Search Results
Results 401 - 450 of 1101
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Clemente G - - 2003
BACKGROUND AND AIM: To evaluate the effects on postprandial lipemia (PPL), of three fat rich meals, with similar composition but different physical structure (liquid, semisolid and solid). METHODS AND RESULTS: Eight type 2 diabetic patients of both genders (6M/2F), age 51+/-9 yrs (M+/-SD), BMI 29+/-3 kg/m2, with fasting plasma glucose ...
Flint Anne - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Observational studies suggest that monounsaturated (MUFA) and trans fatty acids (TRANS) are more fattening than polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the acute effect of intake of PUFA, MUFA, or TRANS on appetite and energy expenditure (EE). RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Three ...
Nagai Narumi - - 2003
This study investigated whether the -3826 A-->G nucleotide variant of the uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) gene is correlated with postprandial thermogenesis after a high fat meal in children. Healthy boys, aged 8-11 yr, were examined for resting energy expenditure and the thermic effect of a meal (TEM), which were measured by ...
Goedecke J H JH UCT/MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, South Africa. - - 2003
To examine the short-term effects of a lipase inhibitor (Orlistat) on physiological and behavioural measures of appetite in response to a high-fat meal. Randomised, single blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. A total of 19 healthy nonobese male subjects. After an overnight fast, subjects ingested a test meal of 2940 kJ (60% ...
Monteleone Palmiero - - 2003
The effects of specific nutritional factors on ghrelin secretion have not been investigated in humans. Therefore, we assessed ghrelin responses to a high-carbohydrate meal (1217 kcal with 77% carbohydrates, 10% protein, and 13% lipids) and to an isocaloric high-fat meal (15% carbohydrates, 10% proteins, and 75% lipids) in 14 nonobese ...
Baxter Suzanne Domel - - 2003
This report describes a comparison of the accuracy of children's dietary recalls obtained using either open or meal format interviews. Fourth-graders were randomly selected, observed eating school meals (breakfast, lunch), and interviewed that evening regarding that day's intake with children randomly assigned to open (n = 12) or meal (n ...
Sanders Tom A B - - 2003
Impaired clearance of chylomicron remnants is associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. An intake of 40 to 50 g of fat in a meal results in significant lipemia in healthy adults, with consecutive fat-containing meals enhancing the lipemia. This would suggest that limiting fat intake to approximately ...
Colić Barić Irena - - 2003
The aim of this study was to evaluate daily menus at students' restaurants and to report dietary habits and other health-related behaviour of Croatian university students (n=2075) according to gender. A specially designed self-administered questionnaire was used. One hundred and twenty daily menus were chosen by random sampling, and the ...
Tentolouris N - - 2003
Food ingestion can influence autonomic nervous system activity. This study compares the effects of 2 different isoenergetic meals on sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, assessed by heart rate variability (HRV) and plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels, in lean and obese women. Fifteen lean and 15 obese healthy women were examined on ...
Lee J T - - 2003
High concentrations of guar meal in poultry diets deleteriously affect growth, feed intake, and digesta viscosity. These effects are attributed to residual gum in the meal. A 2 x 5 factorial experiment investigated the impacts of two guar meal fractions (germ and hull) at five inclusion levels (0, 2.5, 5.0, ...
Lawrence K R - - 2003
We used 360 nursery pigs (35 +/- 3 d of age) in two 21-d growth assays to determine the effects of soybean meal particle size on growth performance. In both trials, there were six pigs per pen and 10 pens per treatment. Pigs were weaned on d 21 and fed ...
Helman E E - - 2003
The cysteine proteinases, mu- and m-calpain, along with their inhibitor, calpastatin, have been hypothesized to play a role in skeletal muscle protein degradation. Because nutrition has previously been shown to influence the expression of calpastatin, the working hypothesis of this study was that the quantity and source of dietary protein ...
Holmbäck Ulf - - 2003
Because approximately 20% of the work force in the industrialized world have irregular working hours, it is pertinent to study the consequences of eating at irregular, especially nighttime hours. We studied the postprandial responses during nocturnal fasting vs. eating throughout a 24-h wake period. Seven healthy males were studied twice ...
Brown Paul B - - 2003
Two separate studies were conducted to evaluate the utility of glyphosate tolerant canola (GTC) as a feed ingredient in diets fed to rainbow trout. In the first study, two forms of GTC were compared to a parental line, Westar. In the second study, one line of GTC was reevaluated to ...
Ross Alastair B - - 2003
Currently there is no biomarker to link consumption of whole grain cereals and their observed health benefits. A candidate for a biomarker of whole grain wheat and rye intake is a class of phenolic lipids, the alkylresorcinols (AR). Studies to determine the uptake of AR in humans were carried out ...
Burger Joanna - - 2003
Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component of the assessment of risk from contaminants in fish. While there have been extensive studies of fish consumption in Western cultures, less attention has been devoted to the role of fish and meat in the diets of people in other ...
Cowieson A J - - 2003
1. The potential for the nutritional improvement of pea-based diets by supplementation with a cocktail of exogenous carbohydrases was investigated using growing broiler chicks. 2. Pea meals (grown in the UK) were included in wheat-based diets at 300 g/kg as a partial replacement for an approximately isonitrogenous mixture of wheat ...
