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Results 451 - 500 of 1432
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Thomas Diana M - - 2008
Empirical data indicate that the maternal diet composition has a direct impact on foetal fat mass and resulting birth weights. Weight-bearing maternal exercise influences the placental volume, which has also been correlated to birth weight. A foetal energy balance equation, based on the first law of thermodynamics, that incorporates maternal ...
Mahlière Sophie - - 2008
While perinatal nicotine effects on ventilation have been widely investigated, the prenatal impact of nicotine treatment during gestation on both breathing and neural circuits involved in respiratory control remains unknown. We examined the effects of nicotine, from embryonic day 5 (E5) to E20, on baseline ventilation, the two hypoxic ventilatory ...
Venu Lagishetty - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: We investigated the long-term effects of maternal/postnatal magnesium (Mg) restriction on adiposity, glucose tolerance, and insulin secretion in the offspring and the probable biochemical mechanisms associated with them. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Female weanling Wistar/NIN (WNIN) rats received a control diet or 70% Mg-restricted (MgR) diet for 9 weeks and ...
Levay Elizabeth A - - 2008
Environmental stimuli such as caloric availability during the perinatal period exert a profound influence on the development of an organism. Studies in this domain have focused on the effects of under- and malnutrition while the effects of more mild levels of restriction have not been delineated. Rat dams and their ...
Reusens B - - 2008
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Events during fetal life may in critical time windows programme tissue development leading to organ dysfunction with potentially harmful consequences in adulthood such as diabetes. In rats, the beta cell mass of progeny from dams fed with a low-protein (LP) diet during gestation is decreased at birth and metabolic ...
Schuler Sandra Lúcia - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Protein-energy malnutrition encompasses a group of conditions resulting from a lack of both protein and calories. It affects immune function and the gastrointestinal tract. Animal model studies of the effect of malnutrition during pregnancy and lactation have shown changes in the body weight of dams, with consequences for the ...
Pinheiro Alessandra R - - 2008
Substantial evidence suggests that poor intrauterine milieu elicited by maternal nutritional disturbance may programme susceptibility in the fetus to later development of chronic diseases, such as obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. One of the most interesting features of fetal programming is the evidence from several studies that the consequences ...
Bezerra Daniele Gonçalves - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Statins are cholesterol-lowering drugs that have been proved to prevent cardiac events. Their direct effects on cardiac remodeling, when administered in programmed protein restricted animals, still are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Wistar male 6-month-old offspring from dams fed normal protein (NP, 19% of protein) or low-protein (LP, 5% of ...
Watkins Adam J - - 2008
Early embryonic development is known to be susceptible to maternal undernutrition, leading to a disease-related postnatal phenotype. To determine whether this sensitivity extended into oocyte development, we examined the effect of maternal normal protein diet (18% casein; NPD) or isocaloric low protein diet (9% casein; LPD) restricted to one ovulatory ...
Elahi Maqsood M - - 2008
Increasing evidence suggests that hypercholesterolemia during pregnancy initiates pathogenic events in the fetus leading to increased risk of cardiovascular disease in the adult offspring. In this study we examined in mice whether pharmacological intervention using statins in late pregnancy could alleviate the detrimental effects of a high-fat, high-cholesterol (45% fat) ...
Zhang Xue-Ying - - 2008
Lactation is the most energetically demanding period in the female mammal's life. We measured maternal energy intake, uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) content in brown adipose tissue (BAT), serum-leptin concentration, and litter growth in lactating Brandt's voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii) with different litter sizes. Litter mass was positively related to litter size ...
Zeng Hui - - 2008
Taking magnesium deficient diet and drinking soft water (including purified water, essentially mineral free) are common consumed in the world. The present study was conducted to assess the potential combined influence of maternal drinking purified water and taking magnesium deficient diet on postnatal development and behavior in the offspring of ...
Pastuszewska B - - 2008
The objective of the study was to assess the effects of substitution milk and egg for soya products in breeding diets for rats, with concomitant decrease of the dietary protein level and supplementation with amino acids. Soya-containing (S) and two soya-free (NS and NSA) diets were evaluated as protein and ...
