Search Results
Results 251 - 300 of 1021
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Ai Qinghui - - 2006
A closed respirometer was used to measure oxygen consumption of the southern catfish Silurus meridionalis fed with six isonitrogenous (48% crude protein) diets replacing 0%, 13%, 26%, 39%, 52% and 65% fish meal (FM) protein by soybean meal (SBM) protein, in order to investigate the effects of dietary soybean protein ...
Nilsson A - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of four low-glycaemic index (GI) and one high-GI cereal-based evening meals on glucose tolerance at a subsequent standardised breakfast. DESIGN: Wheat kernels, barley kernels, spaghetti, spaghetti with added wheat bran and white wheat bread (WWB) were consumed in the evening in a random order at ...
Padilla Jaume - - 2006
The measurement of brachial artery vasodilation in response to a hyperaemic stimulus has been used extensively to assess changes in endothelial function. However, whether or not similar changes occur in response to an active hyperaemic stimulus is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to compare brachial artery vasodilation ...
Iwashita Soh - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Glutamine interacts with insulin-mediated glucose disposal, which is a component of the increase in energy expenditure (EE) after a meal. The study aim was to examine if glutamine supplementation alters postmeal nutrient oxidation. METHODS: Ten healthy young adults consumed a mixed meal (6.5 kcal/kg, 14%:22%:64% = protein:fat:carbohydrate) containing either ...
Doornbos A M E - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of intake occasion (with or without a meal), and product fat level on the cholesterol-lowering efficacy of a plant sterol (PS)-enriched (3 g/day) single-dose yoghurt drink. DESIGN: Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel study with a 4 weeks run-in and 4 weeks intervention period. SETTING: Subjects recruited ...
V Schönfeld J - - 2006
Meals disrupt the interdigestive pattern of small bowel motor activity and convert it into the more irregular postprandial pattern. Previous animal studies suggest that the duration of and contractile activity within the postprandial period depend on the chemical composition of a meal. It is not clear whether this is also ...
Krag Aleksander - - 2006
Our aim was to measure whole body energy expenditure after a mixed liquid meal, with and without simultaneous propranolol infusion, in patients with cirrhosis. We also wanted to investigate the effect of propranolol on substrate fluxes and oxygen uptake in the tissues drained by the hepatic vein and azygos vein ...
Fu Shi-Jian - - 2006
The effect of relative meal size (0.5-24% body mass) on specific dynamic action (SDA) was assessed in Chinese catfish (Silurus asotus Linnaeus) (30.90+/-1.30 g) at 25.0 degrees C; the cutlets of freshly killed loach without viscera, head and tail were used as a test meal. There was no significant difference ...
Morínigo Rosa - - 2006
CONTEXT: The mechanisms underlying weight loss after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP) are not well understood. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess the changes in active glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and total peptide YY (PYY) after RYGBP and examine their relationship with changes in hunger and satiety. DESIGN: ...
Chapelot Didier - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: To investigate in man the consequence on body composition and related biological and metabolic parameters of omitting or adding a meal. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Twenty-four young normal-weight male subjects were recruited, 12 usual four-meal and 12 usual three-meal eaters, differing only in the consumption of an afternoon meal. ...
Tomonobu Kazuichi - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to verify the effect of a dietary oil, consisting mainly of diacylglycerol (DAG) oil, in a typical meal on postprandial changes in serum triacylglycerol (TAG) and remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) compared with dietary triacylglycerol (TAG) oil. METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized, crossover ...
Ditschuneit Herwig H - - 2006
The poor effectiveness of conventional dietary treatment for weight loss and weight maintenance in patients with type-2 diabetes may be improved by a meal replacement strategy that provides a strong structured meal plan with reasonable opportunity for dietary variety. Typical meal replacement programs fix the intake of one or two ...