Sproul Allen D - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the effectiveness of nutrition labeling on sales of targeted entrees and measured the perceived influence that factors such as taste, quality, appearance, fat content, calorie content, and price had on meal selection behavior within an Army cafeteria. METHODS: A quasi-experimental design was used to compare targeted ...
Steer Peter - - 2003
Impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV) is an early marker of atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate how meals with different fat contents influence endothelial vasodilatory function. A total of 26 young, healthy men and women aged 20-30 years ingested an ordinary Western meal [34 energy% (E%) fat, ...
Carroll Mary F - - 2003
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to determine the optimal timing of vitamins E and C to prevent oxidative stress induced by a high-fat evening meal in type 2 diabetes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eleven subjects were admitted on 4 occasions. Euglycemia was maintained for 24 hours by insulin infusion. Participants were ...
Chi Michael M - - 2003
The mouse W/Wv mutation of the c-Kit receptor causes extensive loss of gastrointestinal interstitial cells of Cajal and vagal intramuscular arrays (IMAs; one of the two putative mechanoreceptors in gastrointestinal smooth muscle). To characterize the behavioral phenotype of the c-Kit mouse and to evaluate the roles of these mechanoreceptors in ...
Gaye-Siessegger J - - 2003
Many scientists use naturally occurring stable isotopes to reconstruct the diets of animals. However, isotopic ratios may be affected not only by the composition of the diet but also by the amount of food consumed. Thus, an experiment using tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was carried out to test the influence of ...
Scaraffia P Y - - 2003
In order to determine whether proline can be utilized as fuel during flight of Aedes aegypti, proline, alanine, and glutamine concentrations were monitored at 0, 30 and 60 min after flight using sugar-fed males and females, and blood meal-fed females. In sugar-fed and blood meal-fed females, flight lead to a ...
Plotnick Gary D - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to determine if long-term daily administration of phytonutrient supplements can prevent the immediate adverse impact of a high-fat meal and increase the production of nitric oxide. BACKGROUND: Ingestion of a high-fat meal impairs flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery for at least 4 h; however, co-ingestion ...
Sørensen L B LB Department of Human Nutrition, Centre for Advanced Food Studies, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg C, Denmark. - - 2003
To examine the effect of a GLP-2 infusion on appetite sensations and ad libitum energy intake in healthy, normal weight humans. The experiment was performed in a randomised, blinded, and placebo-controlled crossover design. Placebo or GLP-2 was infused (infusion rate of 25 pmol/kg body wth) for 4.5 h. A total ...
Holmbäck Ulf - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Night work is becoming more common and shift workers display several metabolic disturbances. Aim To study the endocrine responses in relation to time of day during a 24-h period and how dietary macronutrient composition affects these responses. DESIGN: Seven males (26-43 y and 19.9-26.6 kg. m(-2)) were studied in ...
Rajagopalan Prabhu - - 2003
The effects of food on the pharmacokinetics of vardenafil were examined in 25 healthy adult males. Single-dose vardenafil 20 mg was administered in a randomized four-way crossover design after an overnight fast (at 8 a.m.), after consumption of a high-fat breakfast (at 8 a.m.), on an empty stomach (at 6 ...
Bae Jang-Ho - - 2003
BACKGROUND: To analyze the effects of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia with or without antioxidant supplementation-on endothelial function as related to lipid oxidation in healthy young subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten healthy male subjects (mean age: 26 years) were examined three times in fasting state (10 hours) following a high-fat meal, a low-fat ...
Bellinger Larry - - 2003
Continuous administration of nicotine (NIC) reduces food intake (FI) and body weight (BW), whereas rebound eating and BW gain occur after NIC cessation. However, generalizations derived from prior studies on meal patterns in rats using continuous 24-h NIC administration are limited, because human smokers use NIC intermittently during their active ...
Saxby S A - - 2003
Background - Digestibility is often estimated in fish by collecting settled faeces. Markers like Cr(2)O(3) in diets allow calculation of digestibility from their content in faeces. This works well for fish like silver perch that excrete mucous-bound faeces. However, pink snapper excrete loose faeces with little mucous. Experiments with pink ...
Olabi Ammar - - 2003
During space missions, such as the prospective Mars mission, crew labor time is a strictly limited resource. The diet for such a mission (based on crops grown in a bioregenerative life support system) will require astronauts to prepare their meals essentially from raw ingredients. Time spent on food processing and ...
Raben Anne - - 2003
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the satiating power of the 4 macronutrients follows the oxidation hierarchy: alcohol > protein > carbohydrate > fat. However, the experimental evidence for this is still scarce. OBJECTIVE: The goal was to investigate the effects on appetite, energy intake and expenditure, and substrate metabolism ...
Ozawa Tatsuo - - 2003
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the influence of feeding on gastric acid suppression in Helicobacter pylori-positive patients treated with intravenous infusions of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) or with H2-receptor antagonists (H2-RAs) after bleeding from a gastric ulcer. METHODS: Forty-nine H. pylori-positive patients with bleeding gastric ulcers (44 men and 5 women) ...
