Search Results
Results 351 - 400 of 1021
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Sproul Allen D - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the effectiveness of nutrition labeling on sales of targeted entrees and measured the perceived influence that factors such as taste, quality, appearance, fat content, calorie content, and price had on meal selection behavior within an Army cafeteria. METHODS: A quasi-experimental design was used to compare targeted ...
Steer Peter - - 2003
Impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDV) is an early marker of atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate how meals with different fat contents influence endothelial vasodilatory function. A total of 26 young, healthy men and women aged 20-30 years ingested an ordinary Western meal [34 energy% (E%) fat, ...
Carroll Mary F - - 2003
BACKGROUND: This study was designed to determine the optimal timing of vitamins E and C to prevent oxidative stress induced by a high-fat evening meal in type 2 diabetes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eleven subjects were admitted on 4 occasions. Euglycemia was maintained for 24 hours by insulin infusion. Participants were ...
Chi Michael M - - 2003
The mouse W/Wv mutation of the c-Kit receptor causes extensive loss of gastrointestinal interstitial cells of Cajal and vagal intramuscular arrays (IMAs; one of the two putative mechanoreceptors in gastrointestinal smooth muscle). To characterize the behavioral phenotype of the c-Kit mouse and to evaluate the roles of these mechanoreceptors in ...
Gaye-Siessegger J - - 2003
Many scientists use naturally occurring stable isotopes to reconstruct the diets of animals. However, isotopic ratios may be affected not only by the composition of the diet but also by the amount of food consumed. Thus, an experiment using tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was carried out to test the influence of ...
Scaraffia P Y - - 2003
In order to determine whether proline can be utilized as fuel during flight of Aedes aegypti, proline, alanine, and glutamine concentrations were monitored at 0, 30 and 60 min after flight using sugar-fed males and females, and blood meal-fed females. In sugar-fed and blood meal-fed females, flight lead to a ...
Plotnick Gary D - - 2003
OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to determine if long-term daily administration of phytonutrient supplements can prevent the immediate adverse impact of a high-fat meal and increase the production of nitric oxide. BACKGROUND: Ingestion of a high-fat meal impairs flow-mediated vasodilation of the brachial artery for at least 4 h; however, co-ingestion ...
Sørensen L B LB Department of Human Nutrition, Centre for Advanced Food Studies, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University, Frederiksberg C, Denmark. - - 2003
To examine the effect of a GLP-2 infusion on appetite sensations and ad libitum energy intake in healthy, normal weight humans. The experiment was performed in a randomised, blinded, and placebo-controlled crossover design. Placebo or GLP-2 was infused (infusion rate of 25 pmol/kg body wth) for 4.5 h. A total ...
Holmbäck Ulf - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Night work is becoming more common and shift workers display several metabolic disturbances. Aim To study the endocrine responses in relation to time of day during a 24-h period and how dietary macronutrient composition affects these responses. DESIGN: Seven males (26-43 y and 19.9-26.6 kg. m(-2)) were studied in ...
Rajagopalan Prabhu - - 2003
The effects of food on the pharmacokinetics of vardenafil were examined in 25 healthy adult males. Single-dose vardenafil 20 mg was administered in a randomized four-way crossover design after an overnight fast (at 8 a.m.), after consumption of a high-fat breakfast (at 8 a.m.), on an empty stomach (at 6 ...
Bae Jang-Ho - - 2003
BACKGROUND: To analyze the effects of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia with or without antioxidant supplementation-on endothelial function as related to lipid oxidation in healthy young subjects. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten healthy male subjects (mean age: 26 years) were examined three times in fasting state (10 hours) following a high-fat meal, a low-fat ...
Bellinger Larry - - 2003
Continuous administration of nicotine (NIC) reduces food intake (FI) and body weight (BW), whereas rebound eating and BW gain occur after NIC cessation. However, generalizations derived from prior studies on meal patterns in rats using continuous 24-h NIC administration are limited, because human smokers use NIC intermittently during their active ...
