Search Results
Results 201 - 250 of 1101
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Smeets Astrid J - - 2008
A gorging pattern of food intake has been shown to enhance lipogenesis and increase body weight, which may be due to large fluctuations in storage and mobilisation of nutrients. In a state of energy balance, increasing meal frequency, and thereby decreasing inter-meal interval, may prevent large metabolic fluctuations. Our aim ...
Donovan Michael J MJ Department of Anatomy, Physiology and Cell Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California Davis, California 95616, United - - 2007
Cholecystokinin (CCK), released by lipid in the intestine, initiates satiety by acting at cholecystokinin type 1 receptors (CCK(1)Rs) located on vagal afferent nerve terminals located in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, we determined the role of the CCK(1)R in the short term effects of a ...
McNaughton J - - 2007
Event DP-356Ø43-5 (356043; Optimum GAT) is a genetically modified soybean (Glycine max) that was produced by insertion of the gat4601 and gm-hra genes. The expression products of these genes are the glyphosate acetyltransferase 4601 and acetolactate synthase proteins, respectively. Expression of the glyphosate acetyltransferase 4601 protein confers tolerance in planta ...
Taylor M - - 2007
A 42-d floor pen study was conducted to compare broiler (Ross x Ross 308) performance and carcass measurements when fed diets containing meal produced from glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (MON 89788) with those of broilers fed diets containing meal produced from control soybean (A3244) that has similar genetic background to MON 89788. ...
Greenway Frank - - 2007
Fermentable dietary fiber has been shown to cause fat loss and to increase peptide-YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels in rodents. In single meal tests, humans have an increase in PYY and GLP-1 to dietary fiber, but the response of these hormones to longer-term treatment is not known. ...
Santé-Lhoutellier Véronique - - 2008
Effect of pasture- or concentrate-diet on myofibrillar protein oxidation and in vitro digestibility was measured in lamb meat (M. longissimus dorsi) during a refrigerated storage of 7days under gas permeable film. Protein oxidation was measured by the carbonyl content determined chemically using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and specific targets of oxidation were ...
Osuigwe, D I; ;
Jackbean (<i>Canavalia ensiformis</i>) is an under-utilized legume with crude protein content and amino acid profile that make it a potential ingredient in the tropics as substitute for fish meal in fish diets. This study assesses the potentials of Jackbean seed meal (JBSM) for partial replacement of fish meal in diets ...
Risérus Ulf - - 2008
OBJECTIVE: Pharmacological use of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)delta agonists and transgenic overexpression of PPARdelta in mice suggest amelioration of features of the metabolic syndrome through enhanced fat oxidation in skeletal muscle. We hypothesize a similar mechanism operates in humans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The PPARdelta agonist (10 mg o.d. GW501516), ...
Ogunji J O - - 2008
A 56-day feeding trial was conducted to access the effect of housefly maggot meal (magmeal) diets on the performance, concentration of plasma glucose, cortisol and blood characteristics of Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings. Seven feeds formulated to contain 36% protein and 20 kJ g(-1) gross energy (dry matter basis), were prepared by ...
Moharram S G - - 2007
Four-week-old Red tilapia fry with an average weight of 1.9 g were reared in saline water (36%) for 190 days on 6 formulated iscaloric diet of protein level (28%). The experiment was conducted in glass aquaria. Six diets were formulated including a control diet based on fish meal (diet 1) ...
Pilichiewicz Amelia N - - 2007
Both load and duration of small intestinal lipid infusion affect antropyloroduodenal motility and CCK and peptide YY (PYY) release at loads comparable to and higher than the normal gastric emptying rate. We determined 1) the effects of intraduodenal lipid loads well below the mean rate of gastric emptying on, and ...
Allameh Sayed Kamaleddin - - 2007
The present research carried out to measure digestible (DE) and Metabolizable Energy (ME) for fishmeal and soybean meal in rainbow trout with two different sizes (120 and 220 g mean body weights). DE and ME are evaluation systems for feedstuffs and also, necessary for diet formulation. The fishes were maintained ...