Olivera Leticia - - 2003
The nutritional and physiological effects of raw cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) seed meal, protein isolate (globulins), or starch on the metabolism of young growing rats have been evaluated in 14-day trials. Wet and dry weight gain, feed conversion efficiency, and lipid and protein accretion were significantly reduced as a ...
Esposito Katherine - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Persons following current dietary guidelines have a lower risk of mortality from coronary heart disease. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the short-term effect of a high-fat meal and a high-carbohydrate meal, with and without dietary antioxidants, on vasomotor, antiplatelet, and hemostatic functions of the endothelium in healthy subjects. ...
Kawamura H - - 2003
Ingestion and excretion of environmental 99Tc was measured in an adult male who ingested 'hijiki' food in his diet that contained a sub-bequerel activity per kg, and which was prepared from a marine alga, Hizikia fusiforme, or hijiki in Japanese, traditionally eaten in the Japanese diet. Harvested hijiki was boiled, ...
L.C. Nwanna
Feeding trials and digestibility studies were conducted in recirculatory systems to assess the effect of replacing fish meal with 0, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40% fermented shrimp head waste meal (FSHM) in practical diets for African catfish <I>Clarias gariepinus</I>. The different levels of FSHM were mixed with other ingredients ...
Azhar Saeed
Soybean meal is considered to be the most desirable protein source for poultry on account of its high biological value. Various oilseed meals are available in abundant quantity in the country, which can replace soybean meal. The project was designed with the aim and objective to replace soybean meal with ...
Hong D - - 2002
The additivity of true amino acid digestibility (TAAD) and true metabolizable energy (TME) values in corn, soybean meal, and wheat red dog for White Pekin ducks was investigated. Differences between observed values for the complete diets and values predicted from measurements of individual ingredients were used to test additivity. Eight ...
Mattes Richard D - - 2002
Oral exposure to dietary fat (through modified sham feeding, which entails mastication and expectoration of foods) augments the postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration, in part, though augmented lipid absorption. This study was designed to characterize early events in this process. At 2200 h, 25 healthy adults (13 men, 12 women) consumed ...
Yeates M P - - 2002
When animals are offered a choice of feeds that are nutritionally complementary, they are able to select a consistent combination of these feeds over long periods of time. Analysis of how such consistent diet choice is achieved, in terms of short-term feeding behavior, may further our knowledge of how animals ...
Asarian Lori - - 2002
Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function strongly influences feeding and body weight in cycling females in many species. To test the sufficiency of cyclic variations in plasma estradiol to reproduce normal patterns of spontaneous feeding, food intake, and body weight, ovariectomized Long-Evans rats were subcutaneously injected every fourth day with 2 microg estradiol ...
Kasai Michio - - 2002
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 5-10 g of medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT) on diet-induced thermogenesis in healthy humans. The study compared diet-induced thermogenesis after ingestion of test foods containing MCT and long-chain triacylglycerols (LCT), using a double-blind, crossover design. Eight male and eight female subjects ...
Yasui-Furukori Norio - - 2002
Dietary fat content in meals has been reported to increase the absorption of several drugs proportionately. However, there is no information about the effects of dietary fat in meals on the sedative hypnotic agent quazepam, although limited data suggest that food intake alters quazepam absorption. Therefore, the authors measured and ...
Ferdinandis T G H C - - 2002
BACKGROUND: There is at present no agreement on the type of test meal to be used when performing EGG. To our knowledge the response of the stomach to high carbohydrate isocaloric meals of different consistencies has not been formally assessed. AIM: To study 1) the effects of high carbohydrate meals ...
van Citters Gregg W - - 2002
We previously developed a canine model of central obesity and insulin resistance by supplementing the normal chow diet with 2 g cooked bacon grease/kg body weight. Dogs fed this fatty diet maintained glucose tolerance with compensatory hyperinsulinemia. The signal(s) responsible for this up-regulation of plasma insulin is unknown. We hypothesized ...
Edwards Colin - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that a high-fat meal can impair endothelial function. The aim of this study was to determine whether greater myocardial ischemia after either a low-fat or a high-fat meal is associated with an increase in brachial artery endothelial dysfunction. METHODS: Twenty subjects with coronary artery disease and ...
Secor Stephen M - - 2002
Specific dynamic action (SDA), the accumulated energy expended on all physiological processes associated with meal digestion, is strongly influenced by features of both the meal and the organism. We assessed the effects of meal size, meal type, body temperature, and body size on the postprandial metabolic response and calculated SDA ...
Wallace J M W - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine whether postprandial concentrations of the active component of serine protease coagulation factor VII (VIIa) were lowered by acute boron supplementation in vivo. DESIGN: An acute, randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, cross-over study. SETTING: Free-living population. SUBJECTS: Fifteen apparently healthy men, aged ...
Qian Liwei - - 2002
The aim of the study was to determine the effects of low-volume rectal distension on gastric myoelectrical activity. The study was performed in 14 healthy volunteers in 2 randomized sessions. In the control session, a small balloon was inserted into the rectum 10 cm beyond the anal verge and inflated ...
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