oil fed during rearing, pregnancy and lactation influences the reproductive performance of female rats and the antioxidant status of their offspring. Twenty-four female rats were divided into two groups at 4 weeks of age. They were ...
Wolterbeek A P M - - 2004
Plant lignan 7-hydromatairesinol, a novel precursor of the mammalian lignan enterolactone was evaluated in a prenatal developmental toxicity study conducted in the Wistar rat. Mated female rats were fed diets containing 0, 0.25, 1, and 4% (w/w) of 7-hydroxymatairesinol in the form of potassium acetate complex (HMRlignan; potassium acetate level ...
Swithers Susan E - - 2004
In adult rats, administration of drugs that suppress oxidation of fatty acids, like mercaptoacetate (MA), produces increases in food intake. During development, the consequences of administration of MA are more varied. For example, in very young pups, intake of milk diets is unaffected by MA, while pups aged 12 to ...
Venu Lagishetty - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Maternal undernutrition is hypothesized to predispose the offspring to disease in adult life. The relevance of maternal macronutrient deficiency has been well studied but not that of micronutrients. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of maternal dietary mineral restriction per se on oral glucose tolerance (OGT), insulin resistance (IR) and ...
Waalkens-Berendsen D H - - 2004
The embryotoxicity/teratogenicity of neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) was examined in Wistar Crl:(WI)WU BR rats. NHDC was fed at dietary concentrations of 0, 1.25, 2.5 or 5 to groups of 28 mated female rats from day 0 to 21 of gestation. At Cesarean section 25, 22, 23, and 23 rats were found ...
Hattis Dale - - 2004
In revising cancer risk assessment guidelines, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analyzed animal cancer bioassay data over different periods of life. In this article, we report an improved analysis of these data (supplemented with some chemical carcinogenesis observations not included in the U.S. EPA's original analysis) and animal bioassay ...
Mendonça João Esmeraldo Frota - - 2004
The aim of the present study was investigate, in young rats, the effects of malnutrition on astrocyte distribution of two hypothalamic regions, the circadian pacemaker suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the medial preoptic area (MPA). Control rats were born from mothers fed on commercial diet since gestation and malnourished rats from ...
Lazarini C A - - 2004
The effects of prenatal exposure to dichlorvos (DDVP), an organophosphate (OP) pesticide, on pups' physical and neurobehavioral developments were investigated. Forty pregnant rats were treated by gavage with 8.0 mg/kg DDVP or its vehicle (1 ml/kg) from the 6th to the 15th day of pregnancy. At birth, pups were weighed, ...
Heywood Wendy E - - 2004
Poor fetal and infant nutrition has been linked to impaired glucose tolerance in later life. We studied the effect of protein deficiency during gestation and the suckling period in a rat model and found that poor nutrition 'programmes' pancreatic beta-cell GK (glucokinase; known as the glucose sensor) and glucose-stimulated insulin ...
Rosenfeld Cheryl S - - 2004
Mammals usually produce approximately equal numbers of sons and daughters, but there are exceptions to this general rule, as has been observed in ruminant ungulate species, where the sex-allocation hypothesis of Trivers and Willard has provided a rational evolutionary underpinning to adaptive changes in sex ratio. Here, we review circumstances ...
Françolin-Silva A L - - 2004
Protein malnutrition induces structural, neurochemical and functional alterations in the central nervous system, leading to behavioral alterations. In the present study, we used the elevated plus-maze (EPM) as a measure of anxiety to evaluate the interaction between acute immobilization and housing conditions on the behavior of malnourished rats. Pups (6 ...
Lammon Carol A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Inorganic arsenic, when given by injection to pregnant laboratory animals (mice, rats, hamsters), has been shown to induce malformations. Arsenic methylation may be a detoxification step, and diets deficient in protein are a poor source of methyl donors and may possibly result in impaired arsenic methylation. Human health effects ...
Hemmi Anne - - 2004
Environmental variation in food resources modifies performance of herbivores, in addition to genetic variation and maternal effects. In marine benthic habitats, eutrophication may modify herbivores' diets by changing host species composition or nutritional quality of algae for herbivores. We studied experimentally the effects of diet breadth and nutrient availability for ...
Joshi Sadhana - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: We studied the effect of folic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation during pregnancy in Wistar albino rats on cognitive performance and serum glucose concentrations in their pups. METHODS: Pregnant female rats from four groups (n = 6/group) were fed casein diets with 18% protein and 2 mg of ...
Benyshek Daniel C - - 2004
We examined the effects of prenatal and postnatal nutrition on birthweight and insulin sensitivity, indicated by the glucose/insulin (G/I) ratio, in adult rats (F1 generation) and in their adult offspring (F2 generation). Rat pups (F1) whose dams consumed low-protein diets during gestation (malnourished) consumed either nutritionally adequate (control) or high-fat ...