Higgins Janine A - - 2006
Chronic consumption of diets high in resistant starch (RS) leads to reduced fat cell size compared to diets high in digestible starch (DS) in rats and increases total and meal fat oxidation in humans. The aim of the present study was to examine the rate of lipogenesis in key lipogenic ...
Driver J P - - 2006
A study was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase on the AMEn of peanut meal. One hundred twenty Ross x Ross broiler chicks of mixed sex were fed one of 4 experimental diets from 5 to 15 d of age. Diets used were Diet 1, a low P corn-soybean ...
Degen Lukas - - 2006
The limited effectiveness of orlistat, an inhibitor of gastrointestinal lipases, in inhibiting fat digestion is not completely understood. Therefore we studied the effect of orally and duodenally administered orlistat on gastric emptying, cholecystokinin (CCK) secretion, and gallbladder contraction. In healthy males, gastric emptying of solids and fat were quantified scintigraphically, ...
Romon Monique - - 2006
BACKGROUND: Diet-induced weight loss is associated with an increase in fasting ghrelin. The influence of weight loss on postprandial ghrelin response remains discussed, but the specific response to macronutrients is not known. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to assess the influence of weight loss in obese women on ...
Saito Shinichiro - - 2006
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the effects of a diacylglycerol (DAG)-containing diet on postprandial energy expenditure and respiratory quotient. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study with a washout period was performed in 13 healthy male subjects. A 4240-kJ diet containing 30 g of triacylglycerol (TAG) or DAG (TAG meal or ...
Blum Shany - - 2006
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Atherosclerosis involves oxidative and inflammatory mediators regulated by fat and antioxidants. Therefore, we studied the postprandial evolution of plasma lipids, carotenoids, C-reactive protein (CRP), and human serum paraoxanase activity (PON1) following two different fatty meals. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Eight healthy males consumed a 45% fat 1,000 Kcal ...
Oomen J M - - 2005
The sympathetic nervous system is involved in the control of energy metabolism and expenditure. Diet-induced thermogenesis is mediated partly by the ss-adrenergic component of this system. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of genetic variation in the beta(2)-adrenoceptor in diet-induced thermogenesis. Data from twenty-four subjects ...
Yamamoto Julienne A - - 2005
PURPOSE: To determine whether adolescents will modify their ordering behavior if calorie and fat nutrition information is posted on the restaurant menu. METHODS: Adolescent volunteers (aged 11 to 18 years) were asked to order a dinner of their choice from three different restaurant menus (McDonald's, Panda Express, and Denny's) and ...
Sorensen Jennifer S - - 2005
Mammalian herbivores are predicted to regulate concentrations of ingested plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) in the blood by modifying the size and frequency of feeding bouts. It is theorized that meal size is limited by a maximum tolerable concentration of PSMs in the blood, such that meal size is predicted to ...
Musial Frauke - - 2006
Correlations between meal size and inter-meal intervals as a characteristic of ingestive behavior are generally calculated utilizing Pearson's correlation coefficient. However, this commonly used method may exhibit disadvantages and methodological problems when dealing with dependent time series. Alternatively, a modified version of Pearson's r (r(diff)) or a nonparametric procedure, Pfanzagl's ...
Swithers Susan E - - 2005
The environmental mechanisms that have contributed to the rapid increases in overweight and obesity in the US over the past 25-30 years have yet to be fully specified. One hypothesis that has been forwarded is that increased consumption of calories in liquid form may be a contributing factor, since some ...
Ytrestøyl T - - 2005
The effects of feed intake, growth rate and temperature (8 and 12 degrees C) on apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC), blood uptake of individual astaxanthin E/Z isomers and metabolism of astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-beta,beta-carotene-4,4'-dione) were determined in Atlantic salmon. Accumulation of idoxanthin (3,4,3'-trihydroxy-beta,beta-carotene-4-one) in plasma was used to indicate metabolic transformation of astaxanthin. ...
