Search Results
Results 301 - 350 of 1021
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Chi Michael M - - 2004
Neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) knockout mice exhibited decreased innervation of the small intestine by vagal intraganglionic laminar endings (IGLEs) and reduced food satiation. Recent findings suggested this innervation was increased in NT-4 knock-in (NT-4KI) mice. Therefore, to further investigate the relationship between intestinal IGLEs and satiation, meal patterns were characterized using solid ...
McNeill L - - 2004
1. Experiments were done to measure the effects of 100 and 200 g/kg of either pea meal or low glucosinolate, low erucic acid rapeseed meal on food intake and growth, food choice and meat organoleptic quality in broiler chickens. 2. The test diets were formulated to be iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous ...
Yang Yong - - 2004
The potential use of poultry by-product meal (PBM) and meat and bone meal (MBM) as alternative dietary protein sources for juvenile Macrobrachium nipponense was studied by a 70-day growth trial. Triplicate groups of M. nipponense (initial body weight: 0.37 g) were fed at 20.7-22.4 degrees C on each of the ...
Tentolouris N - - 2004
AIM: To study the effect of two different isoenergetic meals, one rich in carbohydrates and one rich in fat, on plasma active ghrelin levels in lean or obese subjects. METHODS: Eight obese and eight lean women, strictly matched for age, were fed two isoenergetic meals of different composition, one rich ...
Zhu Yuanzhao - - 2004
This study was conducted to compare the safety of soybean meal prepared from genetically modified (GM) glyphosate-tolerant (Roundup Ready; RR) soybeans and conventional soybeans. Eighty Sprague-Dawley rats (40 males and 40 females) were randomly allotted to one of four groups according to sex and body weight for a 13-week feeding ...
Noakes Manny - - 2004
Meal replacements are widely used as a weight-loss strategy; however, their effectiveness outside controlled clinical trial environments is unknown. We compared meal replacements with a structured weight-reduction diet in overweight/obese Australians with raised triglycerides. In a randomized parallel design, 2 groups [meal replacement (MR) and control (C)] of 66 matched ...
Labayen I - - 2004
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Fuel utilisation and storage in lean and obese subjects seem to be differently affected by the macronutrient distribution intake. The aim of this intervention study was to explore the extent to which the fat mass status and the macronutrient composition of an acute dietary intake influence substrate ...
Zorrilla Eric P - - 2005
RATIONALE: Many attempts to understand ingestion have sought to clarify the control of meals. Little is known about the effects of the anorexogenic hormone leptin on meal patterning. OBJECTIVE: The present study sought to perform a dose-response analysis of the effects of acute central leptin administration on meal patterning using ...
Moehn Soenke - - 2004
The understanding of bicarbonate kinetics and CO2 retention in the body is necessary to conduct amino acid tracer oxidation studies in both humans and laboratory animals. Significant metabolic activity is associated with eating which can affect bicarbonate steady state kinetics. A study was conducted to assess the impact of feeding ...
Fox Edward A - - 2004
Mice deficient in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) develop mature-onset obesity, primarily due to overeating. To gain insight into the mechanism of this hyperphagia, we characterized food intake, body weight, meal pattern, and meal microstructure in young and mature mice fed balanced or high-fat diets. Hyperphagia and obesity occurred in mature ...
Mostowy Wieslaw M - - 2004
The effect of sugar feeding on egg-batch size in Aedes aegypti was examined in a way that would distinguish between the roles of a recent sugar meal (full vs. empty crop) and of repeated sugar feeding and digestion (high vs. low energy reserves). Egg numbers of females representing the four ...
Farshchi H R HR Centre for Integrated Systems Biology and Medicine, Institute of Clinical Research and School of Biomedical Sciences, Queen's Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK. - - 2004
To investigate the impact of irregular meal frequency on body weight, energy intake, appetite and resting energy expenditure in healthy lean women. Nine healthy lean women aged 18-42 y participated in a randomised crossover trial consisting of three phases over a total of 43 days. Subjects attended the laboratory at ...
