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Land Mary-Anne - - 2014
Aim: Salt reduction efforts usually have a strong focus on consumer education. Understanding the association between salt consumption levels and knowledge, attitudes and behaviours towards salt should provide insight into the likely effectiveness of education-based programs. A single 24-hour urine sample and a questionnaire describing knowledge, attitudes and behaviours was ...
Marquet Laurie-Anne - - 2013
BACKGROUND: Repetitions of pre-competition weight-loss diets done by athletes participating in weight class sports can be regarded as periods of weight cycling. The aim of the present study is to identify the long term post-career (22 years) evolutionary profile of athletes' BMI after such weight cycling. METHODS: One hundred and ...
Anselmi Pasquale - - 2013
The meaning of the implicit weight attitude in individuals of different weight by distinguishing the contribution of positive and negative associations to the overall measure was investigated. The implicit weight attitude was assessed using the Implicit Association Test. A Rasch model was used to identify which stimuli most affected the ...
Zhang Juan - - 2013
To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) for dietary sodium intake among adult residents of Shandong Province, China. In 2011, we conducted a cross sectional survey among a representative sample of 15,350 adults aged 18 to 69 years using a standardized questionnaire to assess their KAP for sodium. Variation ...
Morganstern Irene - - 2012
Clinical reports suggest a positive association between fat consumption and the incidence of hyperactivity, impulsivity and cognitive abnormalities. To investigate possible mechanisms underlying these disturbances under short-term conditions, we examined in Sprague-Dawley rats the influence of 7-day consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) compared to chow on anxiety, novelty-seeking and ...
Yoshino Satoshi - - 2012
Bilirubin can prevent oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and may protect against atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). The goal of this study was to characterize the relationship between bilirubin and CHD through measurements of bilirubin concentration, coronary endothelial function, and markers of oxidative stress, inflammation, and lipid/glucose metabolism. The ...
Leite Richard Diego - - 2012
The aims of our study were to investigate effects of postnatal overnutrition, obtained by restricting the number of pups per litter, on microcirculatory reactivity, fat depots, its total percentage and lipid profile. Microvascular reactivity was evaluated in the cremaster muscle of 24 hamsters divided into four groups, with 6 animals ...
Lei Sen - - 2012
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of selective fat pad ablation on the spatial and temporal stability of the complex fractionated atrial electrogram (CFAE) in acetylcholine (ACh)-induced atrial fibrillation (AF). ACh was applied to fat pads in 10 dogs. Effective refractory periods (ERPs) at 5 different ...
Griffin Timothy M - - 2012
To test the hypotheses that obesity due to a very high-fat diet induces knee osteoarthritis (OA), and that short-term wheel-running exercise protects against obesity-induced knee OA by reducing systemic inflammation and metabolic dysregulation. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed either a control diet (13.5% kcal from fat) or a very high-fat ...
Yang Dongfang D Department of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Center for Pharmacogenomics and Molecular Therapy, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI 02881, - - 2012
Z-Guggulsterone is a major ingredient in the Indian traditional hypolipidemic remedy guggul. A study in mice has established that its hypolipidemic effect involves the farnesoid X receptor (FXR), presumably by acting as an antagonist of this receptor. It is generally assumed that the antagonism leads to induction of cytochrome P450 ...
Figueiredo-Silva A Cláudia - - 2012
This study was designed to assess the effects of dietary fat levels on glucose homeostasis in rainbow trout under prolonged hyperglycaemia induced by high carbohydrate intake. Trout were fed identical amounts of one of two iso-energetic diets containing either a low (LFD, 3%) or a high fat level (HFD, 20%) ...
Dwyer Johanna - - 2012
Elite adolescent female figure skaters compete in an aesthetic-based sport that values thin builds and lithe figures. To conform to the sport's physical requirements, skaters may alter their eating patterns in unhealthful directions. This study assesses the eating attitudes and dietary intakes of elite adolescent female figure skaters to ...
Moura Leandro P - - 2012
Studies using laboratory animals under what are considered to be "standard" conditions normally offer unrestricted amounts of food to the animals, which can lead to metabolic disorders. Moreover, standard diets have different compositions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of two non-isocaloric diets (commercial ...