McInnes Fiona - - 2008
PURPOSE: To evaluate the behaviour of an oral matrix modified release formulation in the canine gastrointestinal tract, and establish if a mechanical weakness previously observed in clinical studies would have been identified in the dog model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In vitro release profiles were obtained for two modified release matrix ...
Christel C M - - 2007
The gastrointestinal tract possesses the capacity to change in form and function in response to fasting and feeding. Such plasticity can be dramatic for species that naturally experience long episodes of fasting between large meals (e.g. sit-and-wait foraging snakes, estivating anurans). By contrast, for active foraging species that feed more ...
Yoo Sang Bae - - 2007
Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to four different conditions; free fed control (FC), 48 h of food deprivation (FD), 1 h of refeeding with chow (RF/CW) or with a non-caloric liquid diet following FD (RF/NC) and then sacrificed for c-Fos immunohistochemistry in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the nucleus ...
Shimabukuro Michio - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities during the postprandial state contribute to the development of atherosclerosis. Reportedly, postprandial hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hyperlipacidemia independently cause postprandial cytokine activation. However, it is not clear which dietary composition preferentially affects postprandial endothelial function in healthy subjects. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the associations of dietary composition and ...
Cox Christian L - - 2007
We explored meal size and clutch (i.e., genetic) effects on the relative proportion of ingested energy that is absorbed by the gut (apparent digestive efficiency), becomes available for metabolism and growth (apparent assimilation efficiency), and is used for growth (production efficiency) for juvenile Burmese pythons (Python molurus). Sibling pythons were ...
Lopez-Miranda José - - 2007
Most of diurnal time is spent in a postprandial state due to successive meal intakes during the day. As long as the meals contain enough fat, a transient increase in triacylglycerolaemia and a change in lipoprotein pattern occurs. The extent and kinetics of such postprandial changes are highly variable and ...
Danjo Kazuma - - 2008
We investigated the effects of cellulose supplementation on fecal consistency and fecal weight. About 26 women were classified into two groups-normal defecation and constipation groups. All subjects ate the following meals during the experiment: ordinary meals (first week), experimental meals (second week), and experimental meals mixed with 4 g (third ...
Rivellese Angela A - - 2008
BACKGROUND: The effects of different dietary fatty acids on postprandial lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetic patients are still debated. AIM: To evaluate the effects of monounsaturated (MUFA) vs. saturated fat (SAFA)-rich diets on postprandial lipemia and adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in type 2 diabetes. ...
Essah Paulina A - - 2007
Peptide YY (PYY) is released from the distal small intestine and colon after meals and reduces appetite by increasing satiety. The amount of PYY released is proportional to calories ingested. Fat ingestion has also been reported to stimulate PYY release. The objective of the study was to determine whether macronutrient ...
Sutherland Wayne H F - - 2007
Postprandial chylomicrons are potent ultimate acceptors of cell membrane cholesterol and are believed to accelerate reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). We compared the effects of meals rich in polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) and either high (605 mg) or low (151 mg) in cholesterol and a meal rich in dairy fat (DF) in ...
Schøyen Hilde F - - 2007
The effects of replacing soybean meal or fish meal with 2, 4 or 6% bacterial protein meal (BPM) on growth performance, ileal digestibility of amino acids and sensory quality of meat, were examined using 630 broiler chickens. Weight gain from 7-32 days of age did not differ significantly among the ...
Votruba Susanne B - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Differential meal fat uptake into adipose tissue depots may be a determinant of body fat distribution. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We used the meal fat tracer/adipose tissue biopsy approach to compare the effects of meal fat content on the fat uptake into visceral and upper and lower body subcutaneous ...
Lin Chih-Chan - - 2008
BACKGROUND: Postprandial hypertriglyceridemia is known to cause endothelial dysfunction and increased oxidative stress. Oral supplements of l-arginine have been found to improve endothelial function. However, the effects of supplements of l-arginine on the influences of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia were not studied before. METHODS: Forty young healthy men without any risk factors ...