Rothacker Dana Q - - 2004
Meal replacement products for weight loss are popular and safe for most unsupervised consumers desiring to lose weight. Previously we reported that the thickness of meal replacement diet shakes had a direct and significant effect on hunger intensity during the first 2 h and that hunger intensity scores for liquid ...
Thyfault John P - - 2004
INTRODUCTION: This investigation examined if postprandial metabolism differed between resistance-trained [(RT), N = 12] and sedentary [(SED), N = 12] males. A secondary objective was to determine whether different resistance-training programs [bodybuilding (BB), N = 8 and power/weight-lifting (PL), N = 8] resulted in disparate effects on postprandial energy metabolism. ...
Gradek W Quinten - - 2004
Antibodies to malondialdehyde (MDA)-modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) are transiently reduced during the postprandial period in patients with atherosclerotic heart disease. Previous experiments using mixed meals high in fat have found reductions of approximately 20% within 2 hours. This study was designed to reveal if this phenomenon was due uniquely to ...
Sanders Thomas A B - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Decreased fibrinolytic activity is associated with an increased risk of ischemic heart disease and elevated plasma triacylglycerol concentrations. OBJECTIVE: The goal was to determine whether plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and fibrinolytic activities are influenced by 1) dietary fat intake from a test meal and 2) the PAI-1 4G ...
Peterson T E - - 2004
The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that serum biotin concentration and biotin balance (consumed - [urinary output + fecal output]) measured as total avidin-binding substances (biotin + biotin metabolites) are responsive to changes in the proportions of dietary alfalfa meal and concentrate fed to sheep. Eight ...
Kato Hideo - - 2004
We used a modified yeast-based human estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) bioassay to determine the estrogenic activity in 22 kinds of diets for experimental animals. The estrogenic activity of each diet was reevaluated by comparison with a calibration curve of 17 beta-estradiol. Almost all of the diets had estrogenic activity. ...
Koehnle Thomas J - - 2004
Diets limiting in an essential amino acid have long been known to suppress food intake. The purpose of this study was to examine the microstructure of feeding behavior of rats within the very first meal of an imbalanced diet. Rats were preconditioned for 12 days on a Baseline diet and ...
Ventura Paolo - - 2004
In order to investigate the effect of red wine on plasma lipid and oxidative stress parameters after a high-fat meal, fifteen healthy volunteers were studied: three days after a high-fat meal with 250 mL of water, they received the same meal with 250 mL of red wine. During both periods, ...
van Oostrom Antonie J - - 2004
Elevated fasting plasma concentrations of complement component 3 (C3) are associated with elevated fasting and postprandial triacylglycerol concentrations, insulin resistance, obesity, and coronary artery disease. C3 is the central component of the complement system and the precursor of acylation-stimulating protein (ASP). Insulin and ASP are principal determinants of free fatty ...
Kilburn J - - 2004
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of soybean meal (SBM) particle size on broiler performance, particularly P utilization. This experiment utilized a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design with the following variables: SBM particle size, P level, and diet type, either corn-SBM or semipurified. SBM was obtained ...
Diliberti Nicole - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Eating frequently in restaurants is one of the behaviors associated with obesity. This study examined whether increasing the portion size of an entrée affected energy intake at a restaurant meal. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: In a cafeteria-style restaurant on different days, the size of a pasta entrée was varied ...
Taylor M L - - 2004
A 42-d experiment compared the nutritional value of genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant (Roundup Ready event RT73) canola meal to that of conventional canola meal when fed to rapidly growing Ross x Ross 508 broilers using a randomized complete block design. Five pens of males and 5 pens of females were used ...
Koutsari C - - 2004
OBJECTIVE: Both gender and meal fatty acid composition modulate postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) metabolism, but little information exists on their interaction. We compared postprandial TAG concentrations in men and women after test meals differing in the proportion of monounsaturated (MUFA) and saturated fatty acids (SFA). SUBJECTS: Nine men (body mass index, ...
