Search Results
Results 551 - 600 of 1425
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Smith Jordan N - - 2006
Contamination with hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (Royal Demolition Explosive [RDX]) has been identified at areas of explosive manufacturing, processing, storage, and usage. Thus, the potential exists for exposure to N-nitroso compounds, hexahydro-1-nitroso-3,5-dinitro-1,3,5-triazine, hexahydro-1,3-dinitroso-5-nitro-1,3,5-triazine, and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitroso-1,3,5-triazine (TNX), formed via anaerobic transformation of RDX. Following exposure, reproductive toxicity of TNX was evaluated in three consecutive ...
McDonald J M - - 2006
Divergent selection in mice was applied in 3 independent replicates for high (maintenance high; MH) and low (maintenance low; ML) heat loss for 16 generations. An unselected control (maintenance control; MC) was also maintained in all replicates. Selection ceased for 26 generations; heat-loss measurement and selection resumed at generation 42. ...
Fink R - - 2006
Thirty mink dams nursing litters of six kits were assigned to one of three dietary treatments [high protein (HP), medium protein (MP) and low protein (LP)], fed ad libitum for 4 week from parturition, to investigate the effects of protein supply on milk yield and milk composition in order to ...
Isbrucker R A - - 2006
Green tea and its principal active ingredient, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), have been demonstrated to have anticancer properties through interactions with multiple biochemical processes. Since these processes are often crucial in normal fetal development it is important to evaluate the potential effects of EGCG on the fetus. EGCG preparations of >91% ...
Lea R G - - 2006
This study aimed to determine whether reduced fetal ovary folliculogenesis in ewes undernourished during early/midpregnancy is associated with altered ovarian cell proliferation and/or the expression of apoptosis-regulating genes. Groups of ewes (n = 11-19) were fed either 100% (high; H) or 50% (low; L) of metabolisable energy requirements for live-weight ...
Petry Clive J - - 2006
Previous studies have shown that in male rats, exposure to maternal protein restriction either in utero or whilst suckling can have profound effects on both longevity and kidney telomere lengths. This study monitored albuminuria longitudinally in male rats whose mothers had been protein restricted either during pregnancy or lactation. Pregnant ...
del Barco-Trillo Javier - - 2006
In many species of small mammals, females undergo post-partum oestrus soon after delivering a litter, becoming pregnant while suckling the previous litter. Females raising two concurrent litters need to allocate many more resources to reproduction than females raising only one litter. Consequently, there may be differences between litters raised concurrently ...
Beyrouty Peter - - 2006
Methylmercury (MeHg), an environmental contaminant primarily found in fish and seafood, may pose long-term health risks to pregnant women and their developing children. The objective of this study was to determine whether co-consumption of nutritional supplements would alter the effects of MeHg on reproductive and developmental toxicity using a rodent ...
Li Dingxu - - 2006
A leaf disc bioassay was employed in the laboratory to assess the population responses of Tetranychus viennensis Zacher to clofentezine at three concentrations (LC(10), LC(25) and LC(50)) in three successive generations. Life-table parameters were calculated in each acaricide exposure regime and compared by jackknife procedures. Clofentezine treatments in the juvenile ...
Patlas Natan - - 2006
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus (DM) during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk for poor reproduction and a high rate of congenital malformations. The gerbil Psammomys obesus is a unique model for nutritionally induced Type 2 DM (T2DM) that enabled us to study the outcome of uncontrolled T2DM during pregnancy. METHODS: ...
Noyan-Ashraf Mohammad Hossein - - 2006
An imbalance between production and scavenging of oxidants is a commonality found in factors that result in fetal determinants that negatively affect adult health. We reasoned that a dietary intervention that promotes oxidant scavenging through phase 2 protein induction would have positive effects on fetal programming of adult health. Previously, ...
Zambrano E - - 2006
Extensive epidemiological and experimental evidence indicates that a sub-optimal environment during fetal and neonatal development in both humans and animals may programme offspring susceptibility to later development of chronic diseases including obesity and diabetes that are the result of altered carbohydrate metabolism. We determined the effects of protein restriction during ...