Piccinetti Chiara Carla - - 2011
In the last decades there have been several evidences that traditionally used live preys like rotifers and Artemia salina have nutritional deficiencies that result in a general decrease of fish health, causing anomalies in the development, in growth and in pigmentation. In this study a partial of total replacement of ...
Zhou June J Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Louisiana State University System, Louisiana, USA. - - 2012
Health benefits of resistant starch (RS), a dietary fermentable fiber, have been well documented in young, but not in old populations. As the essential step of more comprehensive evaluations of RS on healthy aging, we examined the effects of dietary RS on tolerance, colonic fermentation, and cytokine expression in aged ...
Andersson U - - 2012
In studies performed in mice, rose hip powder has been shown to both prevent and reverse high-fat diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance as well as reduce plasma levels of cholesterol. The aim of this study was to investigate whether daily intake of rose hip powder over 6 weeks exerts beneficial ...
Köhler Angela - - 2011
Secondary metabolites produced by plants for herbivore defence are often found in floral nectar, but their effect on the foraging behaviour and physiological performance of pollinators is largely unknown. Nicotine is highly toxic to most herbivores, and nicotine-based insecticides may contribute to current pollinator declines. We examined the effects of ...
Matsuda Yuji - - 2011
We have previously demonstrated that coffee and caffeine ameliorated hyperglycemia in spontaneously diabetic KK-A(y) mice. This present study evaluates the antidiabetic effects of coffee and caffeine on high-fat-diet-induced impaired glucose tolerance in C57BL/6J mice. C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet were given regular drinking water (control group), or a 2.5-fold-diluted ...
Kitagawa Akira - - 2011
  In this study, we examined whether melatonin improves metabolic syndrome induced by high fructose intake in male Wistar rats. Feeding of a diet containing 60% fructose (HFD) for 4 or 6 wk caused increased serum insulin, triglyceride, total cholesterol, free fatty acids, uric acid, leptin, and lipid peroxide concentrations as ...
Rother Eva - - 2011
Hypothalamic inflammation has been demonstrated to be an important mechanism in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus. Feeding pregnant and lactating rodents a diet rich in saturated fatty acids has consistently been shown to predispose the offspring for the development of obesity and impaired glucose metabolism. However, hypothalamic ...
Park Sunmin - - 2011
To investigate the effects of Chang-Chul-Eui-Ee-In-Tang (, CCEET), modififi ed CCEET (MCCEET), and Semen Coicis (SC, a major component of CCEET) on energy and glucose homeostasis. The possible mechanism of action of CCEET was also determined. A total of 100 Sprague Dawley female rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups, ...
Stump Aram D - - 2011
Many mycophagous species of Drosophila can tolerate the mushroom poison α-amanitin in wild mushrooms and in artificial diet. We conducted feeding assays with sixteen Drosophila species and α-amanitin in artificial diet to better determine the phylogenetic distribution of this tolerance. For eight tolerant and one related susceptible species, we sequenced ...
Domingo José L - - 2011
The daily intakes of arsenic (As), beryllium, cadmium (Cd), cobalt, chromium, copper, mercury (Hg), manganese, nickel, lead (Pb), antimony, tin, thallium, uranium, vanadium, and zinc by an adult population living in Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain) were determined by the duplicate diet method with a 10-day sampling period. Duplicate diet samples, ...
Trushenski J - - 2011
Sparing of marine resources in aquafeeds can be environmentally and economically advantageous; however, fish meal (FM) replacement can affect the production performance and physiological competence. Phospholipids are increasingly understood to be involved in maintaining growth and vigour in fish and may be deficient in reduced FM formulations. Accordingly, we evaluated ...
Bailey-Downs Lora C - - 2012
Previous studies suggest that the age-related decline in circulating growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels significantly contribute to vascular dysfunction in aging by impairing cellular oxidative stress resistance pathways. Obesity in elderly individuals is increasing at alarming rates, and there is evidence suggesting that elderly individuals are ...