Soares M J - - 2004
The influence of the source of dietary fat on postprandial thermogenesis and substrate oxidation rates, was examined in twelve postmenopausal women aged 57-73 years, with BMI 21.9-38.3 kg/m(2). A single blind, randomised, paired comparison of two high-fat, isoenergetic, mixed test meals was conducted. The major source of fat was either ...
Covasa Mihai - - 2004
Systemic injection of MK-801, a noncompetitive antagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor ion channels, increases meal size and delays satiation. We examined whether MK-801 increases food intake by directly interfering with actions of cholecystokinin (CCK). Prior administration of MK-801 (100 microg/kg ip) reversed the inhibitory effects of CCK-8 (2 and 4 ...
Higgins Janine A - - 2004
BACKGROUND: Although the effects of resistant starch (RS) on postprandial glycemia and insulinemia have been extensively studied, little is known about the impact of RS on fat metabolism. This study examines the relationship between the RS content of a meal and postprandial/post-absorbative fat oxidation. RESULTS: 12 subjects consumed meals containing ...
Jackson Sarah J - - 2004
It has been proposed that the (13)C-octanoic acid breath test (OBT) provides a safe, non-radioactive means of measuring gastric emptying. However, deuterated octanoic acid provides a better marker when compared with scintigraphy, as the kinetics are less complex than those of the (13)C label. The appearance of (2)H in saliva ...
Armand Martine - - 2004
The effect of diet, usual (44 +/- 4% energy as fat), high-fat (49 +/- 4% energy as fat), and moderate-fat (33 +/- 2% energy as fat), on gastric function (lipase and pepsin activities, pH, emptying rate) and intragastric digestion of fat were assessed in six children with cystic fibrosis. Fasting ...
Leray Véronique - - 2003
Chronic nutritional disorders such as protein malnutrition are associated with delayed gastric emptying and increased postprandial cholecystokinin (CCK) levels. This study investigated the mechanisms involved in gastric emptying adaptation to low-protein diet. Two groups of 12 rats were adapted to a low-protein (LPD) or standard diet (SD) for 3 weeks. ...
Lee J T - - 2003
High concentrations of guar meal in broiler chicken diets reduce body weight and feed efficiency. The increased intestinal viscosity that is responsible for reduced measures of performance results from residual guar gum present in guar meal. Two experiments were designed to study the effects of 2 guar meal fractions at ...
Schneeman Barbara O - - 2003
The postprandial period is a dynamic state of hormone and lipoprotein metabolism that can be influenced by dietary composition. The objective of this study was to determine whether the source of dietary fat [dairy (D) vs. nondairy (ND)] would modify the lipemic, insulin and cholecystokinin (CCK) response to high or ...
Clemente G - - 2003
BACKGROUND AND AIM: To evaluate the effects on postprandial lipemia (PPL), of three fat rich meals, with similar composition but different physical structure (liquid, semisolid and solid). METHODS AND RESULTS: Eight type 2 diabetic patients of both genders (6M/2F), age 51+/-9 yrs (M+/-SD), BMI 29+/-3 kg/m2, with fasting plasma glucose ...
Flint Anne - - 2003
OBJECTIVE: Observational studies suggest that monounsaturated (MUFA) and trans fatty acids (TRANS) are more fattening than polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the acute effect of intake of PUFA, MUFA, or TRANS on appetite and energy expenditure (EE). RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Three ...
Nagai Narumi - - 2003
This study investigated whether the -3826 A-->G nucleotide variant of the uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) gene is correlated with postprandial thermogenesis after a high fat meal in children. Healthy boys, aged 8-11 yr, were examined for resting energy expenditure and the thermic effect of a meal (TEM), which were measured by ...
Goedecke J H JH UCT/MRC Research Unit for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, South Africa. - - 2003
To examine the short-term effects of a lipase inhibitor (Orlistat) on physiological and behavioural measures of appetite in response to a high-fat meal. Randomised, single blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. A total of 19 healthy nonobese male subjects. After an overnight fast, subjects ingested a test meal of 2940 kJ (60% ...