Nagai Narumi - - 2005
The present study was designed to investigate the metabolic and sympathetic responses to a high-fat meal in humans. Fourteen young men (age: 23.6 +/- 0.5 y, BMI: 21.3 +/- 0.4 kg/m2) were examined for energy expenditure and fat oxidation measured by indirect calorimetry for 3.5 h after a high-fat (70%, ...
Synowski Stephen J - - 2005
A series of studies in rat using isoenergetic (kcal/ml) liquid diets differing in fat content has previously found dietary fat to dose-dependently increase daily caloric intake. In single-meal tests in which meal initiation was externally evoked in feeding-associated environments, the behavioral expression of this overeating was found to be larger ...
Al Awar Rima - - 2005
The aim of the present study was to investigate the postprandial effect of diet composition on circulating acylated ghrelin levels in healthy women. A randomized cross-over study of three experimental treatments was performed. A total of 11 healthy young women of normal body weight completed the study. All 11 subjects ...
Drazen Deborah L - - 2006
Circulating levels of the orexigenic peptide ghrelin increase during fasting and decrease with refeeding. Exogenous ghrelin administration is a potent stimulus for food intake in rodents and humans. In subjects on fixed feeding schedules, ghrelin increases before each meal, raising the possibility that anticipation of meals, in addition to effects ...
Motton Deborah D - - 2005
Atherosclerosis is a dynamic disease involving lipid metabolism, inflammation and thrombosis. A key factor in thrombosis is tissue factor, a small transmembrane glycoprotein. Tissue factor binds FactorVIIa, and this complex converts Factor X to Factor Xa, leading to thrombin generation and fibrin formation. Inhibition of this pathway is by tissue ...
Dias J - - 2005
The study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of dietary protein sources on lipogenesis and fat deposition in a marine teleost, the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Four isonitrogenous (crude protein (CP, Nx6.25), 44% DM) and isoenergetic (22-23 kJ/g DM) diets were formulated to contain one of the following as the ...
Wamsley N E - - 2005
The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids in fish meal on mitigating uterine PGF2alpha synthesis in heifers with low luteal-phase concentrations of progesterone. Animals were individually fed a corn silage-based diet supplemented with fish meal (5% of DMI; n = 12) or ...
Lee J T - - 2005
Guar gum production yields a high protein guar meal that can be subdivided into germ and hull fractions. Feeding high concentrations of guar meal reduces body weight and feed efficiency in chickens due to the presence of a residual guar gum. Two experiments determined the upper feeding levels of guar ...
Sim Ing-Kye - - 2005
Piperaquine (PQ) is an antimalarial drug whose high lipid solubility suggests that its absorption can be increased by a high-fat meal. We examined the pharmacokinetics of PQ phosphate (500 mg given orally) in the fasting state and after a high-fat meal in eight healthy Caucasian volunteers (randomized crossover). Plasma PQ ...
Lorenzo-Figueras Mireia - - 2005
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of ingestion of a high-carbohydrate versus a high-fat meal on relaxation of the proximal portion of the stomach and subsequent gastric emptying in horses. ANIMALS: 6 healthy adult horses. PROCEDURE: The study consisted of 2 phases. In phase I, horses were offered a high-fat (8% ...
Ramachandran S - - 2005
Eight isonitrogenous (35% crude protein approximately) and isocaloric (4.0 kcalg(-1) approximately) diets were formulated incorporating raw and fermented grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) seed meal at 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% levels by weight into a fish meal based diet and fed to rohu, Labeo rohita, fingerlings for 80 days and ...
Kunz Patrik - - 2005
PURPOSE: To develop an MRI technique to investigate how varying the ingestion order of nonfat and fat components of a solid meal influences three-dimensional intragastric distribution and gastric emptying (GE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight healthy subjects were studied twice in randomized order. On one occasion (condition F-NF), the fat component ...
Spark M - - 2005
The aim of this study was to examine the feeding value of different yeasts as a substitute for soya bean meal, the main protein source in diets of weaned piglets. Tested two yeasts were already available on the market, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces lactis (beer and milk yeast), which replaced ...