Wyrwoll Caitlin S - - 2006
Fetal programming is now recognized as a key determinant of the adult phenotype, with major implications for adult-onset diseases including hypertension. Two mediators of fetal programming are maternal nutrition and fetal glucocorticoid exposure. Recent studies show that postnatal dietary manipulations can exacerbate programming effects, but whether programming effects can be ...
Khoury Janette - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effect of a cholesterol-lowering diet on maternal, cord, and neonatal plasma lipids and pregnancy outcome. STUDY DESIGN: Nonsmoking white women with singleton pregnancies (n = 290), aged 21 to 38 years, and with no previous pregnancy-related complications, were randomized to either continue their usual diet or ...
Gregersen Søren - - 2005
Insulin resistance plays a critical role in metabolic syndrome and is influenced by the amount and saturation of dietary fat. Both prenatal over and under nutrition can program susceptibility to insulin resistance. The aim of the study was to explore the impact of dietary fat given to mothers during gestation ...
Wang Bing - - 2005
Effects on postnatal neurophysiological development in offspring were studied after exposure of pregnant Wistar rats to accelerated carbon-ion beams with an LET of about 13 keV/ mum at doses ranging from 0.1 Gy to 2.5 Gy on the 15th day of gestation. The age at which four physiological markers appeared ...
Bellinger Leanne - - 2005
Undernutrition in fetal life programmes risk of obesity and the metabolic syndrome in adult life. Rat studies indicate that exposure to a maternal low-protein diet throughout fetal life establishes a preference for high-fat foods. The present study aimed to assess the effect of low protein exposure during discrete 7-day periods ...
Holt Marte - - 2005
This study was designed to reveal any differences in effects of fast created versus total inbreeding on reproduction and body weights in mice. A line selected for large litter size for 124 generations (H) and a control line (K) maintained without selection for the same number of generations were crossed ...
Wachs Theodore D - - 2005
The traditional assumption that children's nutritional deficiencies are essentially due either to overall food scarcity or to a lack of family resources to purchase available food has been increasingly questioned. Parental characteristics represent 1 type of noneconomic factor that may be related to variability in children's diets and nutritional status. ...
García Ada L - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Vitamin A (VA) and its derivates (retinoids) are important nutritional substances, which mediate their biological activity mainly via nuclear retinoid receptors. Maternal VA intake during lactation influences the VA content in milk and the VA status of the progeny. We investigated the effects of maternal supplementation during lactation and ...
Gallagher E A L - - 2005
The effect of maternal low protein diet in pregnancy on the function of offspring cerebral cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) was investigated in vitro immediately before and after birth, using fetal and neonatal rat pup forebrain tissue. Pregnant rat dams were fed either a control (C, 18% casein n = 22) ...
da Silva Hernandes Andréa - - 2005
The influence of different malnutrition techniques on the behavior of adult animals was investigated in the elevated T-maze (ETM). Control litters (C) were composed by eight pups constantly kept with their mother and fed by a 16%-protein diet ad libitum; protein malnutrition litters (PM) were fed by a 6%-protein diet; ...
Bayol Stéphanie A - - 2005
We examined the effects of a maternal cafeteria diet on skeletal muscle and adipose tissue development in the offspring at weaning. Rats born to mothers fed the cafeteria diet either during gestation alone or during both gestation and lactation exhibited a 25% reduction in muscle cross-sectional area with approximately 20% ...
Maloney Christopher A - - 2005
During fetal life, there are periods of rapid cell proliferation, which are uniquely sensitive to nutritional perturbation. Feeding the pregnant rat a protein-restricted diet alters the growth trajectory of major fetal organs such as the kidney. By day 21 of gestation, the ratio of kidney weight to total body weight ...
Venu Lagishetty - - 2005
According to the fetal programming hypothesis, impaired intrauterine development results in insulin resistance and associated metabolic disturbances. Recently, we reported increased body fat, a forerunner of insulin resistance, in the pups of mineral-restricted rat dams. To identify the causative mineral(s), the effect of magnesium restriction was assessed. Female weanling WNIN ...