Bailey M M - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Chromium(III) is generally thought to be an essential trace element that allows for proper glucose metabolism. However, chromium(III) picolinate, Cr(pic)3, a popular dietary supplement form of chromium, has been shown to be capable of generating hydroxyl radicals and oxidative DNA damage in rats. The cation [Cr3O(O2CCH2CH3)(6(H2O)3]+, Cr3, has been ...
Nakashima Yoko - - 2008
To investigate the influence of parental fat intake on preferential fat intake by pups after weaning, two groups of dams in study 1 were fed either a low-fat diet (LFD) or a lard high-fat diet (HFD) and those in study 2 were fed either a LFD or a fish-oil HFD ...
Lopes Karen L - - 2008
Low birth weight has been associated with increased obesity in adulthood. It has been shown that dietary salt restriction during intrauterine life induces low birth weight and insulin resistance in adult Wistar rats. The present study had a two-fold objective: to evaluate the effects that low salt intake during pregnancy ...
Pisani Luciana P - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: We examined whether feeding pregnant and lactating rats hydrogenated fats rich in trans-fatty acids modifies the plasma lipid profiles and the expression of adipokines involved with insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease in their 21-d-old offspring. METHODS: Pregnant and lactating Wistar rats were fed with a control diet (C group) ...
Pisani Luciana P - - 2008
We examine whether feeding pregnant and lactating rats hydrogenated fats rich in trans fatty acids modifies the plasma lipid profiles and the expression of adipokines involved with insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease in their 90-day-old offspring. Pregnant and lactating Wistar rats were fed with either a control diet (C group) ...
Mozes S - - 2008
The relationship was evaluated between early nutritional experiences, the intestinal microflora and the small intestinal functions in the mechanism of predisposition to obesity development. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in which the quantity of nutrition was manipulated from birth to weaning (day 30) by adjusting the number of pups in ...
Green Mark P - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Evolutionary theory suggests that in polygynous mammalian species females in better body condition should produce more sons than daughters. Few controlled studies have however tested this hypothesis and controversy exists as to whether body condition score or maternal diet is in fact the determining factor of offspring sex. Here, ...
Benyshek Daniel C - - 2008
The offspring and grandoffspring of female rats fed low protein diets during pregnancy and lactation, but fed nutritionally adequate diets thereafter, have been shown to exhibit altered insulin sensitivity in adulthood. The current study investigates the insulin sensitivity of the offspring and grandoffspring of female rats fed low protein diets ...
Barnett Matthew P G - - 2008
CONTEXT: Insufficient maternal protein intake has been postulated to cause impaired fuel metabolism and diabetes mellitus in adult mammalian progeny, but the mechanism remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a maternal low protein whey-based diet during pregnancy and lactation on pancreatic function and skeletal muscle glucose metabolism in ...
Lisboa P C - - 2008
Protein malnutrition during neonatal programs for a lower body weight and hyperthyroidism in the adult offspring were analyzed. Liver deiodinase is increased in such animals, contributing to the high serum triiodothyronine (T3) levels. The level of deiodinase activities in other tissues is unknown. We analyzed the effect of maternal protein ...
Steinetz Bernard G - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether abnormal laxity of hip joints of canine pups with genetic predisposition to hip dysplasia (HD+) is related to ingestion of milk-borne hormones. ANIMALS: 7 female Labrador Retrievers with HD+ and 8 with low predisposition to hip dysplasia (HD-) and their offspring. PROCEDURES: Immunoactive relaxin, estrogen, and ...
O'Dowd Rachael - - 2008
Human intrauterine growth restriction is often associated with uteroplacental insufficiency and a decline in nutrient and oxygen supply to the fetus. This study investigated the effects of uteroplacental insufficiency and intrauterine growth restriction (Restricted) or reducing litter size for normally grown pups (Reduced Litter) on maternal mammary development and function, ...