Monteleone Palmiero - - 2003
The effects of specific nutritional factors on ghrelin secretion have not been investigated in humans. Therefore, we assessed ghrelin responses to a high-carbohydrate meal (1217 kcal with 77% carbohydrates, 10% protein, and 13% lipids) and to an isocaloric high-fat meal (15% carbohydrates, 10% proteins, and 75% lipids) in 14 nonobese ...
Baxter Suzanne Domel - - 2003
This report describes a comparison of the accuracy of children's dietary recalls obtained using either open or meal format interviews. Fourth-graders were randomly selected, observed eating school meals (breakfast, lunch), and interviewed that evening regarding that day's intake with children randomly assigned to open (n = 12) or meal (n ...
Sanders Tom A B - - 2003
Impaired clearance of chylomicron remnants is associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. An intake of 40 to 50 g of fat in a meal results in significant lipemia in healthy adults, with consecutive fat-containing meals enhancing the lipemia. This would suggest that limiting fat intake to approximately ...
Colić Barić Irena - - 2003
The aim of this study was to evaluate daily menus at students' restaurants and to report dietary habits and other health-related behaviour of Croatian university students (n=2075) according to gender. A specially designed self-administered questionnaire was used. One hundred and twenty daily menus were chosen by random sampling, and the ...
Tentolouris N - - 2003
Food ingestion can influence autonomic nervous system activity. This study compares the effects of 2 different isoenergetic meals on sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, assessed by heart rate variability (HRV) and plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels, in lean and obese women. Fifteen lean and 15 obese healthy women were examined on ...
Lee J T - - 2003
High concentrations of guar meal in poultry diets deleteriously affect growth, feed intake, and digesta viscosity. These effects are attributed to residual gum in the meal. A 2 x 5 factorial experiment investigated the impacts of two guar meal fractions (germ and hull) at five inclusion levels (0, 2.5, 5.0, ...
Lawrence K R - - 2003
We used 360 nursery pigs (35 +/- 3 d of age) in two 21-d growth assays to determine the effects of soybean meal particle size on growth performance. In both trials, there were six pigs per pen and 10 pens per treatment. Pigs were weaned on d 21 and fed ...
Helman E E - - 2003
The cysteine proteinases, mu- and m-calpain, along with their inhibitor, calpastatin, have been hypothesized to play a role in skeletal muscle protein degradation. Because nutrition has previously been shown to influence the expression of calpastatin, the working hypothesis of this study was that the quantity and source of dietary protein ...
Holmbäck Ulf - - 2003
Because approximately 20% of the work force in the industrialized world have irregular working hours, it is pertinent to study the consequences of eating at irregular, especially nighttime hours. We studied the postprandial responses during nocturnal fasting vs. eating throughout a 24-h wake period. Seven healthy males were studied twice ...
Brown Paul B - - 2003
Two separate studies were conducted to evaluate the utility of glyphosate tolerant canola (GTC) as a feed ingredient in diets fed to rainbow trout. In the first study, two forms of GTC were compared to a parental line, Westar. In the second study, one line of GTC was reevaluated to ...
Ross Alastair B - - 2003
Currently there is no biomarker to link consumption of whole grain cereals and their observed health benefits. A candidate for a biomarker of whole grain wheat and rye intake is a class of phenolic lipids, the alkylresorcinols (AR). Studies to determine the uptake of AR in humans were carried out ...
Burger Joanna - - 2003
Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component of the assessment of risk from contaminants in fish. While there have been extensive studies of fish consumption in Western cultures, less attention has been devoted to the role of fish and meat in the diets of people in other ...
Cowieson A J - - 2003
1. The potential for the nutritional improvement of pea-based diets by supplementation with a cocktail of exogenous carbohydrases was investigated using growing broiler chicks. 2. Pea meals (grown in the UK) were included in wheat-based diets at 300 g/kg as a partial replacement for an approximately isonitrogenous mixture of wheat ...
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