Jarvis Joseph P - - 2005
Maternal effects on offspring phenotypes occur because mothers in many species provide an environment for their developing young. Although these factors are correctly "environmental" with respect to the offspring genome, their variance may have both a genetic and an environmental basis in the maternal generation. Here, reciprocal crosses between C57BL/6J ...
Ikeda Masahiko - - 2005
The effects of in utero and lactational exposure of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on brain sexual differentiation were investigated. TCDD was orally administered to pregnant Holtzman rats on gestation day (GD) 15, and the activity of brain aromatase, a key enzyme for sexual differentiation, was measured in offspring on postnatal day (PND) ...
Sealey Wendy M WM Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR 72205, - - 2005
Marginal maternal biotin deficiency reduces hepatic activity of biotin-dependent carboxylases and causes high rates of fetal birth defects in mice. We tested the hypothesis that the decreased carboxylase activity observed in deficient dams and their offspring is mediated by decreased abundance of biotinylated carboxylases, decreased expression of their mRNAs, or ...
Bowen Raffick A R - - 2005
One of the debates in infant nutrition concerns whether dietary 18 : 3n-3 (linolenic acid) can provide for the accretion of 22 : 6n-3 (docosahexaenoic acid, DHA) in neonatal tissues. The objective of the present study was to determine whether low or high 18 : 3n-3 v. preformed 22 : ...
Zambrano E - - 2005
Compelling epidemiological and experimental evidence indicates that a suboptimal environment during fetal and neonatal development in both humans and animals may programme offspring susceptibility to later development of several chronic diseases including obesity and diabetes in which altered carbohydrate metabolism plays a central role. One of the most interesting and ...
Margret Cecilia P CP Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center College of Medicine, 855 Monroe Avenue, Memphis, TN 38163, - - 2005
Maternal alcohol exposure results in a variety of neurodevelopmental abnormalities that include cognitive and sensorimotor dysfunctions that often persist into adulthood. Many reports of central nervous system disturbances associated within a clinical diagnosis of fetal alcohol syndrome point toward disturbances in central information processing. In this study, we used the ...
Hemmings D G - - 2005
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increases the risk of cardiovascular disease later in life. Vascular dysfunction occurs in adult offspring from animal models of IUGR including maternal undernutrition, but the influence of reduced fetal oxygen supply on adult vascular function is unclear. Myogenic responses, essential for vascular tone regulation, have not ...
Welham Simon J M - - 2005
Human epidemiological data associating birth weight with adult disease suggest that organogenesis is "programmed" by maternal diet. In rats, protein restriction in pregnancy produces offspring with fewer renal glomeruli and higher systemic blood pressures than controls. We tested the hypothesis that maternal diet alters gene expression in the metanephros, the ...
Buckley Alexandra J - - 2005
An intrauterine environment may play a role in predisposing a developing fetus to metabolic diseases during adulthood. We investigated the hypothesis that a maternal diet high in omega-6 polyunsaturated fat can modify the programming of an offspring's glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, body composition, lipid metabolism, and insulin signaling. High omega-6 ...
Almeida M F L - - 2005
Pups were subjected to malnutrition by feeding the lactating mothers a multi-deficient (8% protein content) diet, known as regional basic diet (RBD), from birth up to weaning. The weanings were fed the same diet until 60 days of age. Ultrastructure of the optic nerve was analyzed at postnatal (P) day ...
Armitage James A - - 2005
Evidence from human and animal studies suggests that maternal nutrition can induce developmental programming of adult hypertension in offspring. We have previously described a model of maternal dietary imbalance in Sprague-Dawley rats whereby administration of a maternal diet rich in animal lard programmes the development of increased blood pressure, insulin ...
De Silva P M C S - - 2005
Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) was selected to investigate the effects of chlorpyrifos on reproductive performances. Male and female guppy with proven fertility were selected from our own colony and the groups of fish (n=72/group) were exposed to pre-determined chlorpyrifos concentrations (0.002 microg/l, 2 microg/l) based on the 96-h LC50 for guppy. ...