Shankar Kartik - - 2008
Risk of obesity in adult life is subject to programming during gestation. To examine whether in utero exposure to maternal obesity increases the risk of obesity in offspring, we developed an overfeeding-based model of maternal obesity in rats utilizing intragastric feeding of diets via total enteral nutrition. Feeding liquid diets ...
Roghair Robert D RD Department of Pediatrics, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, - - 2007
In rats, maternal low protein diet induces growth restriction, increases fetal glucocorticoid exposure and programs cardiovascular and endocrine dysfunction in adult offspring. We hypothesized that both maternal low protein diet and late gestation dexamethasone program murine offspring to develop hypertension, vascular dysfunction, and glucose intolerance. An iso-caloric low protein diet ...
Bonduriansky R - - 2007
It is widely recognized that maternal phenotype can have important effects on offspring, but paternal phenotype is generally assumed to have no influence in animals lacking paternal care. Nonetheless, selection may favour the transfer of environmentally acquired condition to offspring from both parents. Using a split-brood, cross-generational laboratory design, we ...
Schwarz Aline - - 2007
Solanum lycocarpum, St. Hil (Solanaceae) is a common native shrub in the Brazilian cerrado. The fruits are used in folk medicine as a hypoglycaemic agent in the management of diabetes, obesity and to decrease cholesterol levels. In this study the glycoalkaloids, solamargine and solasonine, were isolated from unripe fruits of ...
Fountain Emily D - - 2008
There have been many trials describing the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on fecundity, neonatal development, and maternal behavior in humans, but few controlled studies in rodents. We examined the effects of a maternal diet high in omega 3 (N-3) or omega 6 (N-6) PUFA on NIH Swiss mice. ...
Stump Donald G - - 2008
S-111-S-WB (CAS No. 72968-38-8), a mixture of perfluoro fatty acid ammonium salts, was administered daily via oral gavage to 30 Crl:CD(SD) rats/sex/group at 0.025, 0.125 and 0.6mg/(kgday) over two generations to assess potential reproductive toxicity. Reproductive performance, mean litter size, pup survival and pup weights were unaffected. Lower mean body ...
Caluwaerts Silvia - - 2007
Exposure to a dysmetabolic in utero environment may be one of the mechanisms to explain why individuals with high birth weight are more likely to remain overweight. We explored this hypothesis in an animal model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). We studied adipose tissue development and glucose tolerance in the offspring ...
Miyawaki Joji - - 2007
AIM: To investigate whether the perinatal and postnatal exposure of mice to bisphenol A (BPA) caused the development of obesity and/or hyperlipidemia. METHODS: Pregnant mice were exposed to BPA in drinking water at concentrations of either 1 microg/mL (LD group) or 10 microg/mL (HD group) from gestation day 10 and ...
Szentgyörgyi H - - 2008
Bank vole pups produce ultrasounds when isolated from the nest, as other rodents do. The present study was intended to elucidate the possible interaction between the social stress of isolation from the mother and the physical stress of low ambient temperature during the nesting period. Although bank vole pups removed ...
Desai Mina - - 2007
Maternal nutrient restriction results in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) newborns that develop obesity despite normal postweaning diet. The epidemic of metabolic syndrome is attributed to programmed "thrifty phenotype" and exposure to Western diets. We hypothesized that programmed IUGR newborns would demonstrate greater susceptibility to obesity and metabolic abnormalities in response ...
Dumortier O - - 2007
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Adverse events during intra-uterine life may programme organ growth and favour disease later in life. In animals, protein or energy restriction during gestation alters the development of the endocrine pancreas, even though the duration of malnutrition is different. Here, we evaluate the specific effects of both diets during different ...
Fetoui H - - 2008
This study was performed to analyse the effects of low-protein diet (7%) on bone mass and mineral metabolism in rat pups whose mothers were submitted to protein-restricted diet during late pregnancy and early post-natal periods. For this purpose, 12 pregnant Wistar rats were divided into two groups of six animals ...
Rühl Ralph - - 2007
Vitamin A (VA) and its derivatives, the retinoids, are important factors for the development of the immune system. It has been shown in adult animals that proliferation of lymphocyte populations and antibody secretion are retinoid dependent, while little is known about the effects of retinoids during postnatal development. The aim ...