Coss K P - - 2011
N-glycan processing and assembly defects have been demonstrated in untreated and partially treated patients with Classical Galactosaemia. These defects may contribute to the ongoing pathophysiology of this disease. The aim of this study was to develop an informative method of studying differential galactose tolerance levels and diet control in individuals ...
Garrel Catherine - - 2011
The protection of the developing organism from oxidative damage is ensured by antioxidant defense systems to cope with reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn can be influenced by dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). PUFAs in membrane phospholipids are substrates for ROS-induced peroxidation reactions. We investigated the effects of dietary ...
Diwan Vishal - - 2011
Black pepper is used worldwide to enhance food flavor. We investigated dietary supplementation with piperine, the active principle of black pepper, to high carbohydrate, high fat (HCHF) diet-fed rats as a model of human metabolic syndrome. Rats were fed with either HCHF diet (carbohydrate, 52%; fat, 24%; 25% fructose in ...
Honors Mary A - - 2011
Consumption of a high-fat (HF) diet results in insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Weight loss is often recommended to reverse these metabolic alterations and the use of a high-protein (HP), low-carbohydrate diet is encouraged. In lean rats, consumption of a HP diet improves glycemic control. However, it is unknown whether ...
Sironi A M - - 2011
Objective:  Previous studies have highlighted the associations between abdominal, cardiac or total fat accumulation and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of different ectopic fat depots on measurements of metabolic dysfunction and cardiovascular disease risk. Methods:  Using magnetic resonance imaging in 113 subjects, we ...
Lee Edward B - - 2011
Metabolic syndrome has deleterious effects on the CNS, and recent evidence suggests that obesity rates are higher at presentation in children who develop epilepsy. Adiponectin is secreted by adipose tissue and acts in the brain and peripheral organs to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. Adiponectin deficiency predisposes toward metabolic syndrome, ...
Hwang Jin-Taek - - 2011
Decursin (De), an active component of Angelica gigas, is known to exert anticancer and neuroprotective effects. However, its antiobesity and antidiabetic potential has not yet been investigated. This study evaluated the antiobesity effect of decursin, particularly focusing on its ability to inhibit adipocyte differentiation in 3 T3-L1 cells. Decursin treatment resulted ...
Gower Barbara A BA Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA. - - 2012
The objective was to examine the effects of diet macronutrient composition on insulin sensitivity, fasting glucose, and β-cell response to glucose. Participants were 42 normal glucose-tolerant (NGT; fasting glucose <100 mg/dL) and 27 impaired fasting glucose (IFG), healthy, overweight/obese (body mass index, 32.5 ± 4.2 kg/m(2)) men and women. For ...
Olatunji L A - - 2011
Women are exposed to sex steroids in several formulations such as oral contraceptives (OCs) and hormone replacement therapies. Estrogen is believed to have cardiometabolic protection effect; but its beneficial effects have recently been queried. The aim of the present study was to clarify whether or not the altered glucose tolerance ...
Kalmar Isabelle D - - 2011
N, N-dimethylglycine (DMG) is a tertiary amino acid that naturally occurs as an intermediate metabolite in choline-to-glycine metabolism. The objective of the present trial was to evaluate tolerance, safety and bioaccumulation of dietary DMG in broilers when supplemented at 1 g and 10 g Na-DMG/kg. A feeding trial was conducted using 480 ...
Khan Mohammad Imtiyaj - - 2011
Rivina humilis L. (Phytolaccaceae) accumulates vacuolar pigments betalains. These pigments are synthesized by plants of 11 families in the order caryophyllales. Red beet is the only industrial source of these hydrophilic and low acidic pigments. Betalains rich R. humilis berry juice (RBJ) could be used as alternative source of these ...
McDonald Sarah D - - 2011
Although a high-fat diet (HFD) is recognized as an important contributor to obesity, human research is limited by confounders such as income, whereas animal research has typically examined diet during specific developmental periods rather than throughout the lifespan. We hypothesized that the use of an HFD in short-term studies as ...