Saxby S A - - 2003
Background - Digestibility is often estimated in fish by collecting settled faeces. Markers like Cr(2)O(3) in diets allow calculation of digestibility from their content in faeces. This works well for fish like silver perch that excrete mucous-bound faeces. However, pink snapper excrete loose faeces with little mucous. Experiments with pink ...
Olabi Ammar - - 2003
During space missions, such as the prospective Mars mission, crew labor time is a strictly limited resource. The diet for such a mission (based on crops grown in a bioregenerative life support system) will require astronauts to prepare their meals essentially from raw ingredients. Time spent on food processing and ...
Raben Anne - - 2003
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that the satiating power of the 4 macronutrients follows the oxidation hierarchy: alcohol > protein > carbohydrate > fat. However, the experimental evidence for this is still scarce. OBJECTIVE: The goal was to investigate the effects on appetite, energy intake and expenditure, and substrate metabolism ...
Ozawa Tatsuo - - 2003
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the influence of feeding on gastric acid suppression in Helicobacter pylori-positive patients treated with intravenous infusions of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) or with H2-receptor antagonists (H2-RAs) after bleeding from a gastric ulcer. METHODS: Forty-nine H. pylori-positive patients with bleeding gastric ulcers (44 men and 5 women) ...
Olivera Leticia - - 2003
The nutritional and physiological effects of raw cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) seed meal, protein isolate (globulins), or starch on the metabolism of young growing rats have been evaluated in 14-day trials. Wet and dry weight gain, feed conversion efficiency, and lipid and protein accretion were significantly reduced as a ...
Esposito Katherine - - 2003
BACKGROUND: Persons following current dietary guidelines have a lower risk of mortality from coronary heart disease. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to compare the short-term effect of a high-fat meal and a high-carbohydrate meal, with and without dietary antioxidants, on vasomotor, antiplatelet, and hemostatic functions of the endothelium in healthy subjects. ...
Kawamura H - - 2003
Ingestion and excretion of environmental 99Tc was measured in an adult male who ingested 'hijiki' food in his diet that contained a sub-bequerel activity per kg, and which was prepared from a marine alga, Hizikia fusiforme, or hijiki in Japanese, traditionally eaten in the Japanese diet. Harvested hijiki was boiled, ...
Hong D - - 2002
The additivity of true amino acid digestibility (TAAD) and true metabolizable energy (TME) values in corn, soybean meal, and wheat red dog for White Pekin ducks was investigated. Differences between observed values for the complete diets and values predicted from measurements of individual ingredients were used to test additivity. Eight ...
Mattes Richard D - - 2002
Oral exposure to dietary fat (through modified sham feeding, which entails mastication and expectoration of foods) augments the postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) concentration, in part, though augmented lipid absorption. This study was designed to characterize early events in this process. At 2200 h, 25 healthy adults (13 men, 12 women) consumed ...
Yeates M P - - 2002
When animals are offered a choice of feeds that are nutritionally complementary, they are able to select a consistent combination of these feeds over long periods of time. Analysis of how such consistent diet choice is achieved, in terms of short-term feeding behavior, may further our knowledge of how animals ...
Asarian Lori - - 2002
Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function strongly influences feeding and body weight in cycling females in many species. To test the sufficiency of cyclic variations in plasma estradiol to reproduce normal patterns of spontaneous feeding, food intake, and body weight, ovariectomized Long-Evans rats were subcutaneously injected every fourth day with 2 microg estradiol ...
Kasai Michio - - 2002
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 5-10 g of medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT) on diet-induced thermogenesis in healthy humans. The study compared diet-induced thermogenesis after ingestion of test foods containing MCT and long-chain triacylglycerols (LCT), using a double-blind, crossover design. Eight male and eight female subjects ...
Yasui-Furukori Norio - - 2002
Dietary fat content in meals has been reported to increase the absorption of several drugs proportionately. However, there is no information about the effects of dietary fat in meals on the sedative hypnotic agent quazepam, although limited data suggest that food intake alters quazepam absorption. Therefore, the authors measured and ...