Wilcoxon Jennifer Slone - - 2004
Increasing evidence associates environmental challenges early in life with permanent alterations of physiological functions in adulthood. These changes in fetal environment can trigger physiological adaptations by the fetus, called fetal programming, which may be beneficial before birth but permanently influence the physiology of the organism. In this study, we investigated ...
Korotkova Marina - - 2004
The present study examines whether dietary essential fatty acid (EFA) intake influences the induction of oral tolerance to ovalbumin (OA) in neonatal and adult rats. During late gestation and throughout lactation Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet supplemented (S) with EFA (7% soybean oil), or a diet deficient (D) in ...
Kim Hyung H - - 2004
The proper nutritional status during the hormone-sensitive growth phases preceding first parturition can affect mammary development and subsequent lactation performance. We developed a compensatory nutrition regimen (CNR), which is designed to stimulate mammary growth by exploiting the biological characteristics of the energy restriction and compensatory growth phenomenon. In the present ...
Chen Suping - - 2004
The effect of maternal dietary protein intake on lead-induced developmental immunotoxicity was studied in female Fischer 344 rats receiving lead acetate (250 ppm) or sodium acetate (control) in the drinking water during breeding and pregnancy until parturition. Dams were fed isocaloric diets (either 20% casein or 10% casein) from 2 ...
Kuzawa C W - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that the balance between fetal nutritional demand and maternal nutritional supply during pregnancy will predict lipid profiles in offspring measured in adolescence. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 296 male and 307 female Filipino offspring (aged 14-16 y) and mothers enrolled in a longitudinal birth ...
Neese Steven - - 2004
Using a rat model we have found that the bioflavonoid silymarin (SY) ameliorates some of the negative consequences of in utero exposure to ethanol (EtOH). In the current study our aim was to determine if spatial working memory (SWM) was impaired in offspring whose mothers were maintained on a liquid ...
Ozanne Susan E - - 2004
Poor early growth is associated with Type II diabetes, hypertension and other features of the metabolic syndrome in adulthood. It has been suggested that this results from the development of a thrifty phenotype by a malnourished fetus. Such a phenotype would predispose the offspring to the development of obesity if ...
da Silva Faria Tatiane - - 2004
This study aims to determine the effects of maternal protein and energy malnutrition during lactation on the linear growth, body weight and onset of puberty of the female offspring. At parturition, dams were randomly assigned to the following groups: (C) control group, with free access to a standard laboratory diet ...
Barreto-Medeiros J M - - 2004
Malnutrition effect during the suckling period on aggressive behavior was investigated in adult rats treated and not treated with fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. Sixty-four Wistar male rats were allocated in two groups, according to their mothers' diet during lactation. The well-nourished group was fed by mothers receiving a ...
Masutomi Naoya - - 2004
We investigated the effects of two diets, differing in phytoestrogen contents, on the phenotypic changes induced in the endocrine/reproductive system by perinatal exposure to an estrogen agonist during a critical period for brain sexual differentiation in rats. Ethinylestradiol (EE) was mixed at a concentration of 0.5 ppm into two diets: ...
Lardies Marco A - - 2004
Studies of life history aim to explain patterns in the evolution of reproductive investment, growth, and survival. Trade-offs between traits are a fundamental component of life history theory. In herbivorous arthropods life history traits are often responsive to variation in numerous environmental factors, especially diet quality. Using three artificial diets ...
Fernandez-Twinn D S - - 2003
Many adult diseases, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease, are related to low birth weight. The mechanistic basis of this relationship is not known. To investigate the role of fetal undernutrition, we used a rat model of maternal protein restriction in which dams were fed a diet containing ...
Takagi Hironori - - 2004
Two potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals, bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol (NP), were assessed for their long-lasting effects on endocrine/reproductive systems following transplacental and lactational exposure to rat offspring during a time-window that included the critical period for brain sexual differentiation. Each chemical was mixed with diet at concentrations of 60, 600 ...
Park Kyong Soo - - 2003
Epidemiologic data suggest a strong association between low birth weight and increased risk of metabolic syndrome in adult life. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. To test the hypothesis that mitochondrial changes may serve as a link between poor nutrition in early life and insulin resistance in later life, ...
Joshi Sadhana - - 2003
Metabolic programming in utero due to maternal undernutrition is considered to increase the risk of adult diseases in offspring. It is therefore of relevance to investigate how dietary supplementation of specific nutrients can ameliorate the negative effects of maternal malnutrition. We examined the effects of supplementing fish oil or folic ...
El-Khattabi Ilham - - 2003
We investigated the effect of an isocaloric maternal low-protein diet during pregnancy in rats on the proliferative capacity of cultured fetal hepatocytes. The potential roles of these changes on the IGF-IGF-binding protein (IGFBP) axis, and the role of insulin and glucocorticoids in liver growth retardation, were also evaluated. Pregnant Wistar ...
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