Pacheco Yolanda M - - 2008
This study investigated whether subjects with permanent activated endothelium have altered soluble forms of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (sVCAM-1) postprandial response to a high-fat meal and whether this phenomenon is modulated by the nature of dietary fats. Twenty-eight hypertriglyceridemic (14 normotensives and 14 ...
Vanhaecke L - - 2008
2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a carcinogenic heterocyclic amine formed in meats during cooking. Although the formation of PhIP metabolites by mammalian enzymes has been extensively reported, the involvement of the intestinal bacteria remains unclear. This study examined the urinary and fecal excretion of a newly identified microbial PhIP metabolite 7-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-phenyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydropyrido[3',2':4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidin-5-ium chloride ...
Chen Emile P - - 2008
PURPOSE: To measure fasted and fed gastric pH and gastric residence time (GRT) in Cynomolgus monkeys using Bravo radiotelemetry capsules. METHODS: Continuous pH measurements were recorded with Bravo capsules, which were either attached to the monkeys' stomach or administered as free capsules. Meals (either slurry or standard), were administered at ...
Karalazos Vasileios - - 2007
Atlantic cod of initial mean weight approximately 220 g were fed a control diet and three diets in which fish meal (FM) was replaced with increasing levels of full-fat soybean meal (FFS) supplied at 12, 24, and 36% of dry diet, for 12 weeks. There were no significant differences in ...
Eyong E U - - 2007
The atherogenic potentials of peeled grated cocoyam (Xanthosoma maffafa scot) "ekpang nkukwo", pounded yam (Discorea spp) with plain soup "afia efere", and plantain porridge (Musa paradisiaca) "iwuk ukom" meals were investigated. The three meals were fed to three different groups of albino rats of Wistar strain for a period of ...
Lin Pei-Ying - - 2007
To elucidate the effect of a typical Vietnamese diet including a high content of white rice on postprandial blood glucose levels, the present study was designed. Thirty healthy female subjects with a similar body mass index, 10 each in their twenties, forties and sixties, were recruited. Four meals with a ...
Emiola I A - - 2007
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of raw and differently processed [aqueous heating, dehulled, and dry heating (toasted)] kidney bean meals on the performance, weights, and histology of internal organs of broiler chicken. The feeding trial lasted for 56 d. Two hundred twenty-five 1-d-old broiler ...
Brand-Miller Jennie C - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Ethanol's ability to inhibit gluconeogenesis might reduce postprandial glycemia in realistic meal settings. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to explore the effect of 3 types of alcoholic beverages consumed alone, with a meal, or 1 h before a meal on postprandial glycemia in healthy subjects. DESIGN: In study 1, isoenergetic ...
Bayukcapar, H M; Department ...
An 80-day feeding trial was conducted in a recirculation system aquarium operating at 26 ± 0.3 °C, to evaluate the nutritive value of <i>Vicia peregrina</i> seed as a possible protein source in the diet of mirror carp (<i>Cyprinus carpio</i>) fingerlings. <i>Vicia peregrina</i> seed was included in the diets at different ...
Varloud M - - 2007
Our knowledge of the microflora of the stomach of the horse is still limited, although some data indicate its important role in nutrition. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the microbial and biochemical profiles in the stomach of the horse and to quantify the disappearance of dietary starch. ...
Dryzga M D - - 2007
Meal prepared from Cry1F/Cry1Ac transgenic/genetically modified cottonseed (WIDESTRIKE Insect Protection, hereafter referred to as WIDESTRIKE) was compared to cottonseed meal prepared from four conventionally bred lines of cotton (three commercial non-transgenic line controls (PHY72, PHY78 and 98M-2983), and a near isoline non-transgenic control (PSC355) in a 90-day dietary study to ...
Padhi Desmond - - 2007
Cinacalcet HCl reduces iPTH, serum calcium, serum phosphorus, and the calcium-phosphorus product in patients with chronic kidney disease and secondary hyperparathyroidism who are receiving dialysis, and reduces elevated serum calcium associated with primary hyperparathyroidism and parathyroid carcinoma. Cinacalcet is administered orally, and thus concomitant administration with food may affect its ...