Mandal A B - - 2005
(1) The nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolisable energy (AME(N)) content of solvent-extracted rapeseed and sunflower seed (un-decorticated) meals in relation to species (chicken, guinea fowl and quail) and dietary addition of feed enzymes (0 or 0.5 g/kg diet) was evaluated by a diet replacement method in a 3 x 2 factorial design. ...
Timlin Maureen T - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Recent data suggest that hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) is elevated in the fed state compared with the fasting state, but the rate at which lipogenesis can increase with meal consumption is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to quantify the diurnal pattern of lipogenesis after 2 consecutive mixed ...
Love Heather L - - 2005
Research indicates that the ability to perform a task can be affected by the composition of the meal preceding the task. This study investigated the effect of shift workers' consumption of a medium-fat, medium-carbohydrate meal on alertness scores. Six subjects (four men, two women) aged 19 to 44 recorded food ...
Robinson Tristan M - - 2005
Manipulations of test meal palatability and nutritional need-state to examine feeding behaviour have, to date, been studied in isolation. Recent investigations have attempted to examine these influences in combination. In the present study, healthy young males received intragastric infusions of soup (265 or 1514 kJ) on four different occasions. The ...
Yoxall Vikki R - - 2004
The objective of this study was to investigate in a crossover study conducted in human volunteers whether black tea intake modulates the metabolism of heterocyclic amines, consumed in the form of well-cooked beefburgers, as exemplified by the excretion of mutagens in the urine. Mutagens were extracted from urine with blue ...
de Fombelle A - - 2004
This trial was conducted to determine the extent of prececal starch digestibility depending on the botanical origin of starch and on diet characteristics (i.e., composition and feeding pattern). The prececal disappearance of six substrates (oats, barley, corn, horse bean, potato, and wheat) was measured in four cannulated horses fed (as-fed ...
Koska Juraj - - 2004
Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) is released from the pancreas in response to a meal. In humans, low-circulating PP levels have been observed in obesity, and administration of pharmacological doses of PP has been shown to decrease food intake. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether low circulating PP ...
Ferreira Alexandre C - - 2004
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated a possible relationship between levels of endothelial microparticles (EMPs), known to be a sensitive indicator of endothelial disturbance, and changes in postprandial lipid levels in healthy volunteers after a low- or high-fat meal. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighteen healthy subjects without known cardiovascular risk factors were evaluated. ...
Silva K D Renuka R - - 2005
BACKGROUND: Prolonged and exaggerated postprandial plasma triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations are considered as an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Western populations eat many meals at regular intervals, and can be in a postprandial state for at least 17 h of a 24 h period. After consuming 2 meals an ...
Bos Cécile - - 2005
Our aim was to characterize the postprandial total and dietary N fluxes in the portal drained viscera (PDV) and whole body after administration of a single meal in young pigs. Seven 4-wk-old piglets, implanted with a portal flow probe and portal, arterial and venous catheters, received a primed constant [(18)O]urea ...
Abiola S S - - 2004
An experiment was conducted in which hatchery waste meal (HWM) replaced fish meal (protein for protein) in layer diets at 0%, 33%, 66% and 100% levels. Both feed and protein intake were superior on HWM diets. The highest hen-day production of 73.97% was obtained on diet 2 in which 33% ...
Jeanes Yvonne M - - 2004
Vitamin E absorption requires the presence of fat; however, limited information exists on the influence of fat quantity on optimal absorption. In the present study we compared the absorption of stable-isotope-labelled vitamin E following meals of varying fat content and source. In a randomised four-way cross-over study, eight healthy individuals ...
Keegan T P - - 2004
Weanling pigs (total of 560) were used in two experiments to determine the effects of poultry meal in nursery diets on pig performance. In Exp. 1,210 barrows and gilts (initially 7.4 kg and 21 +/- 2 d of age) were fed one of five diets, which included a control diet ...
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