Costa Rute R S - - 2011
Microvascular dysfunction is an early finding in obesity possibly related to co-morbidities like diabetes and hypertension. Therefore we have investigated changes on microvascular function, body composition, glucose and insulin tolerance tests (GTT and ITT) on male hamsters fed either with high fat (HFD, n=20) or standard (Control, n=21) diet during ...
Mellouk Zoheir - - 2011
The present series of experiments aim mainly at investigating the possible influence of changes in the com-position of dietary lipids (sunflower oil, salmon oil, safflower oil) upon the metabolic syndrome found in rats exposed to a fructose-rich diet. For purpose of comparison, a control group of rats received the sunflower ...
Akyol Asli - - 2011
In addition to being a risk factor for adverse outcomes of pregnancy, maternal obesity may play a role in determining the long-term disease patterns observed in the resulting offspring, with metabolic and dietary factors directly programming fetal development. The present study evaluated the potential for feeding rats an obesogenic cafeteria ...
Nyman Lara R - - 2011
BACKGROUND: Abnormal fatty acid metabolism is an important feature in the mechanisms of insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1a (CPT-1a, liver isoform) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. We investigated the role of CPT-1a in the development of impaired glucose tolerance using a ...
Hoefel A L - - 2011
Consumption of energy-dense/high-fat diets is strongly and positively associated with overweight and obesity, which are associated with increase in the prevalence of certain chronic diseases. We evaluated the effect of hypercaloric/fat or normocaloric diets on some biochemical parameters in rats. Seventy-two rats were divided into four groups that were fed ...
Mubiru James N - - 2011
The metabolic syndrome is common in populations exposed to a typical Western diet. There is a lack of an animal model that mimics this condition. We fed 15 cynomolgus monkeys ad libitum a high-sugar high-fat (HSHF) diet for 33 weeks. Body weight, body composition, serum lipids, and insulin were measured ...
Ivanova Monika - - 2011
High-fat or high-carbohydrate food consumption contributes to changes in myocardial tolerance to ischemia. However, with respect to experimental models, most studies used diets with very high doses of cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, or fructose. In our study, we fed rats a high-fat diet based on lard in combination with administration ...
Karlsen Anette - - 2011
It has been suggested that antioxidants attenuate oxidative stress and prevent oxidative stress-related diseases. Paradoxically, randomised controlled trials (RCT) using pharmacological doses of antioxidant supplements have demonstrated harmful effects in smokers. The aim of the present study was to test the compliance, tolerability and safety of two food-based antioxidant-rich diets ...
Jensen M G - - 2011
This randomized, controlled, 2-week intervention study in 24 obese subjects tested the effect on body weight loss and gastrointestinal tolerance of consuming low viscous alginate fibre-based preloads of 3% concentration (500ml volume) three times a day as an adjuvant to a calorie-restricted diet. The pilot study showed that intake of ...
Conde Silvia V - - 2012
We tested the hypothesis that long-term caffeine intake prevents the development of insulin resistance and hypertension in two pathological animal models: the high-fat (HF) and the high-sucrose (HSu) diet rat. We used six groups of animals: control; caffeine-treated (Caff; 1 g/l in drinking water during 15 d); HF; caffeine-treated HF (HFCaff); HSu; ...
Numis Adam L - - 2011
The ketogenic diet (KD) is a treatment of infantile spasms (IS). Here, we examine the efficacy of KD in medically refractory IS, examine its impact on growth in infants, and explore its mechanism of action. At 1-3 months after the initiation of the KD, 46% of twenty-six patients had a ...
Anadon Arturo - - 2011
Few studies have focused on the toxicological risks of dairy fat intake. A standard dairy fat (SDF) with a 70% SFA content and a naturally enriched dairy fat (EDF) in vaccenic, rumenic and α-linolenic acids and low in SFA (54%) have been examined in a 4-week repeated dose oral toxicity ...
Smith G C - - 2011
The atypical antipsychotic drug olanzapine induces weight gain and defects in glucose metabolism in patients. Using a rat model we investigated the effects of acute and long term olanzapine treatment on weight gain, food preference and glucose metabolism. Olanzapine treated rats fed a chow diet grew more slowly than vehicle ...
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