Ferdinandis T G H C - - 2002
BACKGROUND: There is at present no agreement on the type of test meal to be used when performing EGG. To our knowledge the response of the stomach to high carbohydrate isocaloric meals of different consistencies has not been formally assessed. AIM: To study 1) the effects of high carbohydrate meals ...
van Citters Gregg W - - 2002
We previously developed a canine model of central obesity and insulin resistance by supplementing the normal chow diet with 2 g cooked bacon grease/kg body weight. Dogs fed this fatty diet maintained glucose tolerance with compensatory hyperinsulinemia. The signal(s) responsible for this up-regulation of plasma insulin is unknown. We hypothesized ...
Edwards Colin - - 2002
BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that a high-fat meal can impair endothelial function. The aim of this study was to determine whether greater myocardial ischemia after either a low-fat or a high-fat meal is associated with an increase in brachial artery endothelial dysfunction. METHODS: Twenty subjects with coronary artery disease and ...
Secor Stephen M - - 2002
Specific dynamic action (SDA), the accumulated energy expended on all physiological processes associated with meal digestion, is strongly influenced by features of both the meal and the organism. We assessed the effects of meal size, meal type, body temperature, and body size on the postprandial metabolic response and calculated SDA ...
Wallace J M W - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine whether postprandial concentrations of the active component of serine protease coagulation factor VII (VIIa) were lowered by acute boron supplementation in vivo. DESIGN: An acute, randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind, cross-over study. SETTING: Free-living population. SUBJECTS: Fifteen apparently healthy men, aged ...
Qian Liwei - - 2002
The aim of the study was to determine the effects of low-volume rectal distension on gastric myoelectrical activity. The study was performed in 14 healthy volunteers in 2 randomized sessions. In the control session, a small balloon was inserted into the rectum 10 cm beyond the anal verge and inflated ...
Bairagi A - - 2002
Eight isonitrogenous (35% crude protein approximately) and isocaloric (4.2 kcal g(-1) approximately) diets were formulated including raw and fermented duckweed (Lemna polyrhiza) leaf meal at 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% levels. A particular bacterial strain (Bacillus sp.) isolated from carp (Cyprinus carpio) intestine and having extracellular amylolytic, cellulolytic, proteolytic and ...
Lorenzo-Figueras Mireia - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To assess gastric tone in the proximal portion of the stomach in horses during and after ingestion of 4 diets (2 diets of grain and 2 diets of hay). ANIMALS: 6 adult horses. PROCEDURE: A polyester bag with a volume of approximately 1,600 ml was inserted through a gastric ...
Rowlands David S - - 2002
The effect of pre-exercise meal composition on metabolism and performance in cycling were investigated in a crossover study. Twelve competitive cyclists ingested high-fat, high-carbohydrate, or high-protein meals 90 min before a weekly exercise test. The test consisted of a 1-hour pre-load at 55% peak power, five 10-min incremental loads from ...
Feurté S - - 2002
Food intake decreases and a conditioned taste aversion is induced when rats are fed a diet that is devoid of an indispensable amino acid. The purpose of this study was to characterize the meal patterns associated with (1) the onset of anorexia after the initial recognition of a threonine deficiency ...
Wheeler Madelyn L - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To determine, for individuals with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria, the effects of 6 weeks of meals containing plant-based protein (PP) versus meals with predominantly animal-based protein (AP) on renal function and secondarily on glycemia, lipid levels, and blood pressure. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a randomized crossover trial, ...
Bell Douglas G - - 2002
This study compared a light meal combat ration (LMCR) to specific commercial sport drinks (CSD) and the effect of their ingestion on time to exhaustion during simulated combat maneuvers (SCM). The SCM consisted of three activities: a 2-hour march at 50% of maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max); a subsequent 1-hour run ...