Lü Lan-Hai - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: This experiment evaluated the perinatal hypoxic effect on the retina of offspring of the ovoviviparous fish. ANIMAL STUDIED: The ovoviviparous fish Xiphophorous maculates was used for the experiment. PROCEDURE: The mothers were kept in a hypoxic environment of 3.5% oxygen for 6 h, starting 30 h before hatching. Subsequently, ...
Abecia L - - 2007
AIMS: To study the effect of microbial community of the rabbit does as influenced by dietary factors, on the development of the gut microbiota of their litters. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-four lactating does were given a diet unsupplemented (NAB) or with 100 ppm of bacitracin (BAC) or tiamulin (TIA) to ...
Burdge Graham C - - 2008
The nutritional cues which induce different phenotypes from a single genotype in developing offspring are poorly understood. How well prenatal nutrient availability before birth predicts that after birth may also determine the offspring's response to later metabolic challenge. We investigated the effect of feeding pregnant rats diets containing protein at ...
Lanham S A SA Bone and Joint Research Group, Developmental Origins of Health and Disease, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO16 6YD, UK. - - 2008
Osteoporosis is believed to partly be programmed in utero. Rat dams were given a low protein diet during pregnancy and 135 offspring studied at different ages. Bone biochemistry showed altered characteristics. Altered in utero diet has consequences for later life. Epidemiological studies suggest skeletal growth is programmed during intrauterine and ...
King, Summer Hayes 1984-
The prenatal environment has been shown to have lasting effects on cardiovascular health. In the present study, pregnant rats were fed a 0.7% NaCl normal salt (NS) diet or an 8% NaCl high salt (HS) diet throughout pregnancy. Adult offspring were fitted with radiotelemetry probes to continuously measure blood pressure ...
Marseille-Tremblay C - - 2007
Pregnancy is associated with hyperlipidemia and hypercholesterolemia in humans. These changes take place to support fetal growth and development, and modifications of these maternal concentrations may influence lipids and cholesterol synthesis in the dam, fetus and placenta. Administration of a 0.2% enriched cholesterol diet (ECD) during rabbit gestation significantly increased ...
Sundari S Bala Tripura - - 2007
Iodine deficiency disorders affect reproductive performance in the afflicted populations. Environmental iodine deficiency (ID) and goitrogens are important in their aetiology. We observed earlier that chronic maternal dietary ID but not goitrogen feeding altered the blood-brain barrier nutrient transport in adult rats. Whether similar differences exist in their effects on ...
Khoury Janette - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a low-cholesterol low-saturated fat diet on Doppler indices in the fetus and mother. STUDY DESIGN: Two hundred ninety nonsmoking white women, aged 21-38 years, without previous pregnancy complications and carrying a single fetus were assigned randomly to continue ...
Fagundes A T S - - 2007
Previously we have reported that maternal malnutrition during lactation programmes body weight and thyroid function in the adult offspring. In the present study we evaluated the effect of maternal protein restriction during lactation upon body composition and hormones related to glucose homeostasis in adult rats. During lactation, Wistar lactating rats ...
Alexenko Andrei P AP Department of Animal Sciences, University of Missouri-Columbia, Christopher S. Bond Life Sciences Center, Columbia, Missouri 65211-7310, - - 2007
Skewing of the sex ratio towards males occurs among pups born to mice fed a very high saturated fat (VHF) diet. In the present study, we tested whether the fat content of the VHF diet rather than the number of calories consumed is responsible for this effect. Eight-week-old NIH Swiss ...
Meyers, Adrienne F. A.
Previous studies have documented that liver/body weight ratios and rates of hepatic DNA synthesis are decreased in a rat model of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). In an attempt to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for these findings, rates of liver maturation, liver histology, and the status of the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like ...
Porter James P - - 2007
Several animal models have been developed to study fetal programming of hypertension. One model involves feeding high-salt (HS) diet to rats before and during pregnancy, during lactation, and after weaning for 10 days. In the present investigation, we limited HS diet to the prenatal period in an attempt to find ...
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