Bradford B J - - 2007
Propionate has been shown to depress the feed intake of ruminants, but whether the rate of propionate infusion influences this response is unknown. To test this possibility, the rate of propionate infused within meals was altered while the total amount of propionate infused was held constant. Eight multiparous Holstein cows ...
Chapman Ian I Department of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Royal Adelaide Hospital, North Terrace, Adelaide, - - 2007
We previously reported that a single preprandial injection (120 microg) of pramlintide, an analog of the beta-cell hormone amylin, reduced ad libitum food intake in obese subjects. To further characterize the meal-related effects of amylin signaling in humans, we studied a lower pramlintide dose (30 microg) in normal-weight subjects. In ...
Lairon D - - 2007
BACKGROUND: Postprandial lipid metabolism in humans has deserved much attention during the last two decades. Although fasting lipid and lipoprotein parameters reflect body homeostasis to some extent, the transient lipid and lipoprotein accumulation that occurs in the circulation after a fat-containing meal highlights the individual capacity to handle an acute ...
Flood Julie E JE The Pennsylvania State University, 226 Henderson Building, University Park, PA 16802, - - 2007
Consuming soup can enhance satiety and reduce energy intake. Little is known about the influence on energy intake and satiety of varying the form of soup by altering the blending of ingredients. We tested the effects on meal intake of consuming different forms of soup as a preload: broth and ...
Sostek Mark B - - 2007
To investigate the pharmacokinetics of esomeprazole before a high-fat meal vs. fasting. This open-label, randomized, crossover study consisted of two 5-day dosing periods of esomeprazole 40 mg per day. On days 1 and 5, subjects received esomeprazole 15 min before a high-fat meal (fed) or 4 h before a non-high-fat ...
Sekar Vanitha - - 2007
This open-label, randomized, crossover study investigated the bioavailability, short-term safety, and tolerability of darunavir (TMC114) coadministered with low-dose ritonavir under fasted conditions and after different meal types in HIV-negative healthy volunteers. All volunteers received ritonavir 100 mg twice daily on days 1 to 5, with a single darunavir 400-mg tablet ...
Stote Kim S - - 2007
Although consumption of 3 meals/d is the most common pattern of eating in industrialized countries, a scientific rationale for this meal frequency with respect to optimal health is lacking. A diet with less meal frequency can improve the health and extend the lifespan of laboratory animals, but its effect on ...
Schnabel Peter G - - 2007
Andriol Testocaps is a new oral formulation of testosterone undecanoate (TU) for treatment of hypogonadism. As TU is taken up by the intestinal lymphatic system, both the presence and the composition of food influence the absorption. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of food composition on ...
Jakulj Fabijana - - 2007
The consumption of high levels of saturated fat over the course of several weeks may lead to exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity. The consumption of a single high-fat meal has been associated with a transient impairment of vascular function. In a randomized, repeated measures, crossover study we tested whether the consumption of ...
Fox Mark - - 2007
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The effects of diet on gastroesophageal reflux disease are not well understood. This study assessed the effects of dietary fat and calorie density on esophageal acid exposure and reflux symptoms in patients with reflux symptoms. METHODS: Patients referred for the investigation of reflux symptoms were recruited (most ...
Ogunji Johnny O - - 2007
Influence of housefly maggot meal (magmeal) diets on the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glycogen concentration in liver of Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fingerling was evaluated. Triplicate groups of fifteen fish (initial average weight 2.0+/-0.1 g) were fed eight weeks with seven test diets (in average 36% crude ...
Bassil Maya S - - 2007
OBJECTIVE: Food intake is known to be affected by macronutrient composition of the diet, and protein manipulation has been reported to alter food intake, but the effect of individual amino acids on eating behavior has not been fully studied. This study investigated the effect of diet supplementation with three individual ...
Lorenzen Janne Kunchel - - 2007
BACKGROUND: High calcium intake has been shown to increase fecal fat excretion. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to examine whether a high calcium intake from dairy products or from supplements affects postprandial fat metabolism and appetite through fat malabsorption. DESIGN: Four different isocaloric meals were tested in 18 subjects according to ...
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