Gangula Pandu R R - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether gestational age of in utero low-protein diet played a role in the subsequent development of adult hypertension and whether it is gender dependent and examined whether flutamide (a specific, nonsteroidal competitive antagonist of the androgen receptor) reduces blood pressure in rat offspring that are exposed to ...
Asadifar Mehrdad - - 2005
We hypothesized that the pathological effects on the neonatal rat heart could be aggravated by Cu deficiency due to the combined effects of caffeine exposure and malnutrition. Upon birth, pups were mixed and randomly picked; 8 pups were assigned to each dam and then divided into 4 groups. Group 1 ...
Kostial Krista - - 2005
The risk of manganese (Mn)-related ill effects in the neonate has been the topic of several investigations because in formula-fed infants Mn intake is much higher than in breast-fed infants. In the young, when Mn homeostasis is not yet developed, increased Mn intake might pose a neurotoxic risk. Our work ...
Imosemi I O - - 2005
The teratogenic effect of maternal cyanide consumption on the gross morphology of the post-natal phase of the developing rat cerebellum was studied. Twenty pregnant female rats weighing between 170 g and 190 g were separated into control and experimental groups. The control animals were fed a standard diet of mice ...
Ryökkynen Ari - - 2005
Due to beneficial health effects phytosterols (PS) are increasingly added to functional foods. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chronic effects of a dietary PS mixture (5mg/kg/day), containing mainly beta-sitosterol, on the reproduction of the mouse. General reproductive parameters, postnatal development, growth and survival of pups, ...
Jacobson Kevan - - 2005
Increasing evidence suggests that fetal and neonatal nutrition impacts later health. Aims of the present study were to determine the effect of maternal dietary fat composition on intestinal phospholipid fatty acids and responsiveness to experimental colitis in suckling rat pups. Female rats were fed isocaloric diets varying only in fat ...
Vilela M C R - - 2005
We investigated in young rats the effects of malnutrition on the main structures of the circadian timing system: retina, hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), thalamic intergeniculate leaflet, retinohypothalamic- and geniculohypothalamic tracts. Control rats were born from mothers fed a commercial diet since gestation, and malnourished rats from mothers fed a multideficient ...
Velkoska Elena - - 2005
Early life nutrition impacts on subsequent risk of obesity and hypertension. Several brain chemicals responsible for both feeding and cardiovascular regulation are altered in obesity. We examined effects of early postnatal overnutrition on blood pressure, brain neuropeptide Y (NPY), and adiposity markers. Rat pup litters were adjusted to either 3 ...
Korotkova M - - 2005
Fetal and postnatal nutrition have long-term effects on the risk for development of diseases late in life in humans and animals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary deficiency of essential fatty acids (EFA) in the perinatal period on later body weight and bone ...
Dyrskog Stig E U - - 2005
Restriction of protein or energy intake during gestation or early life is linked to developmental defects in the endocrine pancreas and insulin resistance. AIMS: To study whether a saturated fatty acid-rich diet during gestation and/or after the weaning period may be detrimental to the insulin secretory capacity later in life. ...
Ross Michael G - - 2005
The process whereby a stimulus or stress at a critical or sensitive period of development has long-term effects is termed "programming." Studies in humans and animals convincingly demonstrate that environmental perturbations in utero may permanently change organ structure and metabolism and/or alter homeostatic regulatory mechanisms among the offspring. These programmed ...
Kurosaki Takahiro - - 2005
The objective of these studies was to assess the effects of the tripeptides, L-valyl-L-prolyl-L-proline (VPP) and L-isoleucyl-L-prolyl-L-proline (IPP), on reproductive capabilities of male and female rats. The specific goals of the experiments were (1) to determine the effects of orally administered tripeptides on (a) fertility and reproductive behavior in both ...
Herrera E - - 2005
By using different experimental designs in the rat we have been able to answer several unanswered questions on the short- and long-term effects of alterations of lipid metabolism during the perinatal stage. The first was to demonstrate the importance of maternal body fat accumulation during the first half of pregnancy, ...
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