Lee K-J - - 2002
Diets incorporating three different sources of extracted cottonseed meal (CM), soybean meal and an animal protein mixture were evaluated for juvenile rainbow trout. Fish averaging 0.96 g were divided into groups of 30; 3 groups per treatment, and each group was fed one of four diets for a 16-week period. ...
Vicennati Valentina - - 2002
Subjects with abdominal obesity are characterized by hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Food intake, particularly at noon, is a well-known inducer of HPA axis activation. Whether obese subjects present an abnormal response to meals containing different macronutrient proportions is at present unknown. Therefore, this study was carried out to ...
Cuadrado Carmen - - 2002
The nutritional effects in the rat of raw lentil meal or its fractions have been evaluated in three feeding trials. Growth, gain/feed ratio, apparent N digestibility, and N retention were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced by the inclusion of whole lentil meal, dehulled lentil meal, or ethanol-extracted lentil meal as ...
Mei Jie - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: To discover a possible absorption and/or secretion of enterostatin into the circulating blood, as well as to compare the levels of circulating enterostatin after high-fat feeding and low-fat feeding. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Using a specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, plasma enterostatin levels were determined after feeding a high-fat, a ...
Lardy Gregory P - - 2002
It is apparent from the limited research that sunflower meal is a biologically and economically useful protein source for growing and finishing cattle. Similarly, beef cows can be provided supplemental protein effectively with sunflower meal. Sunflower meal may be especially useful in diets where degradable protein is required, such as ...
de Roos N M - - 2002
OBJECTIVE: Several studies suggest that a fatty meal impairs flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), a measure of endothelial function. We tested whether the impairment was greater for trans fats than for saturated fats. We did this because we previously showed that replacement of saturated fats by trans fats in a controlled diet ...
Hugen P W H - - 2002
BACKGROUND: The soft-gel capsule (sgc) of saquinavir has been developed in order to improve the poor oral bioavailability of the original hard-gel capsules. However, in a Dutch study population using saquinavir-sgc plasma levels were lower than expected. We hypothesised that this was caused by differences in the amount of fat ...
Leigh Gibson E - - 2002
The impact of nutritional variation, within populations not overtly malnourished, on cognitive function and arousal is considered. The emphasis is on susceptibility to acute effects of meals and glucose loads, and chronic effects of dieting, on mental performance, and effects of cholesterol and vitamin levels on cognitive impairment. New developments ...
Smith Patrick F - - 2002
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of racemic dOTC, a nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor, in adult male volunteers. Twelve healthy adult male subjects were enrolled in a randomized, open-label, single-dose crossover study. All were nonsmoking, within 15% of ideal body ...
Backus Robert C - - 2002
Breath hydrogen (H(2)) concentration, an indicator of intestinal microbial abundance, was determined in cats given purified and commercial canned and dry-type diets. Before measurements, the cats were fed diets for more than 2 wk and habituated to a daily feeding interval of 4 hr. Breath H(2) concentrations were determined before ...
Piers L S LS Menzies School of Health Research, Casuarina, Australia. - - 2002
To compare postprandial whole-body fat oxidation rates in humans, following high-fat (43% of total energy) mixed breakfast meals, of fixed energy and macronutrient composition, rich in either monounsaturated fat (MUFA) from extra virgin olive oil or saturated fat (SFA) from cream. Paired comparison of resting metabolic rate (RMR), thermic effect ...
Peachey Sarah E - - 2002
The aim of this investigation was to see whether aging influences feeding behavior in cats. Two studies were carried out. In the first study, a standard canned cat food was fed to six young adult and six senior cats for 10 d on an ad libitum basis. Feeding behavior was ...
Lee Kyeong-Jun - - 2002
Gossypol is an antifertilizing agent in males and females. However, gossypol and its metabolite, gossypolone, have also gained interest because of their anticarcinogenic activities. This paper examines for the first time both enantiomers of tissue gossypol and gossypolone in mature rainbow trout fed two diets containing low (15%) and high ...
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